Question 1 of 20 1.0 Points Increased recall at the beginning and end of a list of information A. suggests primacy and recency effects, respectively. B. is the pattern expected in an Alzheimer's patient. C. suggests recency and primacy effects, respectively. D. can best be described by an inverted U function effect. Answer Key: A Question 2 of 20 1.0 Points One unusual feature of implicit memories is that A. implicit memories relate only to actions or skills, not to words. B. unlike explicit memories, implicit memories grow stronger and stronger over time. C. a person can have an implicit memory without having any conscious recognition of a memory. D. they are the memories most likely to be damaged in people with amnesia. Answer Key: C Question 3 of 20 1.0 Points The term "working memory" has been adopted by many researchers to replace the more traditional term A. sensory memory. B. long-term memory. C. broken memory. D. short-term memory. Answer Key: D Part 2 of 12 - 3.0 Points Question 4 of 20 1.0 Points Professor Lord gives you a list of 400 names and asks you to check the ones that appeared in the book of Deuteronomy. What kind of memory test is this? A. free recall B. recognition C. cued recall D. savings Answer Key: B Question 5 of 20 1.0 Points John needed to remember the last 10 presidents of the United States. He generated an image of each of the presidents located somewhere in his house. John used A. savings. B. the method of loci. C. the peg method. D. retroactive interference. Answer Key: B Question 6 of 20 1.0 Points According to the levels-of-processing principle, certain memories are easy to recall because we A. stored them in the deepest layers of the cerebral cortex. B. repeated them over and over to concentrate mostly on their sound. C. thought about their meaning while we were storing the memories. D. held them for an unusually long time in short-term memory before transferring them to long-term memory. Answer Key: C Question 7 of 20 1.0 Points Many clinicians now prefer to use the term dissociation instead of Freud's concept of repression. The concept of dissociation A. leaves researchers with the same doubts and problems as the concept of repression. B. has led to great advances in our understanding of memories for traumatic events. C. allowed researchers to find the brain mechanisms responsible for the unconscious. D. leads to the prediction that people form stronger memories for emotional events. Answer Key: A Question 8 of 20 1.0 Points Proactive interference and retroactive interference are mechanisms that contribute to A. level of processing. B. Korsakoff's syndrome. C. encoding specificity. D. forgetting. Answer Key: D Question 9 of 20 1.0 Points Freud's term for forgetting due to the moving of a memory from the conscious mind to the unconscious mind was A. schema. B. repression. C. retrograde amnesia. D. consolidation. Answer Key: B Question 10 of 20 1.0 Points Studies of the neurological patient H.M. and similar patients lead to the conclusion that A. people have several separate kinds of memories. B. once something is learned, it is never completely forgotten. C. the visual cortex is essential for all memories, even those that do not involve vision. D. electrical stimulation of the brain can cause people to confuse a memory of one event with the memory of another, later event. Answer Key: A Question 11 of 20 1.0 Points What memory problem is characteristic of people with Korsakoff's syndrome or prefrontal cortex damage? A. They forget material that is presented visually, but they have normal memory for material they hear. B. They fill in the gaps in their memory with a mixture of old information and wild guesses. C. They have normal long-term memory, but essentially no short-term memory. D. They remember facts, but they forget skills. Answer Key: B Question 12 of 20 1.0 Points Korsakoff's syndrome, which produces a severe memory impairment, is caused by A. a deficiency of the hormone insulin. B. a genetic mutation that prevents people from metabolizing phenylalanine. C. damage to the corpus callosum. D. a prolonged deficiency of vitamin B-1. Answer Key: D Question 13 of 20 1.0 Points Studies on facial expressions of emotion have shown that A. we show more emotion when other people are around than when we are by ourselves. B. people use words to communicate emotion far more than they use facial expression. C. voluntary smiles are indistinguishable from spontaneous smiles. D. people in various cultures, in general, are unable to interpret the facial expression of someone from another culture. Answer Key: A Question 14 of 20 1.0 Points A micro expression refers to A. an emotion that is not intensely experienced. B. any false expression that masks the person's true feelings C. a self report technique for measuring briefly experienced feeling states. D. a very brief, involuntary expression of emotion. Answer Key: D Question 15 of 20 1.0 Points Psychologists have tried to measure a concept called "emotional intelligence," using a test similar to that of other kinds of intelligence tests. One major problem with this effort is that A. most of the questions on the test are too difficult and most people get low scores. B. it is difficult to determine what are right and wrong answers for this test. C. generally women get much higher scores than men on this test. D. the test takes many hours to administer and most people get weary. Answer Key: B Question 16 of 20 1.0 Points Forcing people to make facial expressions by having them move specific facial muscles or holding pencils in their mouths A. does not result in any change in emotions, because there is no sympathetic nervous system arousal. B. has some behavioral results, but they are almost entirely due to demand characteristics. C. tends to make people feel happier or sadder. D. makes people sadder, but has no effect on behavior, such as the ratings of cartoons. Answer Key: C Question 17 of 20 1.0 Points Researchers presented participants with two versions of a moral dilemma. In the trolley dilemma, you can save the life of five people but take the life of one person by flipping a switch. In the footbridge dilemma, you can save the life of five people but take the life of one person by pushing a fat man off a bridge. According to the research, what do most people decide? A. Because the two dilemmas are logically the same, people make the same choice (kill one and save five) with equal ease in both cases. B. Although the two dilemmas are logically the same, people have a more difficult time deciding what to do in the footbridge dilemma. C. Although the two dilemmas are logically the same, people have a more difficult time deciding what to do in the trolley dilemma. D. Because the two dilemmas are logically the same, people quickly decide in both cases they have no right to interfere in the situation and allow the five people to die. Answer Key: B Question 18 of 20 1.0 Points Researchers examine John's brain while he has a happy experience and a sad experience. Which of the following patterns of brain activity would be observed? A. The patterns of activity would be exactly the same. B. Separate and independent patterns of activity would be observed for the two emotions. C. There would be separate, but somewhat overlapping patterns of activity. D. No activity would be observed. Answer Key: C Question 19 of 20 1.0 Points Schachter and Singer's theory of emotions agrees with the James-Lange theory in assuming that A. anything that prevents autonomic arousal will decrease the intensity of all emotions. B. autonomic arousal has nothing to do with emotional behavior or experience. C. each type of emotion is associated with a different, specific type of autonomic activity. D. all types of emotion are associated with the same type of autonomic activity. Answer Key: A Question 20 of 20 1.0 Points Robert is a participant in a study of emotions. He is asked to indicate how happy he feels on a scale from 1 (not at all happy) to 7 (extremely happy). What measurement technique is being used in this study? A. behavioral observation B. physiological measurement C. self report D. functional phenomenology index Answer Key: C Question 1 of 20 1.0 Points Little "blind spots" are created throughout the retina A. due to the opponent process. B. because receptor cells in the left eye and right eye alternate firing. C. because some receptors fall in the shadows created by blood vessels in the retina. D. due to the continual process of death and rebirth of the receptor cells. Answer Key: C Question 2 of 20 1.0 Points At the point where the optic nerve exits from the retina, we perceive A. shades of reds, and greens more than yellows and blues. B. shades of yellows and blues more than reds and greens. C. only shades of black and white. D. nothing (blindness). Answer Key: D Question 3 of 20 1.0 Points Which of the following would cause someone to experience negative afterimages? A. pressure on the optic nerve at the point where it exits the retina B. adapting to complete darkness and then looking at a dimly lit scene C. failing to include enough vitamin A in the diet D. staring at a red object and then looking at a white surface Answer Key: D Question 4 of 20 1.0 Points The retinex theory of color vision attempts to account for the fact that A. people can recognize all the colors even while wearing green-tinted lenses. B. people have better color vision in the fovea of the retina than they do in the periphery. C. it is possible to mix various amounts of three kinds of light to match a light of any other color. D. after staring at a bright green object for a minute, one can look away and see a red afterimage. Answer Key: A Question 5 of 20 1.0 Points The central part of the human retina is called the A. basilar membrane. B. blind spot. C. fovea. D. cochlea. Answer Key: C Question 6 of 20 1.0 Points Within the retina, cones are adapted for ____ and rods are adapted for ____. A. seeing stationary objects...detecting movement B. detecting movement...seeing stationary objects C. detection of faint light...color and detail D. color and detail...detection of faint light Answer Key: D Question 7 of 20 1.0 Points Which of the following is associated with a decrease in pain? A. high levels of substance P B. spinal cord injection of capsaicin C. release of endorphins D. injections of naloxone Answer Key: C Question 8 of 20 1.0 Points Which of the following is an example of motion parallax? A. You feel tension in your eye muscles when you focus on a nearby object. B. As you travel in a car, nearby objects pass by faster than distant objects do. C. An illuminated point in an otherwise dark room appears to move. D. People notice a slowly moving object even if they had not been paying attention to it before it started to move. Answer Key: B Question 9 of 20 1.0 Points The tendency to perceive objects that are close together as belonging to the same group is called A. similarity. B. closure. C. continuation. D. proximity. Answer Key: D Question 10 of 20 1.0 Points Psychologists studying the effects of commercially available subliminal audiotapes for memory improvement found (using subjects who were told to expect memory improvement) A. actual memory improvement, even when the listeners thought the tapes were for self-esteem. B. memory improvement in some subjects regardless of the content of the tapes. C. memory improvement, but only because the messages were not really subliminal (i.e., they were above threshold). D. no memory improvement in any of the subjects who listened to the tapes. Answer Key: B Question 11 of 20 1.0 Points As you watch a car drive toward you, you do not perceive it as growing larger, even though its image on your retina grows larger. The name for this phenomenon is A. size constancy. B. proximity. C. convergence. D. shape constancy. Answer Key: A Question 12 of 20 1.0 Points If you stood on a set of railroad tracks and looked down the tracks into the distance, the parallel tracks would appear to come together in the distance. This is an example of the depth perception cue of A. binocular disparity. B. retinal disparity. C. linear perspective. D. interposition. Answer Key: C Question 13 of 20 1.0 Points Sometimes you can tell that an object is close to you because you have to pull your eyes toward the center to focus on the object. This cue to distance is known as A. the phi effect. B. retinal disparity. C. motion parallax. D. convergence. Answer Key: D Part 4 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 14 of 20 1.0 Points According to the frustration-aggression hypothesis, A. the more you suppress your aggression the more frustrated you will become. B. when someone treats you badly, you will either get frustrated or become aggressive, but not both. C. the more you express your aggression the more frustrated you will become. D. the main cause of anger and aggression is frustration. Answer Key: D Part 5 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 15 of 20 1.0 Points Which of the following is NOT an emotion-based (or blunting) strategy for coping with stress? A. distraction B. exercise C. relaxation D. inoculation Answer Key: D Part 6 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 16 of 20 1.0 Points Which question is a polygraph examiner likely to ask in a guilty-knowledge test? A. How much money was taken from the store? $50? $100? $200? $1,000? B. Did you rob the gas station as well as the grocery store? C. Did you steal the money from the grocery store on March 21? D. Have you ever stolen anything? Answer Key: A Part 7 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 17 of 20 1.0 Points New research on the influence of wealth on happiness has led researchers to conclude that A. money does indeed buy happiness. B. those people who acquire wealth suddenly (such as through a state lottery) remain significantly happier over the next year. C. there is little or no relationship between wealth and subjective well-being. D. increased wealth actually decreases happiness. Answer Key: C Part 8 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 18 of 20 1.0 Points According to Hans Selye, stress is A. a nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it. B. any reaction to the environment that increases activity in the parasympathetic nervous system. C. a cognitive, not physical, response to a threatening situation. D. a specific response to a specific demand on the body. Answer Key: A Part 9 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 19 of 20 1.0 Points The hormone secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress that elevates blood sugar and enhances metabolism is A. oxytocin. B. estradiol. C. cortisol. D. endorphin. Answer Key: C Part 10 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 20 of 20 1.0 Points Researchers consistently flash a light (a "danger" signal) before delivering an electric shock to a rat. Next they follow the flash of light with a loud noise. Which rat will show the least response to the danger signal? A. Albert, a rat with a damaged hypothalamus. B. Betty, a rat with a damaged parietal lobe. C. Charlie, a rat with a damaged primary motor cortex. D. Denise, a rat with a damaged amygdala. Answer Key: D Question 1 of 20 1.0 Points One difference between the occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes that we are sure of is that they are responsible for A. different types of motivation. B. different aspects of personality. C. control of the muscles in different parts of the body. D. different sensory systems. Answer Key: D Question 2 of 20 1.0 Points After damage to the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex, what is impaired? A. fine control of muscles B. vision C. speech comprehension D. emotional expression Answer Key: B Question 3 of 20 1.0 Points Within the primary somatosensory cortex, larger areas are associated with A. areas of the body that are larger in mass. B. areas of the body that are more sensitive to touch (e.g. lips). C. areas of the body that are less sensitive to touch (e.g. back). D. areas of the body that are associated with smell. Answer Key: B Part 2 of 10 - 2.0 Points Question 4 of 20 1.0 Points Nearly all medical and recreational drugs that modify people's experiences exert their effects at A. sensory receptors. B. blood vessels. C. hormonal glands. D. synapses. Answer Key: D Question 5 of 20 1.0 Points Parkinson's disease can be helped by A. taking pills that contain L-DOPA. B. injections of epinephrine. C. taking pills that contain dopamine. D. taking pills that contain MPTP. Answer Key: A Part 3 of 10 - 2.0 Points Question 6 of 20 1.0 Points Which of the following is probably an example of the overjustification effect? A. Professional tennis players do not like to play tennis in their spare time. B. Workers who are promised a bonus for increasing their productivity work harder than do workers who are not offered a bonus. C. Children who are punished for touching the stove are more likely to quit touching it if the parents explain why they punished the children. D. People who are trying to lose weight but who have just violated their diet are likely to overeat during the later meals of the day as well. Answer Key: A Question 7 of 20 1.0 Points Which of the following is a good example of an incentive? A. the tendency to do whatever is necessary to maintain body temperature within narrow limits B. the tendency to do little or nothing immediately after a large meal C. the tendency of a non-hungry person to eat a very attractive and tasty food D. the tendency for a person with unacceptable sexual impulses to engage in some nonsexual behavior instead Answer Key: C Part 4 of 10 - 2.0 Points Question 8 of 20 1.0 Points In a study by Fallon and Rozin, women were asked which female figure men considered most attractive. How accurate were the women's guesses? A. About half of the women guessed too thin a figure and half guessed too heavy a figure. B. Most women correctly guessed which figure men preferred. C. Most women guessed too heavy a figure. D. Most women guessed too thin a figure. Answer Key: D Question 9 of 20 1.0 Points An important source of energy for all parts of the body, and the main source of energy for the brain, is A. sodium. B. insulin. C. phenylalanine. D. glucose. Answer Key: D Part 5 of 10 - 2.0 Points Question 10 of 20 1.0 Points Whether a person develops a male or female sexual anatomy depends mostly on what aspect of hormones in early development? A. the ratio of testosterone to estrogen B. difference between morning and evening hormone levels C. estrogen levels D. testosterone levels Answer Key: D Question 11 of 20 1.0 Points What evidence is there, if any, that homosexuality may be partly the result of genetics? A. If a man is homosexual his twin brother is more likely to also be homosexual if he is a dizygotic twin than if he is a monozygotic twin. B. If a man is homosexual his twin brother is more likely to also be homosexual if he is a monozygotic twin than if he is a dizygotic twin. C. We know that 10% of people are homosexual across cultures. D. Most homosexual men had homosexual fathers or grandfathers. Answer Key: B Part 6 of 10 - 2.0 Points Question 12 of 20 1.0 Points One reason why it is so important to set goals and subgoals far in advance is that A. people consistently underestimate how long a task will take. B. once you have stated the goal, you don't have to think about it any more. C. if you have a clear goal, you won't have to work as hard. D. most people underestimate their skills, so a goal provides encouragement. Answer Key: A Question 13 of 20 1.0 Points In one study, a professor gave firm deadlines to one section of his course and let students in his other section choose their own deadlines. What were the results? A. Students who chose deadlines at the end of the semester did better than those who chose evenly spaced deadlines. B. Students who chose deadlines evenly spaced through the semester did better than those who chose deadlines at the end. C. Students who had the opportunity to choose their own deadlines did better than those in the class with assigned deadlines. D. Students did about equally well with any kind of deadline. Answer Key: B Part 7 of 10 - 4.0 Points Question 14 of 20 1.0 Points Brain-damaged people who show only weak emotions tend to make what kind of decisions? A. careful decisions that are generally more logical and more helpful than those of other people B. impulsive and often self-harmful decisions C. the same decisions over and over, regardless of changes in the situation D. slow, carefully thought-out decisions which, however, turn out to be neither better nor worse than other people's decisions Answer Key: B Question 15 of 20 1.0 Points According to the James-Lange theory of emotions, A. you feel afraid when you stop trembling. B. you tremble because you feel afraid. C. your trembling has nothing to do with your feeling afraid. D. you feel afraid because you notice yourself trembling. Answer Key: D Question 16 of 20 1.0 Points Which of the following is evidence that there may be more than just six basic emotions in people? A. All people in all cultures recognize happiness in the same way. B. People from other cultures, such as India and Japan, recognize basic emotions that Americans do not. C. Emotions can be blended, such as feeling "surprisingly angry". D. Emotional intensity is related to physiological arousal, often in subtle but complex ways. Answer Key: B Question 17 of 20 1.0 Points Brain-damaged patients who show a significant loss of emotional intelligence also show A. poor judgement. B. impairment in their sleep-waking cycles. C. improvement in their analytical, logical reasoning. D. loss of interest in food. Answer Key: A Part 8 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 18 of 20 1.0 Points In a prisoner's dilemma, two prisoners have agreed with each other that they will not confess. Now each of them is offered a deal: "If you confess, we will punish your friend harshly but let you off easy." The probability that they will both cooperate with each other (instead of confessing) is increased if they A. are in constant communication with each other. B. realize that they both go to prison if both confess. C. both have a high self-monitoring personality. D. have promised each other not to confess. Answer Key: A Part 9 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 19 of 20 1.0 Points In one of Kohlberg's moral dilemmas, Heinz steals a drug to save his dying wife. Suppose someone says Heinz was wrong to do so. At which stage of moral reasoning is that person operating? A. punishment and obedience B. not enough information is given to answer the question C. law and order D. instrumental relativist Answer Key: B Part 10 of 10 - 1.0 Points Question 20 of 20 1.0 Points In general, which of the following factors decreases the probability that a given person will come to the aid of a person in distress? A. being certain that the person needs help B. personally knowing the person in distress C. having other people around who might also help D. having plenty of time available Answer Key: C Question 1 of 20 1.0 Points An investigator measures how much various 4-month-old children cry and kick, and later determines how shy or outgoing those children are when they reach age 7 years. The investigator is probably studying A. temperament. B. intimacy versus isolation. C. generativity versus stagnation. D. initiative versus guilt. Answer Key: A Question 2 of 20 1.0 Points In pairs of twins where one baby was born much heavier than the other, which baby is at greater risk for developmental problems, such as mental retardation? A. the lighter baby B. the heavier baby C. Both babies are a great risk, regardless of diet and medical care. D. Neither baby is at unusually great risk, as long as they both receive adequate care. Answer Key: D Part 2 of 15 - 3.0 Points Question 3 of 20 1.0 Points According to Piaget, children in the ____ stage of cognitive development lack the concept of object permanence. A. formal-operations B. concrete-operations C. preoperational D. sensorimotor Answer Key: D Question 4 of 20 1.0 Points A psychologist wishes to investigate whether the children who act most upset after parental divorce remain highly upset later, or whether they in fact become better adjusted in the long run as a result of "letting their feelings out" at first. This question calls for which kind of study? A. a double-blind experiment B. a cross-sectional study C. a single-blind experiment D. a longitudinal study Answer Key: D Question 5 of 20 1.0 Points Suppose you want to study the effect of age on some behavior. Under which conditions would it be most important to use a longitudinal study instead of a cross-sectional study? A. The behavior is likely to be affected by changes in society (such as taste in clothing or music). B. You are concerned about getting comparable groups of people at the various ages. C. The behavior is a simple skill that is about the same in all people of a given age. D. You need to complete the study as quickly as possible. Answer Key: B Part 3 of 15 - 2.0 Points Question 6 of 20 1.0 Points The polygraph test is based on the assumption that when people tell lies, A. their heart rate and breathing rate increase. B. they will decrease their rate of eye movements and hand twitches. C. their heart rate and breathing rate decrease. D. they will increase their rate of eye movements and hand twitches. Answer Key: A Question 7 of 20 1.0 Points Of the following, which correlates most strongly with how happy someone is at a given time? A. the person's wealth B. the climate where the person lives C. how happy the person was 10 years ago D. the person's age Answer Key: C Part 4 of 15 - 2.0 Points Question 8 of 20 1.0 Points Hans Selye's concept of stress includes A. only a person's reactions to unpleasant events. B. only those events that elevate epinephrine levels for at least a month. C. only those events that cause lack of sleep. D. all events that make any demands on the body. Answer Key: D Question 9 of 20 1.0 Points What effect, if any, does exercise have on stress? A. Exercise has not been shown to have any effect on stress. B. Exercise makes stress worse because people who exercise regularly respond more strongly to stressful events, even when not exercising. C. Exercise reduces stress by working off excess energy and promoting relaxation. D. Exercise makes stress worse by increasing activity in the sympathetic nervous system while exercising. Answer Key: C Part 5 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 10 of 20 1.0 Points A basketball game ends with a score of 155-13. The fans who paid to see the game say it was exciting, but those who got in free say it was boring. What psychological principle is probably responsible for the difference in reactions? A. group polarization effect B. attributional bias C. cognitive dissonance D. the collective unconscious Answer Key: C Part 6 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 11 of 20 1.0 Points The actor-observer effect is the tendency to attribute your own behavior mostly to ____ causes and the behavior of other people mostly to ____ causes. A. imaginary...real B. internal...external C. external...internal D. real...imaginary Answer Key: C Part 7 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 12 of 20 1.0 Points When we observe the behavior of other people, we are most likely to notice and remember when an ____ individual does something ____. A. unusual...unusual B. ordinary...unusual C. ordinary...ordinary D. unusual...ordinary Answer Key: A Part 8 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 13 of 20 1.0 Points Participants in a study are asked to press the left button if they see an unpleasant word or a photo of a White person, and to press the right button if they see a pleasant word or a photo of a Black person. The probable purpose of this procedure is to measure A. how rapidly the average person learns a stereotype. B. the duration of the attentional blink. C. shifts between internal and external attributions. D. subtle prejudices that people do not admit to themselves. Answer Key: D Part 9 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 14 of 20 1.0 Points At first, group A listens to a weak attack on a common belief, while group B listens to a speech supporting that belief and group C listens to music. Then all three groups listen to a strong attack on that belief. Which group (if any) will be influenced least by the strong attack? A. All three groups will be influenced equally. B. Group B will be influenced least. C. Group C will be influenced least. D. Group A will be influenced least. Answer Key: D Question 15 of 20 1.0 Points One effective way to break down the stereotypes that individuals form about one another is to A. arrange tasks that encourage them to cooperate. B. make use of the sleeper effect. C. make use of the forewarning effect. D. arrange tasks that encourage them to compete. Answer Key: A Part 11 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 16 of 20 1.0 Points A psychologist plans to measure your attitudes toward environmental protection laws by means of a Likert scale. This means that you will be asked to A. tell stories about a series of ambiguous pictures. B. describe everything you know about current environmental laws. C. explain the reasons behind your attitudes. D. make checks on a series of lines that have some values like 1 to 7. Answer Key: D Question 17 of 20 1.0 Points "He got into a fight because he is an aggressive person." This is an example of A. a biased attribution. B. an external attribution. C. an internal attribution. D. a reflexive attribution. Answer Key: C Part 13 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 18 of 20 1.0 Points A friend asks you to help carry some supplies to the elementary school. When you get there, the principal talks you into staying to tutor a child that afternoon. At the end of the session the principal talks you into joining a weekly tutoring program. This is an example of the ____ technique. A. foot-in-the-door B. that's-not-all C. self-handicapping D. door-in-the-face Answer Key: A Part 14 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 19 of 20 1.0 Points According to the primacy effect in impression formation, you will be more influenced by A. physical characteristics than by nonverbal behaviors. B. ordinary information than by unusual information. C. information received first, rather than that received later. D. peripheral rather than central traits. Answer Key: C Part 15 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 20 of 20 1.0 Points You listen to a speech on why a trip to the Bahamas is more interesting than a trip to the Fiji islands. You had no intention of going to either place. You will probably follow the ____ route to persuasion. A. peripheral B. central C. self-perceptive D. dissonant Answer Key: A Question 1 of 20 1.0 Points Modern behaviorists generally believe that A. all human and animal behavior can be described as simple responses to current, simple stimuli. B. human thought is the only appropriate subject matter for psychologists to study. C. behavior is a product of an individual's past history of stimuli and responses, as well as responses to current stimuli. D. determinism is an obsolete concept. Answer Key: C Part 2 of 15 - 3.0 Points Question 2 of 20 1.0 Points After classically conditioning some response, how might one produce extinction of the response? A. Repeatedly present the UCS alone, without the CS. B. Repeatedly present the CS alone, without the UCS. C. Allow for the passage of time without any further training. D. Punish any responses. Answer Key: B Question 3 of 20 1.0 Points A bird that learns to avoid attacking a poisonous frog also avoids a similar looking, but harmless frog. This behavior is an example of A. shaping. B. extinction. C. generalization. D. the Premack principle. Answer Key: C Question 4 of 20 1.0 Points In classical conditioning, responding decreases in both ____ and ____. A. forgetting...extinction B. forgetting...acquisition C. spontaneous recovery...extinction D. spontaneous recovery...acquisition Answer Key: A Part 3 of 15 - 3.0 Points Question 5 of 20 1.0 Points Responses that are followed by satisfaction to the animal will be more firmly connected with the situation so that they will be more likely to recur in the future. This is a brief statement of the A. law of effect. B. Premack principle. C. principle of temporal contiguity. D. vicarious reinforcement principle. Answer Key: A Question 6 of 20 1.0 Points In operant conditioning, UNLIKE classical conditioning, A. the individual's response controls the outcome (reinforcement or punishment). B. every response leads to a combination of both reinforcement and punishment. C. the stimuli will be presented at certain times regardless of the individual's actions. D. individuals learn without actually doing anything. Answer Key: A Question 7 of 20 1.0 Points Negative reinforcement is a procedure in which a response A. is weakened because it leads to the omission of a favorable stimulus. B. is weakened because it is followed by nothing. C. is strengthened because it removes an unfavorable stimulus. D. is weakened because it leads to an unfavorable stimulus. Answer Key: C Part 4 of 15 - 2.0 Points Question 8 of 20 1.0 Points One way in which conditioned taste aversions DIFFER from other learning is that A. animals associate illness with familiar food more easily than with unfamiliar food. B. animals learn to avoid food during infancy, but not in adulthood. C. animals associate food with illness despite long delays between them. D. animals rapidly forget the aversions they learn to foods. Answer Key: C Question 9 of 20 1.0 Points Ranchers in the western United States have deterred coyotes from eating sheep by A. developing taste aversions in the coyotes to the sheep meat. B. shocking the coyotes as they eat the sheep meat. C. classically conditioning the coyotes to fear the sheep. D. disguising the sheep as other coyotes. Answer Key: A Part 5 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 10 of 20 1.0 Points Someone with an unacceptable impulse to shout obscenities becomes a writer of novels. A psychoanalyst might interpret this as an example of which defense mechanism? A. repression B. sublimation C. projection D. rationalization Answer Key: B Part 6 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 11 of 20 1.0 Points Friendships between members of different ethnic groups is usually based on A. similar interests and activities. B. cognitive dissonance. C. the "opposites attract" principle. D. the need for appraisal. Answer Key: A Part 7 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 12 of 20 1.0 Points Humanistic psychology began as a protest movement against A. Jung and Adler. B. psychoanalysis and behaviorism. C. Gestalt psychology and social psychology. D. cognitive psychology and developmental psychology. Answer Key: B Part 8 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 13 of 20 1.0 Points The mere-exposure effect refers to the fact that A. we tend to prefer people we have merely been exposed to over those we know well. B. proximity makes people like each other less. C. we tend to dislike someone we are merely exposed to, if we are unable to interact with them. D. we tend to increase our liking for people who have become familiar. Answer Key: D Part 9 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 14 of 20 1.0 Points According to Freud, what does the superego do? A. urges behavior toward immediate fulfillment of biological drives B. seeks a feeling of superiority over others C. evaluates behavior in comparison to the prohibitions taught by one's parents D. makes rational decisions Answer Key: C Part 10 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 15 of 20 1.0 Points Which theorist was responsible for the idea that mental health is a positive state that may be better than normal or average? A. Sigmund Freud B. Carl Jung C. Alfred Adler D. Hermann Rorschach Answer Key: C Part 11 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 16 of 20 1.0 Points According to Freud, a boy who develops a sexual interest in his mother and competitive aggression toward his father is experiencing A. an Othello complex. B. an Electra complex. C. catharsis. D. an Oedipus complex. Answer Key: D Part 12 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 17 of 20 1.0 Points In a study by Solomon Asch on conformity, subjects heard confederates of the experimenters unanimously give wrong answers 12 times on a visual perception task. The average subject conformed to the group opinion on ____ of those 12 trials. A. 1 B. 4 C. 8 D. 2 Answer Key: B Part 13 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 18 of 20 1.0 Points A group begins to discuss a difficult or controversial issue. Group polarization is most likely to occur if the group members A. are about equally divided between two positions at the start of the discussion. B. are nearly in agreement at the start of the discussion. C. vote entirely by secret ballot. D. like to argue with each other. Answer Key: B Part 14 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 19 of 20 1.0 Points According to Sigmund Freud, which stage of sexual development is characteristic of a normal adult? A. oral stage B. genital stage C. phallic stage D. latent period Answer Key: B Part 15 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 20 of 20 1.0 Points In one variation of the Milgram experiment, Milgram had the participant work with a confederate. What were the effects of the confederate on levels of obedience by the participant? A. Having a confederate present reduced obedience. B. Obedience increased if the confederate obeyed and decreased if the confederate stopped obeying. C. Obedience was not affected by the presence of a confederate. D. Having a confederate present increased obedience. Answer Key: B Question 1 of 20 1.0 Points People experiencing the phi effect would likely report A. seeing a light moving even though there is no moving light. B. increased neural activity suggesting a conscious experience. C. an inability to have a conscious experience. D. having a conscious experience of two different patterns. Answer Key: A Part 2 of 15 - 5.0 Points Question 2 of 20 1.0 Points Adults who are awakened during NREM sleep report having A. dreams about 50-60% of the time. B. dreams about 85-90% of the time. C. no dreams at all. D. dreams that are more complex than those that occur during REM sleep. Answer Key: A Question 3 of 20 1.0 Points Research has shown that people who sleep 9 or more hours per night spend a lot of that time in REM sleep, while those who sleep less than 6 hours get less REM sleep. This implies that A. the body needs a certain minimum amount of REM sleep. B. the body needs a certain minimum amount of non-REM sleep. C. elderly adults get more REM sleep than adolescents. D. REM sleep does not serve an important function. Answer Key: B Question 4 of 20 1.0 Points In an unchanging environment (such as a cave), people become sleepy about once every ____ hours. A. 48-49 B. 28-29 C. 12-13 D. 24-25 Answer Key: D Question 5 of 20 1.0 Points Which of the following best describes the relationship between light-dark cycles (from the rising and setting sun) and circadian rhythms? A. Circadian rhythms are generated within the body, but fine-tuned or reset by light-dark cycles. B. Circadian rhythms are completely determined by light-dark cycles. C. Circadian rhythms are those that only function during the day (light cycle). D. Circadian rhythms are completely independent of light-dark cycles. Answer Key: A Question 6 of 20 1.0 Points Biological rhythms of wakefulness and sleepiness are controlled by A. the amount of light currently striking the receptors. B. a small area in the brain. C. the adrenal gland. D. receptors attached to the muscles. Answer Key: B Part 3 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 7 of 20 1.0 Points Experiments have been done in which students took tests and were given personality feedback. Generally, what was their opinion of the feedback? A. They believed it only if it had direct relevance to their answers on the test. B. They rarely believed the feedback from so-called experts C. Less than 20% rated a vague and general description as "good to excellent." D. About 90% rated a vague and general description as "good to excellent." Answer Key: D Part 4 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 8 of 20 1.0 Points One of the main ways psychologists have studied the causes of differences in personality among people is to A. perform factor analysis on answers given to written questionnaires about various traits. B. examine the stability of questionnaire answers between ages 20 and 50. C. compare the personalities of parents, their biological children, and their adopted children. D. study characters in literature who display high levels of a personality characteristic. Answer Key: C Part 5 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 9 of 20 1.0 Points MMPI stands for A. Marky Mark's personal income. B. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. C. Multiple Manic-Psychosis Inventory. D. Michigan Mental Patient's Institute. Answer Key: B Part 6 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 10 of 20 1.0 Points When psychologists identified the "big five" personality traits, a major criterion for identifying any of these traits was that the traits A. should reflect points accepted by Freud, Jung, Adler, and other theorists. B. should depend on different neurotransmitters. C. should not correlate with one another. D. should develop at different ages. Answer Key: C Part 7 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 11 of 20 1.0 Points Someone who is likely to experience anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, and impulsiveness would be high in the trait A. neuroticism. B. extraversion. C. introversion. D. conscientiousness. Answer Key: A Part 8 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 12 of 20 1.0 Points A psychologist wants to determine a parsimonious way to describe personality. She starts with a large number of questions and tries to find the smallest number of traits that will account for the variation in people's answers. Which technique will she use? A. factor analysis B. reaction formation C. free association D. autokinetic effect Answer Key: A Part 9 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 13 of 20 1.0 Points Carl has recently worked with a group to increase his low self-esteem. Which of the following is likely to happen? A. He will do better in school. B. He will experience a decrease in his normally aggressive behaviors. C. He will be less able to cope with stress. D. He will likely experience less depression. Answer Key: D Part 10 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 14 of 20 1.0 Points How can you determine whether a test is standardized? A. Calculate the correlation between scores on the test and some other measure of behavior. B. Determine whether the test has a known distribution of scores. C. Determine whether all of its questions are equally difficult. D. Find out whether all the questions deal with important concepts. Answer Key: B Part 11 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 15 of 20 1.0 Points You have just taken a psychological test that yields scores on 10 clinical scales, including depression, anxiety, fear, anger, cynicism, and social introversion. Which test did you probably take? A. MMPI-2 B. Rorschach Inkblot Test C. Big Five Test D. Thematic Apperception Test Answer Key: A Part 12 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 16 of 20 1.0 Points According to personality tests that have been given to different cohorts of children since the 1950's, which aspect of personality has shown a large, steady increase over the last few decades? A. conscientiousness B. Machiavellianism C. authoritarianism D. anxiety Answer Key: D Part 13 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 17 of 20 1.0 Points Some critics of the big five approach argue that its description of personality is incomplete because A. other important psychological traits correlate closely with the big five. B. it does not take into account unconscious motivation. C. it focuses on temporary states instead of long-lasting traits. D. at least nine other personality dimensions have been identified that do not correlate strongly with any of the big five. Answer Key: D Part 14 of 15 - 2.0 Points Question 18 of 20 1.0 Points When giving a Rorschach test, a psychologist is least likely to A. give 10 cards for you to respond to. B. record your responses to each card. C. suggest that you should try to see the inkblot as one object. D. notice whether you say anything about the whole card or just part of it. Answer Key: C Question 19 of 20 1.0 Points A projective test of personality is based on Freud's idea that people sometimes A. intentionally pretend to be something entirely the opposite of their real personality. B. attribute their own characteristics or problems to other people. C. alternate between one personality and another. D. return to the behaviors that were habitual at an earlier age. Answer Key: B Part 15 of 15 - 1.0 Points Question 20 of 20 1.0 Points The tendency to be compassionate toward others is called A. neuroticism. B. extraversion. C. agreeableness. D. conscientiousness. Answer Key: C Question 1 of 20 1.0 Points Robert Sternberg's theory regarding how a person processes information is called a ____ theory. A. monolithic B. triarchic C. homeopathic D. monarchic Answer Key: B Question 2 of 20 1.0 Points Binet and Simon developed the first intelligence tests in order to measure A. the skills that children need for success in school. B. cognitive impairment in victims of head injury. C. creativity. D. job skills in adult factory workers. Answer Key: A Part 2 of 17 - 3.0 Points Question 3 of 20 1.0 Points What percentage of people would we expect to score more than two standard deviations below the mean on an IQ test? A. 65% B. 50% C. 2% D. 20-25% Answer Key: C Question 4 of 20 1.0 Points If genetics play no role in a trait, then A. identical twins reared apart should be less similar than fraternal twins reared together. B. identical twins reared in very different environments should be more similar than unrelated people. C. fraternal twins reared together should be much more similar than identical twins reared together. D. adopted children should look more like their biological parents than their adoptive parents. Answer Key: A Question 5 of 20 1.0 Points Flynn argues that we have seen an increase in IQ scores A. but not in intelligence. B. because test administrators are scoring the tests more easily now than in the past. C. because humans continue to become a more intelligent species. D. only in regions with access to the internet. Answer Key: A Part 3 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 6 of 20 1.0 Points What do humanistic psychotherapists (including person-centered therapists) try to eliminate? A. chemical imbalances among neurotransmitters in the brain B. resistance to the therapist's interpretations C. incongruence between self-concept and ideal self D. bad habits and other self-defeating behaviors Answer Key: C Part 4 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 7 of 20 1.0 Points Which type of psychotherapy focuses more on changing what people do than on exploring what they think? A. psychoanalysis B. humanistic therapy C. cognitive therapy D. behavior therapy Answer Key: D Part 5 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 8 of 20 1.0 Points What is DSM-IV? A. an abbreviation for "fourth dissociated state of mind" B. an organization dedicated to better treatment of the mentally ill C. a book about psychological disorders D. one of the scales of the MMPI Answer Key: C Part 6 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 9 of 20 1.0 Points One result of economic trends in psychiatry and clinical psychology has been A. more prolonged treatment. B. a shift toward treatment only by experienced therapists with a PhD or MD. C. an increase in the number of psychiatric diagnoses. D. an increase in the use of untested, unresearched therapies. Answer Key: C Part 7 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 10 of 20 1.0 Points About half the patients who enter therapy show significant improvement A. after one session. B. in about eight sessions. C. after about one year of treatment. D. after about two years of treatment. Answer Key: B Part 8 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 11 of 20 1.0 Points Dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) was extremely rare before the 1950s, but by the 1990s, some therapists were reporting many cases of this disorder. What is the most likely reason for the increase in this disorder? A. The disorder is caused by environmental toxins that were heavily used during the 1970s and 1980s. B. Some therapists began looking for this disorder and unintentionally created additional personalities through suggestive techniques. C. The disorder is caused by the Southeast Asian Flu, and there was a mild epidemic in the U.S. during the 1970s and 1980s. D. A wide-spread genetic mutation seemed to occur in the 1960s, resulting in more people being born with the disorder. Answer Key: B Part 9 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 12 of 20 1.0 Points Students learning about psychological disorders may get "medical students' disease" because A. it is a highly contagious virus. B. it is caused by too much studying, something that is common to both psychology and medical students. C. normal behaviors and psychologically disordered behaviors are similar in many ways. D. it is caused by eye strain. Answer Key: C Part 10 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 13 of 20 1.0 Points Which of these types of therapy might be used to enlist the parent's help in monitoring the eating habits of someone who has anorexia nervosa? A. drug therapy B. family therapy C. eclectic therapy D. Gestalt therapy Answer Key: B Part 11 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 14 of 20 1.0 Points A government-sponsored study in Fort Bragg, NC provided free clinical services to every teenager or child who had a parent in the military. Case managers determined the type of treatment needed and made sure that each client received the treatment. The results showed that A. the integrated therapy was no more effective than cheaper, less organized treatments. B. comprehensive treatment is less expensive in the long run. C. teenagers were significantly happier than those in communities where less well-organized treatment programs were in effect. D. the integrated therapy was more effective than less organized treatments, but at vastly greater expense. Answer Key: A Part 12 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 15 of 20 1.0 Points Cognitive therapists try to get their clients to change their A. body language, such as clenching their fists. B. bad habits, such as smoking, overeating, or undereating. C. automatic thoughts, such as "I'm a loser." D. way of speaking to others, such as a parent to a child. Answer Key: C Part 13 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 16 of 20 1.0 Points Which of these is the predominant view of abnormal behavior in Western cultures today? A. biopsychosocial B. sociological C. spiritual D. medical Answer Key: A Part 14 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 17 of 20 1.0 Points Spontaneous remission means A. the sudden appearance of symptoms of a disorder. B. improvement of psychological problems without therapy. C. a spiritual insight providing one with meaning in life. D. the progressive degeneration of psychological well-being. Answer Key: B Part 15 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 18 of 20 1.0 Points Freud's method of psychotherapy is called A. cognitive therapy. B. eclectic therapy. C. psychoanalysis. D. rational-emotive therapy. Answer Key: C Part 16 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 19 of 20 1.0 Points The psychological disorders that are diagnosed most frequently in the United States are A. anxiety disorders, sexual disorders, and eating disorders. B. substance abuse, mood disorders, impulse control problems and anxiety disorders. C. depression, schizophrenia, and dissociative identity. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance abuse, and schizophrenia. Answer Key: B Part 17 of 17 - 1.0 Points Question 20 of 20 1.0 Points In examining the similarities between psychotherapies, one similarity between most, if not all, psychotherapies is A. the therapist does most of the talking. B. clients must make some commitment to change. C. the more coordinated the treatment, the more improvement. D. the therapist and client concentrate on the reasons behind behaviors. Answer Key: B Question 1 of 20 1.0 Points Susan has seen a shark attack someone; she has also seen a dog attack someone. One reason why she is more likely to develop a phobia of sharks than a phobia of dogs is that A. dogs have been dangerous to humans for a longer time than sharks have been. B. attacks by sharks are predictable while dog attacks are not. C. she has probably had a number of safe experiences with dogs. D. more people are injured by sharks than by dogs. Answer Key: C Question 2 of 20 1.0 Points Sons of alcoholics are more likely than sons of nonalcoholics to A. experience much relief from stress by drinking alcohol. B. taste alcohol in a highly diluted concentration. C. become nauseated after drinking a moderate amount of alcohol. D. display impairments of memory and muscle control after drinking a moderate amount of alcohol. Answer Key: A Question 3 of 20 1.0 Points Someone who has periods of depression that alternate with periods of mania is said to have ____ condition. A. a bipolar B. a reactive C. an endogenous D. a unipolar Answer Key: A Part 4 of 20 - 1.0 Points Question 4 of 20 1.0 Points Compared to women, what tends to be men's experience with schizophrenia? A. Men develop schizophrenia at a younger age and have more severe symptoms. B. Men develop schizophrenia at a younger age and have milder symptoms. C. Men develop schizophrenia at an older age and have milder symptoms. D. Men develop schizophrenia at an older age and have more severe symptoms. Answer Key: A Part 5 of 20 - 1.0 Points Question 5 of 20 1.0 Points In the case of both alcoholism and depression, genetic factors have a stronger or more apparent influence on A. late-onset cases than early-onset cases. B. early-onset cases than late-onset cases. C. women than men. D. men than women. Answer Key: B Part 6 of 20 - 1.0 Points Question 6 of 20 1.0 Points People experiencing panic disorder generally A. do not show a physiological response to stressful situations. B. do not breathe deeply enough. C. have anxiety related to a specific object. D. have frequent periods of anxiety. Answer Key: D Question 7 of 20 1.0 Points When people fail at a task, some become depressed and others do not. Research suggests that it is not the failure itself that makes people depressed. Of the alternative explanations below, the most important factor (based on research) seems to be A. how many times the failure has occurred. B. whether you are alone or with others when you failed. C. whether other people failed also. D. why you think you failed. Answer Key: D Question 8 of 20 1.0 Points What do superstitions, phobias, and shock-avoidance learning have in common? A. Psychologists interpret each of these behaviors in terms of sexual symbolism. B. Individuals who engage in each behavior do not learn it is unnecessary. C. The behaviors develop mostly during a period early in life. D. All three occur only in humans, never in other animals. Answer Key: B Question 9 of 20 1.0 Points One problem with St. John's wort is that A. after people have used it for 3 weeks, the effectiveness of the drugs begins to decline. B. many people who take it are stricken with phobic reactions. C. the drug is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration, so the purity varies from bottle to bottle. D. it requires a prescription, and the medical establishment is reluctant to endorse it. Answer Key: C Question 10 of 20 1.0 Points The most common hallucinations experienced by schizophrenics are those in which the person A. sees colors or objects. B. feels things on the skin. C. has an "out-of-body" experience. D. hears sounds or voices. Answer Key: D Question 11 of 20 1.0 Points Which of the following is TRUE about suicide? A. Many people who attempt suicide and survive are likely to attempt suicide again. B. Men are more likely to attempt suicide than women. C. Getting a divorce decreases the risk of suicide. D. Nearly all suicides are planned days or weeks in advance. Answer Key: A Question 12 of 20 1.0 Points A more recent alternative to methadone is ____, which attaches to the same receptors as heroin and morphine but attaches to them for long periods of time and stimulates them less strongly. A. Prozac B. disulfiram C. buprenorphine D. Xanax Answer Key: C Question 13 of 20 1.0 Points An obsession is a A. physical ailment without a medical basis. B. repetitive, unwelcome thought. C. ritual or habit. D. false, unfounded belief. Answer Key: B Question 14 of 20 1.0 Points One major benefit of atypical antipsychotics is that they do not cause tardive dyskinesia. Compared to traditional antipsychotics, another important benefit of atypical antipsychotics is they A. only need to be taken for two weeks to produce lasting symptom relief. B. are able to block almost all dopamine related activity in the brain. C. also work to improve negative symptoms. D. also work to improve positive symptoms. Answer Key: C Question 15 of 20 1.0 Points Someone who interprets common proverbs in strictly literal terms might be suspected of suffering from which psychological disorder? A. phobia B. depression C. obsessive-compulsive disorder D. schizophrenia Answer Key: D Question 16 of 20 1.0 Points Someone has a phobia of snakes. A therapist using systematic desensitization to reduce that phobia would probably begin by asking the person to relax and then A. analyze what a snake means symbolically and unconsciously. B. look at or imagine a picture of a snake. C. try to stop thinking about snakes. D. recall any childhood experiences with a snake. Answer Key: B Question 17 of 20 1.0 Points According to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis, schizophrenia results mainly from abnormalities of brain development at what age? A. early childhood B. around the time of birth C. young adulthood D. adolescence Answer Key: B Question 18 of 20 1.0 Points A phobia is best defined as a fear that A. interferes with normal living. B. occurs at random times and is not associated with any object. C. is associated with a totally harmless object. D. people do not realize they have. Answer Key: A Question 19 of 20 1.0 Points Many habitual cigarette smokers become satisfied with low nicotine cigarettes, because A. smoking depends more on finger habits than it does on nicotine addiction. B. while they decrease their nicotine consumption, they increase their use of alcohol or other drugs. C. they find ways of getting high nicotine from those cigarettes. D. cells in certain brain areas decrease their activity, thereby diminishing the nicotine craving. Answer Key: C Question 20 of 20 1.0 Points On average, people with depression have ____ than people who are not depressed. A. more happy experiences B. fewer happy experiences C. more sad experiences D. fewer sad experiences Answer Key: B
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