1. Pavlov became interested in conditioning when he observed labratory dogs a. salivating right before food was placed in their mouths b. failing to salivate when food was placed in their mouths c. salivating only when food was placed in their mouths d. salivating right after they had sallowed food 2. When a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus the process is a. operant conditioning b. instrumental conditioning c. Skinnerian conditioning d. classical conditioning 3. Pavlov found that meat powder placed on a dog's tongue will make the dog salivate. In Pavlov's terms, the meat powder is a. an unconditioned stimulus b. an unconditioned response c. a conditioned stimulus d. a conditioned response 4. In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was a. the sound of a tone b. salivation elicited by a tone c. the presentation of meat powder following a tone d. salivation elicited by meat powder 5. Carson used to really enjoy lime sherbet and when he was in Mexico he tried frozen lime margaritas. After his fourth margarita Carson became extremely ill. Now he finds that even the sight of lime sherbet in a bowl can make him feel queasy. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is a. the lime margaritas that Carson consumed b. the illness that followed the fourth margarita c. the sight of lime sherbet d. the queasiness that Carson feels when he sees lime sherbet 6. Veronica has been working at Zenex Industries for 8 months when her boss asked to see her in his office. She thought he wanted to talk about a promotion so she was quite excited, but instead of giving her a promotion, the boss told Veronica she was being laid off as a result of company downsizing. Veronica could feel her heart pounding as she listened to the news. Veronica was able to get a new job, but every time her new boss asks to talk to her in private, Veronica feels a little faint. In this example, the unconditioned response is a. the bad news from her boss at Zenex Industries b. her new boss asking for a private meeting c. her pounding heart when she heard she was being laid off d. the faintness she feels when her new boss wants to talk to her in private 7. Holly was dancing with her new boyfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" her boyfriend gave her a long, passionate kiss, which Holly found very enjoyable. Now Holly finds that every time she hears "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" on the radio, she becomes a little flushed. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is a. the long, passionate kiss b. the song "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" c. the enjoyment she experienced after the kiss from her boyfriend d. the flushing she experiences when she hears the song on the radio 8. The initial stage of learning a response is called a. extinction b. contiguity c. acquisition d. conditioning 9. A woman reportedly feeling "weak in the knees" whenever she smelled cigarette smoke and Beemans gum, because of the association of these smells with her first love. In this example, her "weak knees" would be a. an unconditioned response b. a conditioned stimulus c. an unconditioned stimulus d. a conditioned response 10. The best temporal arrangement for establishing a new conditioned response is a. short-delayed conditioning b. simultaneous conditioning c. trace conditioning d. backward conditioning 11. Dominic is playing with some balloons. He counts "one, two, three" and just as he says "three" he pops the balloon with a pin. His sister is listening in the next room and begins to cringe when she hears Dominic start counting, and before she actually hears the balloon pop. In this example, the conditioned stimulus of Dominic's counting and the unconditioned stimulus of the balloon pop were arranged in a a. simultaneous conditioning pattern b. trace conditioning pattern c. negative reinforcement conditioning pattern d. short-delayed conditioning pattern 12. Mikayla wants to condition her dog to drool at the sound of the telephone, so she plans to pair the sound of the ringing telephone with a tasty dog treat. To use classical conditioning most effectively, Mikayla should present the tasty dog treat a. a few seconds before the telephone starts to ring b. at the same instant that the telephone rings c. a half second after the telephone has started ringing d. a few seconds after the telephone has stopped ringing 13. The continued presentation of the CS without the UCS will result in the gradual disapperance of the CR. This phenomenon is known as a. extinction b. inhibition c. suppression d. conditioned forgetting 14. After training one of his dogs to salivate in response to a tone, Pavlov continued to present the tone periodically without the food, with the result that the dog a. kept responding with undiminished intensity despite extended exposure to the tone alone b. stopped responding immediately c. initially responded to the tone at an even greater intensity than before d. gradually stopped responding to the tone 15. In order to weaken or eliminate a conditioned response you would a. present the UCS before the CS several times b. present the CS alone several times c. present the UCS alone several times d. present extra pairings of the CS and UCS 16. Ken used to drool at the smell of peanut butter cookies as they baked, and he couldn't wait to sink his teeth into that first cookie. However, Ken's new roommate makes terrible peanut butter cookies and the smell of them baking is no longer associated with a wonderful taste experience. Consequently, Ken finds that the smell of the cookies no longer makes him drool in anticipation. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as a. spontaneous recovery b. second-order conditioning c. extinction d. avoidance 17. The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called a. disinhibition b. reconditioning c. stimulus generalization d. spontaneous recovery 18. Mariah developed a fear of the water when she fell off a river raft last summer. This year she took swimming lessons and thought she had finally overcome her fear of water. She was eagerly looking foward to an upcoming rafting trip, however, as soon as she stepped onto the raft she was instantly terrified again. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as a. extinction b. second-order conditioning c. stimulus generalization d. spontaneous recovery 19. When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically a. is weaker than the previously conditioned response b. is stronger than the previously conditioned response c. occurs before the conditioned stimulus d. changes to an unconditioned stimulus 20. Stimulus generalization occurs when a. there is temporal association between two stimuli b. an organism fails to respond to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus used in conditioning c. an unconditioned stimulus fails to elicit the unconditioned response d. an organism responds to new stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimuli 21. When Diana was three years old she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pigeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of a. instinctive drift b. stimulus generalization c. stimulus discrimination d. negative avoidance 22. The general principle governing stimulus generalization in classical conditioning is that generalization is greater a. when stimuli are very similar to the original conditioned stimulus b. when stimuli are very different from the original conditioned stimulus c. when tactile stimulation is used rather than auditory stimulation d. when auditory stimulation is used rather than visual stimulation 23. In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, the unconditioned stimulus was a. the rabbit b. the rat c. the loud noise d. the fear reaction 24. In the Watson and Rayner experiment on conditioned emotional responses, Little Albert could be expected to a. a roll of cotton b. a baseball bat c. a Santa Claus beard d. a white rat 25. Continuing to pair a specific CS and UCS, but periodically presenting stimuli similar to the CS and not pairing them with the UCS, should result in a. stimulus discrimination b. stimulus generalization c. extinction d. response attenuation 26. If a dog salivates to a blue light and not to a yellow light, the dog is showing the evidence of a. spontaneous recovery b. conditioned emotional reactions c. stimulus generalization d. stimulus discrimination 27. When Lindsay was nine years old the neighbor's chihuahua bit her on the ankle. Today Lindsay is still terrified of chihuahuas, but she likes almost all other types of dogs. Lindsay's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of: a. instinctive drift b. stimulus discrimination c. stimulus generalization d. negative avoidance 28. __________ means treating two stimuli alike; _____________ means treating two stimuli differently. a. Acquisition; extinction b. Generalization; discrimination c. Extinction; acquisition d. Discimination; generalization 29. A dog is first conditioned to salivate to a tone. Then, a light is paired with the tone for a number of trials; finally, the light is presented alone, and the dog responds. This procedure is known as a. chaininng b. higher-order conditioning c. compound conditioning d. sensory conditioning 30. In higher-order conditioning ___________ now functions as if it were _______________. a. a conditioned stimulus; an unconditioned stimulus b. an unconditioned stimulus; a conditioned stimulus c. a conditioned response; an unconditioned response d. an unconditioned response; a conditioned response 31. Six-year-old Kristen is afraid of balloons because a balloon once popped in her face while she was holding it. Last week she went to the circus and there was a clown holding a huge assortment of helium balloons. Now she is also afraid of clowns, even though none of the balloons the clown was holding popped. Kristen's fear of clowns illustrates the classical conditioning process of a. higher-order conditioning b. instinctive drift c. spontaneous recovery d. the renewal effect 32. Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which a. responses come to be controlled by their consequences b. an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of other's behavior c. involuntary responses are slowly replaced by voluntary responses d. a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response that was originally elicited by another response 33. Dillon is four years old, and his parents want to teach him to say "please" and "thank you." They will be most successful in altering Dillon's behavior if they use a. classical conditioning b. higher-order conditioning c. non-contigent reinforcement d. operant conditioning 34. April wants to teach her cat not to claw at the arms of her couch. She will be most successful in reducing the cat's scratching behavior if she uses a. classical conditioning b. higher-order conditioning c. observational learning d. operant conditioning 35. Operant conditioning is another name for a. classical conditioning b. respondent conditioning c. instrumental learning d. observational learning 36. According to Skinner, a stimulus is a reinforcer if it a. reduces a biological need b. induces a biological need c. increases the probability of the response that produced it d. decreases the probability of the response that produced it 37. Cassie asked her for father for a candy bar at the grocery store, and her father bought her the candy bar. If Cassie asks for more candy bars in the future, the candy bar has acted as a. a discriminative stimulus b. a reinforcer c. a conditioned response d. a conditioned stimulus 38. In a Skinner box, the cumulative recorder a. permits the experimenter to control the reinforcement contingencies b. provides a complete record of everything the animal does c. delivers the reinforcers d. creates a graphic record of operant responding as a function of time 39. In a cumulative record of responses from a Skinner box, a steep slope in the line indicates a. poorly planned reinforcement contingencies b. slow responding taking place c. fast responding taking place d. extinction has occured 40. You are watching a pigeon pecking a disk in a small chamber. There is a cumulative recorder connected to the disk. While you are watching, the pigeon is pecking at a slow, steady rate. Based on this information, you can predict that the line on the cumulative recorder will a. have a steep, upward slope b. have a shallow, upward slope c. have a shallow, downward slope d. have a steep, downward slope 41. The process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called a. stimulus discrimination b. selection c. shaping d. step-wise conditioning 42. In higher-order conditioning, new conditioned responses are a. conditioned to discriminative stimuli b. built on the foundation of innate unconditioned responses c. built on the foundation of previously established conditioned responses d. blocked by sensory adaption 43. The technique used to teach animals complex tricks, such as teaching pigeons to play ping-pong, is a. respondent conditioning b. continuous reinforcement c. programming d. shaping 44. When reinforcement for a behavior is removed, the consequence ill be a. an immediate weakening and eventual disappearance of the behavior b. a short increase in the frequency with which the behavior is performed, followed by the weakening and eventual disappearance of the behavior c. the emergence of superstitious behavior designed to reinstate the reinforcement d. unpredictable unless more information about the nature of the behavior is provided 45. Kylee used to bring drawings home from her kindergarten class every day, and her parents would put the pictures on the refrigerator and tell Kylee how nice the pictures were. Lately her parents haven't been putting her artwork on the refrigerator, and now Kylee has stopped bringing drawings home with her. This example illustrates the operant conditioning process of a. punishment b. avoidance c. resistance d. extinction 46. Jeremy stops gambling five minutes after his slot machine last paid off; Jessica is still gambling, even though her slot machine hasn't paid off in over an hour. In this example, Jeremy's behavior _________ while Jessica's behavior _____________. a. shows low resistance to extinction; shows high resistance to extinction b. has been classically conditioned; has been operantly conditioned c. shows high resistance to extinction; shows low resistance to extinction d. is controlled by conditioned stimuli; is controlled by unconditioned stimuli 47. When resistance to extinction is high it means that a. responding will continue for a long time after reinforcement is discontinued b. responding will taper off quickly when reinforcement is discontinued c. responding will fail to show spontaneous recovery following a period of extinction d. shaping was done incorrectly when the initial response was acquired 48. Raul's parents make certain they thank Raul every time he clears the dishes from the table without being asked. Sadie's parents try to remember to thank Sadie every time she clears the table without being asked, but about half the time they forget. Based on principles of operant conditioning, you should predict that a. both children's table clearing will be equally resistant to extinction b. Sadie's table clearing will be more resistant to extinction than Raul's c. Raul's table clearing will be more resistant to extinction than Sadie's d. Raul will develop stimulus generalization and Sadie will develop stimulus discrimination 49. A discriminative stimulus is a. the same thing as a reinforcer b. the same thing as a conditioned stimulus c. a cue that indicates the probable consequences of an operant response d. a cue that indicates whether the unconditioned stimulus will be pleasant or aversive 50. A pigeon learns to peck at a disk lighted green to recieve reinforcement, but not at a disk lighted red. The color of the disk is __________ for the pigeon. a. a reinforcer or nonreinforcer b. a punisher or nonpunisher c. a generalization stimulus d. a discriminative stimulus 51. After owning a car with a manual transmission, Don buys a car with an automatic transmission. When first driving his new car, he keeps reaching for the nonexistent clutch and gear shift. This is an example of a. acquisition b. stimulus generalization c. stimulus discrimination d. shaping 52. When Kristen asks her grandmother for a cookie, her grandmother usually gives her one. Last week at the park Kristen's mother was embarassed when Kristen walked up to five different elderly ladies and asked them for cookies. Kristen's behavior illustrates the concept of a. unconditioned reinforcement b. stimulus generalization c. stimulus discrimination d. observational learning 53. The basic principles of gradual acquisition, extinction, stimulus generalization, and discrimination apply a. to both classical and instrumental conditioning b. only to classical conditioning c. only to instrumental conditioning d. learning by animals, but not to learning by people 54. In order for a reinforcer to be most effective, it should be a. delayed for a short period of time to allow the person to coalesce the information in long-term memory b. delayed for varying periods of time depending on the behavior being reinforced c. delivered as soon as possible after the behavior has been performed d. a secondary reinforcer 55. In general, the longer the delay between a response and reinforcement, a. the faster conditioning proceeds b. the more effective the reinforcer becomes c. the more slowly conditioning proceeds d. the more likely it is that stimulus generalization will occur 56. With computer-based study guides students typically recieve immediate reinforcement for correct responses. With noncomputer-based study guides the reinforcement for correct responses may by delayed for some time. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should predict that learning a. with both types of study guides should proceed at the same rate b. will proceed more quickly with computer-based study guides c. will be more resistant to extinction when a noncomputer-based study guide is used d. will proceed more slowly with computer-based study guides 57. Food is an example of __________; praise is an example of ___________. a. a primary reinforcer; a primary reinforcer b. a primary reinforcer; a secondary reinforcer c. a secondary reinforcer; a secondary reinfocer d. a secondary reinforcer; a primary reinforcer 58. Primary reinforcers _______________, while secondary reinforcers _________________. a. depend on learning; satisfy biological needs b. satisfy biological needs; depend on learning c. are associated with classical conditioning; are associated with operant conditioning d. are associated with operant conditioning; are associated with classical conditioning 59. Continuous reinforcement occurs when a. reinforcement is delivered continually, regardless of whether or not a response is made b. it is not known in advance what responses will be reinforced c. every behavior engaged in by the subject is reinforced d. every occurence of the designated response is reinforced 60. Assuming the reinforcer is the sound of the rattle, a baby's response of shaking a rattle is reinforced according to which type of schedule? a. continuous reinforcement b. fixed-interval c. variable-interval d. variable-ratio 61. Katrina is trying to put a dollar bill into a vending machine in her office. Sometimes the machine will take a dollar bill on the first try, other times it can take up to five or six tries before the dollar bill is finally accepted. In this example, inserting a dollar bill into the vending machine is reinforced on a. a continuous reinforcement schedule b. a noncontingent reinforcement schedule c. an intermittent reinforcement schedule d. a short-delay reinforcement schedule 62. Relative to extinction following continuous reinforcement, extinction follows intermittent reinforcement a. proceeds more slowly b. proceeds more rapidly c. occurs at the same rate d. is longer lasting 63. The behavior that would be most difficult to extinguish would be one that was a. reinforced every time it occured b. shaped c. reinforced intermittenly d. reinforced by your parents 64. Marie works in a dress factory where she earns $10 for each three dresses she hems. Marie is paid on a a. fixed-ratio schedule b. variable-ratio schedule c. fixed-interval schedule d. variable-interval schedule 65. Maxwell runs a lawn care service and he charges his clients based on the square footage of their yard, rather than charging an hourly rate for his services. In this example, Maxwell is working on a. a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement b. a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement c. a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement d. a variable-interval of schedule of reinforcement 66. In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given a. after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses b. after a variable number of nonreinforced responses c. for the first response that occurs after a fixed amount of time has elapsed d. for the first response that occurs after a variable amount of tme has elapsed 67. Shaquille is a professional basketball player. He never knows for sure which of his shots will result in a basket, but the more shots he takes the more baskets he makes. In this example, Shaquille's shooting is being reinforced on a. a fixed-ratio schedule b. a fixed-interval schedule c. a variable-ratio schedule d. a variable-interval schedule 68. The newest winning numbers in the state lottery are announced on the local television station every Saturday night, at the end of the news hour. People who are watching for the lottery numbers, will have their "watchhing" reinforced on a. a fixed-ratio schedule b. a variable-ratio schedule c. a variable-interval schedule d. a fixed-interval schedule 69. You are watching a rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box to obtain food pellets. The rat pauses for a long time after each food pellet is delivered, but slowly increases its rate of lever pressing as more time elapses. In this example, the reinforcement schedule that is in place is most likely a. a variable-ratio schedule b. a fixed-interval schedule c. a variable-interval schedule d. a fixed-ratio schedule 70. Josiah checks his electronic mail several times throughout the day. Some days there is mail each time he checks; sometimes several days go by with no new messages arriving. In this example, Josiah's behavior of checking his electronic mail is being reinforced on a. a variable-interval schedule b. a fixed-ratio schedule c. a fixed-interval schedule d. a variable-interval schedule 71. You are watching a rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box to obtain food pellets. The rat is pressing the lever at a slow, steady rate, but it does not stop, even when a food pellet is delivered. In this example, the reinforcement schedule that is in place is most likely a. a variable-ratio schedule b. a fixed-interval schedule c. a variable-interval schedule d. a fixed-ratio schedule 72. Positive reinforcement involves a. the presentation of a pleasant stimulus b. the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus c. the removal of a pleasant stimulus d. the removal of an unpleasant stimulus 73. When Skyler was first training Smooches, his dog, to heel he would give Smooches a treat when she stayed close during walks. Now Smooches stays right by Skyler's side, even when she is not on her leash. In this case a. the dog treats were negative reinforcers for staying close b. the staying close was a positive reinforcer for recieving dog treats c. the staying close was a negative reinforcer for recieving dog treats d. the dog treats were positive reinforcers for staying close 74. Negative reinforcement involves a. the presentation of a pleasant stimulus b. the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus c. the removal of a pleasant stimulus d. the removal of an unpleasant stimulus 75. Your teenaged daughter has not cleared her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to a. classical conditioning b. positive reinforcement c. punishers d. negative reinforcement 76. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? a. giving a child a sweet dessert as a reward for finishing his dinner b. paying a child $1 for each "A" recieved on her report card c. stopping nagging a child when he finally cleans his room d. cutting a child's TV time by 30 minutes each time she "talks back" 77. A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ___________; a students who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for ____________. a. negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement b. positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement c. negative reinforcement; negative reinforcement d. positive reinforcement; positive reinforcement 78. Henry got a bad sunburn on his face when he was skiing last winter. Now, before he starts a day of skiing he uses a sunscreen on his face to prevent another sunburn. In this case, avoiding a sunburn functions as a. a negative reinforcer for using a sunscreen b. a positive reinforcer for using a sunscreen c. a conditioned stimulus for using a sunscreen d. an unconditioned stimulus for using a sunscreen 79. Nolan has learned to drink a cup of coffee whenever he gets a tension headache because drinking coffee makes the pain of the headache go away. This is an example of a. avoidance learning b. escape learning c. positive reinforcement d. negative reinforcement 80. Escape conditioning is maintained by a. modeling b. punishment c. negative reinforcement d. positive reinforcement 81. Acquiring a behavior that prevents the occurence of an aversive event is a. escape learning b. negative punishment c. punishment learning d. avoidance learning 82. When Jackie watches slasher movies she covers her eyes when the blood starts to splatter; when Clarice watches slasher movies she covers her eyes as soon as she hears ominous music starts to play. Jackie's response is consistent with ____________ while Clarice's response is consistent with ___________. a. escape responding; avoidance responding b. avoidance responding; escape responding c. negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement d. classical conditioning; operant conditioning 83. Jane, your teenage daughter, was ridiculed at school for wearing a particular style of shirt. Now she no longer wears that style of shirt at school. Being ridiculed is an example of a. negative reinforcement b. positive reinforcement c. punishment d. modeling 84. Your spouse withdraws attention from you each time you begin criticizing her cooking. Eventually you stop criticizing your spouse's cooking. The withdrawal of attention can be categorized as a. punishment b. observational learning c. negative reinforcement d. modeling 85. Negative reinforcement __________ the rate of a response; punishment ___________ the rate of a response. a. increases; decreases b. decreases; increases c. increases; increases d. decreases; decreases 86. The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that a. punishment strengthens negative behavior while negative reinforcement weakens negative behavior b. punishment weakens negative behavior while negative reinforcement strengthens negative behavior c. punishment weakens behavior while negative reinforcement strengthens behavior d. there is no difference between punishment and negative reinforcement in their effects on behavior 87. Typically, most people would a. enjoy being negatively reinforced or punished b. dislike being negatively reinforced or punished c. enjoy being negatively reinforced and dislike being punished d. enjoy being punished and dislike being negatively reinforced 88. When an animal's innate response tendencies interfere with the conditioning process, it is referred to as a. learned helplessness b. instinct ive drift c. counterconditioning d. misbehavior 89. Breland and Breland's work with "miserly raccoons" demonstrated a. how principles of reinforcement (derived from studies of rats and pigeons) easily generalize to raccoons b. differences in appropriate rewards for different species c. that there are biologically imposed limits to the generability of conditioning principles d. that raccoons are less conditionable, and therefore less intelligent, than rats and pigeons 90. Breland's trained raccoons would deposit single tokens into a slot but would not deposit two tokens, which they rubbed together. This is due to a. instinctive drift to food-washing behavior b. poor conditioning of token placing c. insufficient reinforcement of token placing d. lack of interest in the single tokens 91. The experience Seligman had with the sauce bearnaise was unique that a. it suggested that generalization is more pervasive that originally thought b. a conditioned response was established even though there was a long delay between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus c. it appears that discriminative cues can lose their predictive influence in a fairly short period of time d. operant conditioning dynamics take precedure over classical conditioning principles 92. The studies of Garcia and his colleagues demonstrate that rats very easily learn to associate a taste CS with a. a shock UCS b. a visual UCS c. an auditory UCS d. a nausea-inducing UCS 93. You eat a new food and that night become ill with nausea and vomitting. Later you experience nausea whenever you taste or smell the new food. Why did you not associate your nausea with the cues of the room, the people present, the bathroom, the toilet, and so on? a. You were biologically predisposed to associate taste and nausea. b. The nontaste cues were too weak. c. The taste cues were more immediate. d. There was less contiguity for the other cues. 94. The evolutionary history of rats has rendered them ____________ to associate a taste CS with an illness UCS, and ___________ to associate that same CS with an electric shock UCS. a. prepared; prepared b. prepared; unprepared c. unprepared; unprepared d. unprepared; prepared 95. A species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways and not others is referred to as a. preparedness b. sign-releasing predisposition c. superstitious responding d. preparedness 96. Zane has been shocked on six seperate occasions while making toast. However, he doesn't seem to have developed a phobia toward toasters. Zane's only phobia is toward spiders, because he once had a big spider fall in his shirt when he was a child. Zane's pattern of phobias illustrates the concept of a. signal relations b. negative avoidance c. superstitious responding d. preparedness 97. The evolutionary perspective on learning suggests that a. most species respond to classical conditioning, but only mammals show operant conditioning b. most species respond to operant conditioning, but only mammals show classical conditioning c. basic mechanism of learning are unique for each species d. basic mechanism of learning are similar across species 98. Group A rates recieve 30 paired buzzer-shock trials. Group B rates get the same, but also 20 more trials with shock alone (no buzzer). You would predict that a. Group A and B later show equal fear response to the buzzer b. Group B shows a stronger fear response to the buzzer c. Group A extinguishes fear to the buzzer more rapidly d. Group A shows a stronger fear response to the buzzer 99. A school in Kansas had always used a loud siren as a tornado warning to indicate students should seek shelter. Last summer, to accomodate the needs of hearing-imparied students, they enhanced the system and included a bright flashing light along with the siren. During one warning the sirens didn't function the way they were supposed to, and only the flashing light came on. The teachers were surprised that the students didn't seek shelter during the warning. This lack of response was likely the result of a. negative avoidance b. instinctive drift c. poor signal relations d. noncontingent reinforcement 100. Your younger daughter watches your older daughter wash the breakfast dishes. Later your younger daughter attempts to wash some dishes. The older daughter has acted as a. a noncontingent reinforcer b. a negative reinforcer c. a positive reinforcer d. a model 101. Learning that takes place by observing another person is referred to as a. operant conditioning b. noncontingent learning c. observational learning d. classical conditioning 102. After watching his father was the car, five-year-old Bob washes his bike. This is an example of a. superstitious behavior b. classical conditioning c. observational learning d. positive learning 103. Application of operant principles to solve behavior problems is generally known as a. behavior modification b. cognitive engineering c. modeling d. insight training 104. Which of the following goals is specified in an appropriate format for designing a self-modification program? a. increasing your motivation b. decreasing your irritability c. increasing your happiness d. stopping smoking 105. The first step in a behavior modification program is to a. gather baseline data b. specify the antecedents c. specify the target behavior d. design a program 106. Harold begins to chew his fingernails every time his teacher enters the classroom. In this case the antecedent is a. the teacher entering the classroom b. the fear associated with the teacher c. anticipated punishment d. chewing his fingernails 107. In setting up reinforcement contingencies in a self-modifications program, you should a. choose a reinforcer that is readily available and relatively potent b. use delayed reinforcement c. arrange to reinforce yourself only after there has been a drastic change in the frequency of the target response d. use continuous rather than intermittent reinforcement 108. A system for adminstering symbolic reinforcers that can later be exchanged for "genuine" reinforcers is referred to as a. vicarious conditioning b. a token economy c. a behavioral contract d. antecedent control
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