Laboratory 10 ? Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems I. Functions of Circulatory System A. Transport 1. carries oxygen from gills, skin, or lungs 2. carries glucose, fats, & amino acids from intestine or liver 3. carries carbon dioxide to lungs or lungs 4. carries nitrogenous wastes & excess water to lungs 5. hormone transport ? vital to endocrine system B. Immunological 1. components of blood serve important roles in fighting disease & in repair of injuries C. Homeostasis 1. maintenance of a stable internal body environment (thermoregulation) by dilating blood vessels to remove excess heat and constricting blood vessels to conserve heat II. Closed Circulatory System - blood can be moved rapidly to tissues requiring it - blood flow to various organs can be readjusted to meet changing needs by varying diameters of vessels III. Blood Vessels - Arteries & arterioles carry blood away from heart - Veins & venules carry blood toward heart - Most arteries carry oxygenated blood away from heart, but pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood away from heart to lungs - Veins usually carry deoxygenated blood to heart, but pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood to heart from lungs A. Portal System 1. venous system that begins and ends in capillary beds of organs B. Hepatic Portal System 1. carries blood from digestive organs to liver a. products of digestion can be directly processed by liver C. Systole 1. ventricular contraction 2. elasticity of arteries allows them to yield surge of blood leaving heart D. Diastole 1. ventricular contraction 2. elasticity of arteries allows them to squeeze down on fluid column E. Capillaries 1. sites of exchange of oxygen & nutrients (from blood) and metabolic wastes (from tissues) 2. extremely narrow vessels, consisting of only a layer of endothelium a. about the width of diameter of red blood cell 3. allow water & dissolved substances to filter through from plasma into interstitial Space F. Arterioles 1. control blood flow to body organs, & can divert it to where it is needed most IV. Respiratory Physiology - mammals ventilate their lungs by negative pressure breathing - changes in volume of thoracic cavity (enclosing lungs) are brought about by movements in rib cage & diaphragm - movements of ribs are accomplished by skeletal muscles attached to ribs A. Inhalation 1. when the volume of the thoracic cavity is increased, air is sucked into the lungs 2. ribs elevated & sternum flares as external intercostals contract 3. diaphragm moves inferiorly B. Exhalation 1. when the volume of the thoracic cavity is decreased, air is forced out of lungs 2. ribs & sternum depressed as external intercostals relax 3. diaphragm moves superiorly as it relaxes - rate of breathing & volume of air taken in is automatically controlled to obtain enough oxygen - respiration is mainly controlled by levels of carbon dioxide in blood - easier for body to detect CO2, since amount of CO2 in blood affects its pH - CO2 in blood combines with water to form carbonic acid - chemoreceptors respond to carbonic acid levels - hyperventilation removes most of the CO2 from the blood, so that it becomes more alkaline than normal C. Normal Lung 1. alveoli are composed of a single layer of squamous epithelium 2. between alveoli lie a thin layer of connective tissue & numerous capillaries also lined with simple squamous epithelium 3. larger bronchioles are lined by ciliated columnar epithelium 4. smaller bronchioles are lined by cuboidal epithelium D. Smoker?s Lung Alveoli Capillaries of Alveoli 1. smoking causes accumulation of fine particles of carbon in lung, concentrated in lymph nodes scattered throughout lung tissue 2. alveoli appear larger & more stretched out V. Circulatory Physiology A. Heart Sounds 1. First Heart Sound (?Lub?) a. longer & lower-pitched b. caused by closing of valves between atria & ventricles and contraction of ventricles 2. Second Heart Sound (?Dup?) a. shorter, louder, higher-pitched b. caused by closing of valves between ventricles & arteries leading from them 3. Systole a. time between first & second heart sounds 4. Diastole a. time between second sound and next first sound 5. Heart ?murmur? a. caused by leakage through one of the valves B. Blood Pressure 1. systolic/diastolic pressure a. systolic pressure ? pressure in arteries when ventricles are contracting b. diastolic pressure ? pressure in arteries when ventricles are relaxed 2. usually measured in large artery in arm, using sphygmomanometer C. Cardiac Output 1. volume of blood pumped by left ventricle into aorta in 1 min 2. cardiac output (mL/min) = heart rate (beats/min) × stroke volume (mL/beat) 3. Pulse Pressure a. crude estimate of stroke volume of heart i. assume that 1 mm Hg = 1 mL of blood b. Pulse Pressure (mmHg/stroke) = systolic (mmHg) ? diastolic (mmHg) D. Anatomy of Heart Ventral View of Whole Sheep Heart Alveoli Particles 1. Apex a. narrow, pointed end; posterior end of heart b. heart is very muscular in this area because ventricles are located at this end 2. Base a. wider end, from which blood vessels arise and enter; anterior end 3. Interventricular Sulcus a. groove that marks division between left and right ventricles 4. Pulmonary Artery a. large vessel that leaves heart slightly to left of & ventral to aorta 5. Left Atrium a. thin-walled area to the right of pulmonary artery & aorta 6. Right Atrium a. area to the left of those arteries 7. Auricle a. thin-walled flap or appendage on each atrium Dorsal View of Whole Sheep Heart 1. Anterior Vena Cava a. returns blood from anterior part of body 2. Posterior Vena Cava a. returns blood from posterior part of body Cut Sheep Heart Left Ventricle Auricle Apex Interventricular Sulcus Right Ventricle Right Atrium Pulmonary Artery Left Ventricle Left Atrium Right Ventricle Right Atrium Aorta Posterior Vena Cava Anterior Vena Cava Left Atrium Left Semilunar Valve 1. Right (Pulmonary) Semilunar Valve a. separates pulmonary artery from right ventricle b. consists of three crescent-shaped flaps of endocardium 2. Left Ventricle a. thicker than right ventricle, since it must pump blood to entire body 3. Left (Aortic) Seminlunar Valve a. separates aorta from left ventricle b. identical in structure to right semilunar valve 4. Tricuspid Valve a. between right atrium & right ventricle b. made up of three flaps of endocardium c. prevents backflow of blood from ventricle to atrium during systole 5. Bicuspid/Mitral Valve a. separates left atrium & left ventricle b. consists of 2 flaps of endocardium E. Heart & Its Great Vessels 1. Pulmonary Trunk a. blood that is returned to right atrium of heart is pumped into right ventricle, and from there is pumped to lungs via this trunk b. bifurcates into 2 pulmonary arteries, which continue into lungs c. in fetus, part of pulmonary trunk (ductus arteriosus), joins aorta d. blood returns from lungs to heart via pulmonary veins F. Branches of Aorta Left Ventricle Left Atrioventricular Valve Chordae Tendinae Right Ventricle Right Atrium Pulmonary Vein Aorta Superior Vena Cava Auricle Auricle Pulmonary Trunk Aorta 1. Brachiocephalic Trunk a. first branch of aorta b. branches into right subclavian artery & the right and left common carotid arteries Left Common Carotid Artery Right Common Carotid Artery Right Subclavian Artery Left Subclavian Artery Brachiocephalic Artery Renal Artery Mesenteric Artery Coelic Artery Aorta Aorta Umbilical Artery External Iliac Artery Femoral Artery Internal Iliac Artery Deep Femoral Artery i. subclavian gives off a branch that supplies shoulder & neck region, then continues as axillary artery ii. continue of axillary artery in arm is brachial artery 2. Common Carotid Arteries a. supply head region with oxygenated blood 3. Left Subclavian Artery a. second branch from aorta b. branches are similar to right subclavian 4. Coeliac Artery a. first major branch of abdominal aorta b. supplies blood to spleen, stomach, & liver 5. Anterior Mesenteric Artery a. second major unpaired branch of abdominal aorta b. supplies small intestine 6. Renal Arteries a. paired branches of aorta that supply blood to kidneys 7. Left & Right External Iliac Arteries a. branches of aorta at posterior end of abdominal cavity b. each gives off several branches which supply pelvic muscles 8. Femoral Arteries a. continuation of each external iliac arteries in legs 9. Umbilical Arteries a. branches of aorta posterior to point where external iliac arteries branch off b. large vessels that carry mixed oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to placenta 10. Internal Iliac Arteries a. small vessels in leg that also branch off from aorta G. Veins Pulmonary Trunk Superior Vena Cava Left Subclavian Vein Left Brachiocephalic Vein Right Subclavian Vein Internal Jugular Vein External Jugular Vein Right Brachiocephalic Vein 1. Brachiocephalic Veins a. two short trunks that form cranial vena cava b. each is formed by confluence of internal & external jugular veins 2. External Jugular Veins a. drain superficial parts of head, parts of neck, shoulder, & arm 3. Internal Jugular Veins a. drain deeper parts of head & brain 4. Subclavian Veins a. drain forelimb b. enter brachiocephalic vein at about same point as jugulars 5. Common Iliac Veins a. confluence of these form caudal vena cava b. each is formed by union of external & internal iliac veins 6. External Iliac Vein a. proximal continuation of femoral vein, which drains hindleg 7. Internal Iliac Vein a. drains blood from rectum, urinary bladder, & genital organs 8. Renal Veins a. drain kidneys b. sends blood to caudal vena cava 9. Portal System a. separate series of veins that drain abdominal organs 10. Portal Vein a. joining of veins that drain blood from stomach, intestines, pancreas, & spleen b. large vein that enters liver c. within liver, breaks up into series of capillaries i. allows liver to process nutrients absorbed into blood from digestive system d. blood is then collected into series of hepatic veins i. empty into caudal vena cava 11. Ductus Venosus a. continuation of umbilical vein which carries oxygenated blood from placenta b. sends blood to caudal vena cava Renal Vein Posterior Vena Cava Common Iliac Vein External Iliac Vein Internal Iliac Vein External Iliac Vein H. Fetal Circulation 1. differs from adult circulation in that fetal lungs are bypassed 2. Umbilical Vein a. blood rich in oxygen enters embryo via this vessel 3. Ductus Venosus a. channel via which blood passes through liver b. blood than goes to right atrium via caudal vena cava 4. blood low in oxygen returning from head via cranial vena cava also enters right atrium 5. Foramen Ovale a. opening in septum between right & left atria b. allows blood to pass to left atrium, then to left ventricle, from which it is pumped through aorta to body 6. Deoxygenated blood from superior vena cava is pumped into right ventricle & into pulmonary artery a. bypasses lungs by traveling through ductus arteriosus to aorta where it mixes with oxygen-rich blood from left side of heart Christopher Laboratory 10 ? Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems
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