1. Any psychological test should be seen as a. measuring the person's typical behavior b. tapping the constancies of a person's behavior c. a sample of a person's behavior d. tapping a person's absolute level of performance 2. Which of the following does not characterize a psychological test? a. Psychological tests allow one to predict behavior with great accuracy. b. Psychological tests are samples of behavior. c. Psychological tests are standardized measures of behavior. d. Psychological tests measure individual differences. 3. The two very broad categories of psychological tests are a. mental ability and personality tests b. intellegence and achievement tests c. interest tests and aptitude tests d. aptitude and attitude tests 4. An elementary school child is given a test designed to determine whether or not she should be placed in a class of "gifted" children. The test is probably a. an intellegence test b. an achievement test c. a personality test d. a vocabulary test 5. At the end of her calculus cours, Mary takes a test to determine how well she has mastered the material. Her calculus test is primarily a. an achievement test b. an intellegence test c. an aptitude test d. a test for her math potential 6. If you wanted to gauge a person's mastery and knowledge in a specific area, such as mathematics, you would need to administer a. an achievement test b. an aptitude test, such as the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) c. a self-report inventory d. an intellegence test, such as the Wechsler Adult Intellegence Scale (WAIS) 7. Standardized tests designed to predict how well you will do in college are most appropriately called a. aptitude tests b. intellegence tests c. personality tests d. predictive tests 8. _________ tests measure interests, values, and attitudes. a. Personality b. Achievement c. Aptitude d. All of these 9. The fact that two people taking the same test in two different places will recieve the same instructions, the same questions, and the same time limits means that the test has been a. synchronized b. standardized c. validated d. regulated 10. If a psychological test is to tell you how you score relative to other people, the following must be developed a. test norms b. test scores c. test scales d. test levels 11. A norm refers to a. a test's reliability b. a test's validity c. test scales d. test levels 12. Test norms allow you to convert your raw score on a test into a(n) _________ score, which indicates the proportion of people who scored below your obtained score. a. variation b. average c. percentile d. prototypical 13. If 30 percent of a reference group scored higher than you on a test, your score would be at the a. 30th percentile b. 70th percentile c. 29th percentile d. indeterminate from the available information 14. Tamara scored at the 95th percentile on the logical reasoning component of the Graduate Record Exam (GRE). This means that the logical reasoning section of the GRE a. she obtained a raw score of 95 b. she scored higher than 95% of the sample used to establish the test norms c. she correctly answered 95% of the questions on the exam d. she scored lower than 95% of the sample used to establish the test norms 15. If a test yields nearly identical scores when it is retaken after a 2-month interval, the test is said to be a. valid b. reliable c. significant d. standardized 16. If you assess test-retest reliability, you hope that it leads to a a. strong negative correlation b. strong positive correlation c. either a or b as long as it is statistically significant d. a higher statistical probability of occurrence 17. Test-retest procedures are used to determine a test's a. content validity b. reliability c. criterion validity d. accuracy 18. Which of the following represents the strongest test-retest reliability for a test? a. 0 b. -.75 c. .70 d. -.90 19. Dr. Camody has designed a new critical thinking assessment test. He administers the test to a group of students in October. In April he tests the same students and finds that the overall correlation between the two sets of scores is +.91. Based on this information, Dr. Camody could conclude that his new test a. likely has low construct validity b. appears to have a high test-retest reliability c. has been well standardized d. will have high criterion-related validity 20. If a test accurately measures what it was designed to measure, we would say that the test is a. valid b. empirical c. normative d. consistent 21. The degree to which the items on a test are representative of the "domain" it is supposed to cover is referred to as a. test reliability b. test convergence c. content validity d. criterion validity 22. Lanette is arguing with her professor that questions on her last test were not covered during lectures or in the textbook. Lanette is basically arguing that the test was not a. criterion reliable b. test-retest reliable c. criterion valid d. content valid 23. If the scores on a mechanical aptitude test are strongly correlated with performance in an auto mechanics training class, the test would be said to be high in a. reliability b. face validity c. construction validity d. criterion-related validity 24. If a test designed to measure extroversion correlates negatively with measures of social discomfort, correlates positively with measures of sociability, and has low correlation with measures of intellegence, you could conclude that the test has a. low construct validity b. low test norms c. high construct validity d. high reliability 25. The Binet-Simon scale of intellegence expressed a child's score in terms of a. mental age b. a potential score c. a percentile score d. an intellegence quotient 26. When tested on the Stanford-Binet, Ada is found to have a mental age of 8. This means that a. she is intellectually impaired b. her performance was as good as that of an average 8-year-old child c. her score is 8 standard deviation units above the average score d. her IQ is 80 27. If a child of age 10 made a mental age score of 8 on the Binet test, his IQ would be a. 80 b. 100 c. 125 d. 75 28. The letters IQ stand for a. intelligence quota b. intelligence quotient c. intuitive quality d. intellectual quota 29. If a child's chronological age matches his or her mental age, then the child's IQ would be approximately a. 50 b. 75 c. 100 d. 125 30. Jerome is 8 years old and has been determined to have a mental age of 10. What is Jerome's IQ? a. 80 b. 100 c. 110 d. 125 31. The difficulties associated with the concept of mental age include a. the fact it's difficult to think of a person as having a mental age b. applying it to adults c. the calculation of the intelligence quotient from it d. all of these things 32. The test currently used to assess adult intelligence is the a. Galton IQ test b. Terman-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale c. California PF d. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 33. Tamara is completig The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and one sectionof the test evaluates her arithmetic reasoning skills using story problems. Tamara's score on this section of the test will be used in the computation of her score on the __________ scale. a. performance b. practical c. logical-mathematical d. verbal 34. Austin is completing The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and one section of the test evaluates his ability to analyze patterns and copy designs using blocks. Austin's score on this section of the test will be used in the computation of his score on the __________ scale. a. performance b. verbal c. practical d. spatial 35. Maranda tells you that her 12-year-old cousin recently completed an intelligence test that translated raw scores into deviation IQ scores. Maranda knows that her cousin's score was 75, but she is not sure what this means. You should tell her that her cousin a. answered 75% of the questions correctly on the test b. scored below the mean for 12-year-olds c. scored above the mean for 12-year-olds d. scored at the mean for the average 9-year-old 36. The shape of a normal distribution approximates a. a rectangle b. a bell c. a "U" d. an "M" 37. Wechsler developed to the deviation IQ based on the normal distribution. On his test an overall IQ of 130 would mean a. the person has 130 units of intelligence b. the person scored two standard deviations about the mean c. the person's MA is 13 and CA is 10 d. none of these things 38. Most tests using the deviation IQ set the mean at ___________ and the standard deviation at ___________. a. 10; 5 b. 50; 10 c. 100; 15 d. 120; 20 39. Since IQ scores are assumed to be noramlly distributed an IQ score of 100 would put you a. to the left of the center of the normal curve b. at the center of the normal curve c. to the right of the center of the normal curve d. somewhere on the curve, your exact location depending on the performance of others taking the test with you 40. Why is it that IQ scores do not routinely increase as we get older? a. because an IQ score is indicative of our relative standing in our particular age group b. because we do not accumulate that much information as we get older c. because the tests are not designed to measure increaases in knowledge as we get older d. because the tests for adults are not comparable to the tests for children 41. When a deviation IQ score is converted into a percentile score, it indicates a. percentage of cases scoring at a lower level b. percentage of cases scoring at a higher level c. percentage of time one can be expected to score a similar level if the test is taken again d. that the original score deviated too much from the average to be reliable 42. What do intelligence tests actually measure? a. only knowledge b. only potential c. a blend of knowledge and potential d. test-taking expertise 43. What would the ideal intelligence test measure? a. a person's understanding of a language b. the extent of a person's accumulated knowledge c. a person's potential for acquiring knowledge d. a person's interests and preferences 44. Although there may be some questions as to exactly what IQ tests measure, there is little question that they tend to be consistent measures, that is, they are high in a. predictability b. validity c. generalizability d. reliability 45. In comparison to most other types of psychological tests, IQ tests tend to be a. low in reliability b. similar in terms of reliability c. exceptionally reliable d. reliable for children, but unreliable for adults 46. Correlations between IQ scores and school grades can best be characterized as a. nonsignificant b. moderately negative c. moderately positive d. positive, and nearly perfect 47. The person who has the ability to see all aspects of a problem and make good decisions is demonstrating the _________ type of intelligence. a. verbal b. practical c. social d. academic 48. According to Robert Sternberg, IQ tests tend to focus narrowly on which of the following types of intelligence? a. social b. mechanical c. quantitative d. academic/verbal 49. Which of the following is a true statement regarding the validity of IQ tests? a. IQ tests do not appear to be valid indicators of intelligence in a general sense. b. IQ test scores are good predictors of success in life. c. IQ tests are valid measures of practical intelligence. d. IQ tests are valid measures of social intelligence. 50. The person who is sensitive to others' needs and accepts others for who they are is evidencing the _______ type of intelligence. a. fluid b. practical c. verbal d. social 51. Most intelligence tests over the years have tended to stress a. verbal and reasoning skills related to academics b. practical intelligence in everyday life c. social intelligence and human relationships d. all of these things 52. The correlation between IQ scores and vocational success is best described as a. nonsignificant b. moderately negative c. moderately positive d. virtually nonexistent 53. Court rulings and laws now require that tests used in employment selection measure which of the following? a. general intelligence b. academic/verbal intelligence c. the ability to get along with co-workers d. specific abilities that are clearly related to job performance 54. Mental retardation is defined in terms of which of the following? a. general mental ability b. deficient adaptive skills associated with self-care c. deficient adaptive skills associated with social interaction d. All of these things. 55. Currently, the proportion of the population classified as retarded is about _______ percent. a. 1-3 b. 5-10 c. 15-20 d. 25-30 56. The vast majority of retarded people are classified as ________ retarded. a. mildly b. moderately c. significantly d. severely 57. Frank has an IQ of 60, completed the fifth grade, and is basically self-supporting; Frank would most likely be classified as ________ retarded. a. mildly b. moderately c. significantly d. severely 58. If all the individuals classified as moderately, severely, or profoundly retarded were placed in one group, they would comprise approximately __________ percent of the retarded populaation. a. 15 b. 30 c. 50 d. 85 59. Megan has an IQ score of 30 and she is able to perform simple tasks in highly structured environments. According to the system traditionally used to categorize various levels of mental retardation, Megan would most likely be classified as having a. mild mental retardation b. moderate mental retardation c. severe mental retardation d.profound mental retardation 60. Th e IQ of someone classified as severely mentally retarded is approximately a. 85 to 95 b. 70 to 85 c. 50 to 70 d. 20 to 35 61. The form of mental retardation that is usually caused by the presence of an extra chromosome is a. phenylketonuria b. hyrocephaly c. organic d. Down syndrome 62. ________ is a metabolic disorder (due to an inherited enzyme deficiency) that can lead to retardation if it is not caught and treated in infancy. a. Hydrocephaly b. Phenylketonuria c. Down syndrome d. Parkinson's disease 63. Diagnostics are able to pin down an organic cause for retardation in about _________ percent of all cases. a. 25 b. 40 c. 60 d. 85 64. The environmental hypothesis suggests that mental retardation is a. best defined as the inability to adjust satisfactorily to one's environment b. a label used to direct slow learners into special education programs c. caused by enviornmental deficiencies in about 50 percent of cases d. caused by various unfavorable environmetal factors 65. Designations of intellectual "giftedness" tend to be determined primarily by a. IQ test performance b. degree of social competence c. creativity d. physical appearance 66. Most school districts consider children who fall in the upper _________ percent of the IQ distribution to be gifted. a. 2-3 b. 5 c. 10 d. 25 67. In practice, the minimum IQ score for gifted programs usually falls somewhere around a. 100 b. 115 c. 130 d. 150 68. Jamal recently completed an intelligence test and was told that his IQ score was 135. Based on the standard practices in most school districts, Jamal would a. be considered gifted and would be eligible for gifted programs b. not meet the criterion for giftedness unless he was also highly creative c. be mainstreamed and would attend regular classes for most of the day d. need to show superior potential in at least three other areas to be eligible for gifted programs 69. Research on gifted individuals, including Terman's longitudinal study, have shown that gifted children a. tend to be below average in physical and emotional health b. tend to be average in physical and emotional health c. become adults who are no more successful than average d. tend to conform to society's tranditional view of the gifted 70. According to recent research conducted by Ellen Winner, profoundly gifted children (those with an IQ above 180) are often a. much taller than normal children b. introverted and socially isolated c. diagnosed as schizophrenic d. hostile toward their peers 71. The results of recent research suggest that the incidence of __________ among profoundly gifted children (those with an IQ above 180) is about twice as high as in other children. a. drug abuse b. schizophrenic c. interpersonal and emotional problems d. childhood sexual abuse 72. In which of the following cases is the correlation between the IQ scores the lowest? a. sibilings reared together b. sibilings reared apart c. fraternal twins reared together d. fraternal twins reared apart 73. "Rearing together" gives higher correlations in IQ than "rearing apart" for which group? a. fraternal twins only b. identical twins only c. sibilings only d. fraternal twins, identical twins, and non-twin sibilings 74. The fact that the correlations in IQ scores between identical twins reared apart is lower than that between identical twins reared together suggests that a. enviornmental factors can have an influence on intellectual development b. enviornmental factors have no impact on intellectual development c. genetic factors have no impact on intellectual development d. identical twins often do not have the same genotype 75. Saying that the heritability of intelligence is 70 percent would mean that a. 70 percent of a person's intelligence is due to heredity b. 70 percent of the variability of intelligence scores in a group is accounted for by genetic variation c. 30 percent of a person's intelligence is due to environment factors d. None of these statements is accurate 76. The consensus among researchers is that __________ percent of one's intelligence is inherited. a. 100 percent b. exactly 80 percent c. around 60 percent d. less than 40 percent 77. Which of the following would constitute the strongest evidence for environmental influence in intelligence? a. similarity in IQ between parents and their biological children b. similarity in IQ between identical twins reared together c. similarity in IQ between adopted children and their foster parents d. similarity in IQ between adopted children and their biological parents 78. Which of the following statements regarding the findings from adoption studies and IQ is not accurate? a. Research with adopted children provides useful evidence about the impact of experience as well as heredity. b. Adopted children show some resemblance to their foster parents in IQ. c. Entirely unrelated children who are raised in the same home have no similarities in IQ. d. Sibilings reared together are more similar in IQ than sibilings reared apart. 79. You would predict that the IQs of the children who stay in understaffed orphanages a. will gradually decline as they grow older b. will show the normal increases with development c. will start out low, but gradually increase as they reach puberty d. will be fairly normal until they reach puberty, when there will be a sharp decline 80. Which of the following is an expression of the nuture side of the nature versus nurture argument? a. Environmental deprivation has little effect on intellectual performance. b. An intellectually stimulating environment would be wasted on those who did not have some innate intellectual potential. c. Intellectual potential is something with which you are born; it is not acquired. d. An intellectually stimulating environment can lead to noticeable increases in the IQs of disadvantaged children. 81. A tentative answer to the heredity versus environment question with respect to intelligence is that a. heredity is the major factor b. environment is the major factor c. the environment puts limits on the effects on heredity d. heredity may set certain limits on intelligence and environmental factors determine where we fall within those limits 82. According to theories that employ the concept of reaction range, the upper limits of an individual's intellectual potential are a. determined during the first year of life b. set by heredity c. determined by environmental experiences d. subject to modification until puberty 83. The reaction range of IQ has been estimated to be around ________ IQ points. a. 1-2 b. 5 c. 20 d. 50 84. According to the reaction range model a. children with average IQ scores will not have very wide reaction ranges b. children with average IQ scores are being raised in average-quality environments c. children raised in high-quality environments should score near the top of their reaction range d. children raised in high-quality environments will have higher IQ scores than children raised in poor-quality environments 85. When compared to children from middle- and upper-class backgrounds, lower-class children tend to a. be more likely to come from single-parent home b. be exposed to fewer books c. have less privacy for concentrated study d. all of these factors 86. In general, the balance of evidence suggests that the amount of cultural bias on IQ tests is a. modest b. substantial c. nonexistent d. No relevant studies have been conducted 87. Which of the following is the most widely accepted explanation for the outstanding intellectual and educational attainments of Asain Americans? a. Asian cultural values tend to encourage and nurture educational achievement. b. Asians are genetically predisposed to high intellectual achievement. c. Asian Americans are likely responding to a reverse-stereotype vulnerability. d. Asian Americans are, by nature, highly competitive in academic settings. 88. In _________, correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables. a. factor analysis b. analysis of variance c. inferential statistics d. descriptive statistics 89. In analyzing factors in intelligence, Charles Spearman emphasized a general intelligence factor known as a. crystallized intelligence b. s c. g d. the primary mental ability 90. Reasoning capacity, memory capacity, and speed of information processing are referred to be Horn as a. generative intelligence b. abstract intelligence c. fluid intelligence d. level-two intelligence 91. Crystallized intelligence, according to Horn, is associated with a. applying acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving b. memory capacity c. reasoning ability d. all of these things 92. Which of the following is not one of the parts of Sternberg's triarchis theory of intellegence? a. contextual subtheory b. general mental ability subtheory c. experiential subtheory d. componential subtheory 93. The name that Sternberg has given to the high-level processes used in planning how to attack a problem is a. metacomponents b. knowledge-acquisition components c. performance components d. information processing components 94. According to Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, a mnemonic device such as learning "Every good boy does fine." in order to remember which notes are on the lines of the treble clef in musical notation represents. a. a metacomponent b. a knowledge-acquisition component c. a performance component d. an intelligence component 95. Howard Gardner has tried to expand our thinking on intelligence, contending that traditional IQ tests are too narrowly focused on verbal and mathematical skills. In addition to these, his list of human intelligence includes a. spatial skills b. musical skills c. interpersonal skills d. spatial, musical, and interpersonal skills 96. Which of the following is not one of the seven types of intelligence proposed by Gardner? a. linguistic b. interpersonal c. spatial d. emotional 97. Creativity involves the generation of ideas that are a. original b. novel c. useful d. original, novel, useful 98. In convergent thinking one attempts to a. utilize a hypothetico-deductive reasoning strategy to solve a problem b. work from the very specific to the very general in solving a problem c. narrow down a list of alternatives to solve a problem d. involve a relevant schema in order to solve a problem 99. In _________ thinking, one tries to expand the range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions. a. divergent b. convergent c. contigent d. symbolic 100. Your group has been considering various ideas for a group project for the past three weeks. You currently have 16 different ideas, but you're required to hand in your final topic selection in class tomorrow morning. This task will be easiest to complete if most of your group members are skilled in which of the following? a. divergent thinking b. convergent thinking c. transformational logic d. field dependence
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