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What other terms are used by organizations to describe the Public relations function?
Corporate communications, press agent, public affairs, marketing communications, community relations, public information and public affairs.
The text mentions six essential qualities for working in PR?
1. Writing skill: ability to put words and ideas on paper clearly
o Research ability: arguments for causes must have factual support instead of generalities so one must be able to gather info. From many sources.
o Planning expertise: a public relations program involves a number of activities that must be carefully planned and coordinated
o Problem-solving ablility: fresh approaches are needed to solve complex problems to give a PR program unique and memorable.
o Business competence: the increasing emphasis on PR as a management function calls for PR student to know the nuts and bolts economics and business
o Expertise in social media: the population is moving to a digital world, and a PR rep must stay up with the technology to keep a fresh outlook on their job.
Why is important for a student to complete an internship?
Because interns are the future for most companies, it is important for students to complete an internship not only for the great experience but also the job oppurtintys it may in tell for the future.
Who were some of the early antecedents of todays PR practice?
1. Alexander the great, Emperor Asoka, Julius ceaser, Apostle Paul, Pope urban the 2nd, pope Gregory the 7th, sir Walter Raleigh, Colonial AMERCAN: Sam Adams NP about why we should fight the revolution, Thomas Paine wrote common scene ability to motivate people with written word. 1900’s AFTER CIVIL WAR: Era of the robber Barons in oil, steel, finance, railroads, meat packing. Reporters: Terbell Wrote about rockafeller, Steffens wrote about the unfair working conditions, Sinclair Wrote about the meat packing business told the truth. (American Business was put on the map and had to reform)
Which concepts of publicity and PR practiced by PT barum should modern practioners use which should they reject?
BAD: Flowery language, exaggeration, controversy, and publicity. REJECT: massive advertising GOOD: Use of opinion leaders, Staging events, connecting product with community interests
Describe Edwards bernays Ivory soap and lights golden jubilee?
Edward Bernay Father modern PR: made a ivory soap sculpture contest 22 million kids participated and ran for 35 years, “Lighting Up” talked to the power companies and got them to turn off the lights for 5 minutes and Hired to tap into the American women to get them to smoke during the roaring 20’s got models to wave cigarettes and walking Easter parade dressed as torch of liberty. (Rex Harlow 1st PR circulum)
Contributions by Henry Ford and Theodore Roosevelt.
Henry ford: used notion of positioning (position your self against your competition) and being assceiable to press.
Theodore Roosevelt: 1st prez. To make extensive use of news conference and press interviews to gain public support, Presidential tours (1st to understand the power of a sitting president to influence public opinion)
10 trends in PR
1. Multicultural world 2. Recruitment of minorities’ 3. Public demands for transparency 4. Expanded role for public relations 5. Corporate social responsibility 6. Increased emphasis on measurement 7. Managing the 24/7-news cycle 8. Count. Growth of digital media 9. Outsourcing to PR firm’s 10. Need of lifelong professional development.
Ethics deals with a person or group’s morals and behavior.
Absolute – It’s black and white. Something is either absolutely “right” or “wrong”.
Existential – A balance between two extremes where you approach a situation where it does not effect your comfort level.
Utilitarianism – The end would justify the means. As long as the result causes the least harm and most good.
They are constantly developing PR professionals through seminars, conferences, short courses, and speakers at various meetings.
PRSA – Public Relations Society of America – The largest PR organization in the world holds various meetings, seminars, webcasts, and conferences while working with non-profit organizations.
IABC – International Association of International Communicators – The second largest organization is a mostly corporate, public relations, and non profit organization who’s main goal is to provide their members with the tools to be successful in their respective fields.
Some common characteristics of these codes are telling the truth and acting with integrity and honesty at all times. Free flow of information. Competition. Disclosure of information. Safeguarding confidences. Conflict of interest. Enhancing the profession. Advocacy. Honesty. Expertise. Independence. Loyalty. Fairness.
What is the controversy about television stations using video news releases (VNRs) provided by public relations sources?
Some activist groups call VNR’s “fake news” and question if the public has been informed about the source of information. TV stations tend to not release the source of where they received the VNR’s. They don’t identify the sponsor.
(Advocacy. Honesty. Expertise. Independence. Loyalty. Fairness) Source must be clearly identified. Identify yourself and the connection to an employer. Must disclose affiliation with organization or employee. Unethical to offer gifts to bloggers. Name has to be clearly stated. Respect copyrights. Respect your audience. Try to add value.
1. A sense of independence 2. A sense of responsibility to society and the public interest 3. Manifest concern for the competitive and honor of the profession as a whole 4. A higher loyalty to the standards of the profession and fellow professionals than to the employer of the moment.
What is the accreditation process in public relations?
Written and oral exams that candidates have to take as well as submit a portfolio or works samples to a committee. They must have a minimum 5 years experience and pass a 4-hour written exam.
A “front” group is a technique that is used to influence public opinion and public policy. They are considered unethical because of their questionable practices. They never conceal their main sources of funding for an impartial group.
It’s considered unethical to do so because the reason behind it would be for posting favorable reviews about a product or service. It’s not fair for competition.
How have the role and function of public relations departments changed in recent years?
In the past 150 years, PR has gone from being focused on promotion and publicity to exercising its influence on the highest levels of management. Also it more about strategic communication these days.
The PR departments place more emphasis on news conferences, writing speeches, formal contact with the media, and counseling management about issues. With large and complex organizations, PR plays a great role while smaller companies Public Relation’s plays a more minimal role.
Name and describe the four job levels in public relations.
Supervisor – Supervises projects, plans, budgets, organizes, leads, and problem solves.
Manager - Constituency and issue-trend analysis; Department management.
Director – Communicating and operational management.
Executive – Organizational leadership management.
Line function - A line manager can delegate authority, hire employees, and make policy.
Staff function – Staff functions don’t have direct authority. They influence directly the work of others and offer suggestions.
PR is a staff function. PR people are experts in communication. Managers rely on staff functions to use their skills.
Legal – Lawyers often frustrate PR personnel because they have the attitude of that any public statement can potentially be used against the org in a lawsuit.
Human Resources – There is confusion over who is responsible for employee communications.
Advertising – They compete for funds to communicate with external audiences.
Marketing - tends to think only of customers or potential buyers as key publics
Name at least ten services that a public relations firm offers clients.
1. Marketing comms 2. Executive Speech Training 3. Research and Evaluation 4. Crisis Communication 5. Media analysts 6. Community Relations 7. Events Management 8. Public affairs 9. Branding and corporate rep. 10. Financial relations
It’s important because they own a lot of pr firms and ad agencies.
Pros: Objectivity, a variety of skills and expertise, extensive resources, offices throughout the country, special problem-solving skills, and credibility.
Cons: Superficial grasp of clients problems, lack of full-time commitment, need for prolonged briefing period, resentment by internal staff, need for strong direction by top management, need for full information and confidence, and costs.
What are the standard methods used by a public relations firm to charge for its services?
-Basic hourly fee plus out of pocket expenses.
-Retainer fee – A basic monthly charge billed to the client.
-Fixed project fee – Ex: Producing a quarterly newsletter for $30,000 annually.
- journalism focuses primarily with one channel and being more objective; writes for a mass audience—the generalpublic
- advertising being a paid notion, functionis to sell goods & services to a specific consumer
-marketing primarily concerned with the concept of consumers/sales rather than long term relationships with publics; promotesa product or service
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