In most tissues innervated by the autonomic nervous system the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches have opposing effects but in salivary glands both branches act together to produce maximal secretion
Amylase contained in saliva begins the digestion of which type of nutrient
This is a proteolytic enzyme precursor
This hormone stimulates stomach motility and secretions
H+ and Cl- (HCL, hydrochloric acid)
Secreted by parietal (oxyntic) cells of the stomach, this activated protolytic enzymes
The major stimulator of stomach motility are _________ and the major inhibitor are ________
a. stomach contents. B. contents of the small intestine
How is the intrinsic (enteric) nervous system best described
It is the chief regulator of gastrointestinal functions
Which nutrients are digested by pancreatic secretions
All of the above
How are the bile salts best described
They are derived from cholesterol and they emulsify fats in the small intestine
Which of the following does NOt happen in the large intestine
Amino acids, fatty acids and sugars are absorbed
What are the taenia coli?
smooth muscle bands of the large intestine
What determines the intensity (loudness) of a sound
The number of sensory units stimulated the frequency of their action potentials
Sensations of angular motion are mediated by the semicircular canals and a person normally has six of them
Sensations of sound and of both linear and angular motion are all initiated by receptor potentials that arise when the stereo cilia of hair cells are displaced
Epinephrine and the thyroid hormones are all derived from the amino acid, tyrosine, and they all act by binding to receptors on the target cell's surface and then generating second messengers within the cell
You are told that a particular hormone is a protein. How would the hormone be best described?
It is stored within the cells where it is synthesized, dissolves in plasma and acts on target cells by binding to a receptor on the cell's surface
What do the steroid hormones, the thyroid hormones and 1.25 (OH)2 and vitamin D3 (calcitriol) have in common
all of the above are shared by the three kinds of hormones
The half-life of a hormone is 30 minutes and its plasma concentration is 300ng/ml. Assuming that hormone secretion stops, what will be its concentration after one hour?
Incorrect statement about hormones
Hormones from the posterior pituitary gland are important regulators of anterior pituitary gland secretions
What are the effects of growth hormone
It stimulates bone growth by increasing insulin-like growth factor
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increases reabsorption of water in nephrons and it is also known as vasopression because, a higher concentrations, it has vasoconstrictor effects that increase blood pressure
Which hormone is most active in promoting the uptake, use and storage of energy-yielding substrates
What best describes the metabolism of someone who has fasted for 24 hours?
All of the above
How are diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus similar?
Both are characterized by polyuria and polydipsia.
How are type1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus similar?
Both are characterized by fasting hyperglycemia
Incorrect statement about secretion of both epinephrine and cortisol
Secretion of both epinephrine and cortisol by adrenal glands is stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland
Among the effects of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are an increase in metabolic rate, increases in respiration and cardiac output and feedback to increase the secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland
Incorrect chronic iodine
Chronic iodine deficiency is accompanied by low levels of thyropin releasing hormone (TRH) and low levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Although alder stone and cortisol are both secreted by the adrenal cortex, the secretion of each is controlled by different factors
What is the primary calcium sensor of the body
What does parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?
all of the above effects PTH
What does 1.25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (calcitriol) do?
It increases the absorption of dietary Ca2+
Who would be most likely to develop osteoporosis
A person secreting large amounts of parathyroid hormone
Where is blood pumped when it leaved the pulmonary circulation
to the left atrium
How is transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) best described?
All of the above
Acording to Boyle's law how are pressue and volume in the thorax related
Thoracic pressure and volume change in opposite directions
The greatest distance below sea level on earth is the Death Valley, California, where atmospheric pressure is 800mm Hg. What is the partial pressure of 02 in Death Valley if it constitutes 20% of the atmosphere there
160 mm Hg
A person with untreated diabetes mellitus develops metabolic acidosis due to the generation of acidic ketones when fats are metabolized as energy sources. Which of the following changes will accompany the increase in plasma acidity?
Increase H_ will prompt hyperventilation lowering CO2 and H+
What is the principal difference between central and peripheral chemoreceptors?
Peripheral chermoreceptors respond to changes in PO2 and pH; central chemoreceptors respond only to changes in pH
If surfactant were not produced the lungs would be much harder to inflate and alveoli would tend to collapse due to the surface tension of the water they contain.
A resting frog's heart beats 45 time per minute. What would most likely be its rate of beating when exposed to eprinephrine.
60 beats per minute
The absolute refractory period in skeletal muscle is much longer then the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle
Blood type is determined by antigen on the red cells' surface and it has no effect on blood clotting because the clotting process does not involve red blood cells
Which of the following is essential for blood clotting
All the above are essential
Agglutination (clumping) of red blood cells is an immunologic response mediated by antigens and antibodies and is unrelated to blood clotting
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