PAGE PAGE 1 Systems Physiology 1st Hour Exam February 19, 2004 Name________________________ Student ID #_____________________ Form B Section _____ (01 not Pharmacy or 02 Pharmacy) PRINT CLEARLY on your Scantron Answer sheet: Your Name, Student ID #, Form (A or B), and Section (01 or 02) Multiple Choice Questions: Choose only the one best answer for each question (50 pts total) 1. During the _______ (phase) of the nerve action potential, the membrane is in a state of ________. A. rising; high K+ permeability B. falling; high Na+ permeability C. after hyperpolarization; high K+ permeability D. recovery; high Na+ permeability 2. In a _______ feedback control system, a change in a physiological variable (such as temperature, oxygen level, etc.) produces a response that restores the variable to its original condition. A. equilibrium B. negative C. positive D. saturated 3. Stimulation of pain receptors in the right foot leads to ________ of ________ motor neurons that innervate the right foot and _______ of ________ motor neurons that innervate the left foot. A. inhibition; flexor; inhibition; extensor B. excitation; flexor; excitation; extensor C. inhibition; flexor; excitation; extensor D. excitation; flexor; inhibition; extensor E. excitation; extensor; excitation; flexor 4. ______________ form(s) the principal barrier that prevents charged molecules from entering a cell. A. The lipid bilayer B. Hydrophobic proteins C. Membrane pores D. Hydrophilic proteins 5. At a ?metabotropic? synapse, the receptor site for the neurotransmitter is part of a (an) _________. A. G protein B. membrane channel forming protein C. independent membrane receptor protein D. 2nd messenger producing enzyme E. phosphatase 6. _______ summation requires the _______ activity of the presynaptic neuron(s) terminating on the postsynaptic neuron. A. Spatial; simultaneous B. Temporal; repetitive C. Both of the above are correct D. Neither of the above is correct 7. The binding of Ca++ to _______ initiates muscle contraction by removing _______ blockage of _______ formation. A. tropomyosin; troponin; cross-bridge B. tropomyosin; actomyosin; cross-bridge C. troponin actomyosin; cross-bridge D. troponin; tropomyosin; actomyosin 8. Most parasympathetic neurons release __________________ as their neurotransmitter. A. norepinephrine B. epinephrine C. acetylcholine D. both A and B E. all of the above 9. The rising phase of an action potential is primarily the result of _______ voltage activated _______ channels. A. opening; Na+ B. closing; K+ C. closing; Na+ D. opening; K+ 10. Arrange the following processes in the order in which they occur during synaptic transmission at the motor endplate synapse between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber: (1) acetylcholine binding to ionotropic receptor; (2) acetylcholine binding to metabotropic receptor; (3) Ca++ influx; (4) action potential depolarizes presynaptic terminal; (5) exocytotic release of acetylcholine; (6) channels for Na+ and K+ open; (7) excitatory postsynaptic potential; (8) diffusion across synaptic cleft; (9) initiation of muscle action potential A. 3; 4; 5; 8; 2; 7; 6; 9 B. 3; 4; 5; 8; 2; 6; 7; 9 C. 3; 4; 5; 8; 1; 6; 7; 9 D. 4; 3; 5; 8; 2; 6; 7; 9 E. 4; 3; 5; 8; 1; 6; 7; 9 11. Muscle contraction results in a (an) _______ in the size of its _______. A. decrease; A band B. increase; I band C. increase; A band D. decrease; I band 12. To _______ is to shift the membrane potential to a more _______ value. A. depolarize; negative B. hyperpolarize; negative C. hyperpolarize; neutral D. depolarize; depressed 13. If in an experiment one injects an enzyme into a cell that hydrolyzes IP3, you would expect to observe __________ (in the cytoplasm). A. low intracellular Ca++ levels B. high cAMP levels C. opening of Ca++ channels in the cell membrane D. both B and C 14. The muscle spindle is formed from specialized _______ which contain a sensory zone at (in) their _______ that is innervated by a _______ neuron. A. sensory neurons; middle; motor B. muscle fibers; middle; sensory C. muscle fibers; ends; sensory D. sensory neurons; ends; motor 15. Successful uptake of a solute such as glucose into a cell by the process of secondary active transport requires the existence of an _______ electrochemical diffusion gradient for ______. A. inward; Na+ B. inward; the solute C. outward; the solute D. outward; Na+ E. both A and B are correct 16. As a result of their small size and _______ location (from/to) the _______, activation of a single excitatory synapse is almost always insufficient for initiating an action potential in a neuron. A. distant; dendrites B. close; dendrites C. close; axon terminals D. distant; axon hillock E. distant; axon terminals 17. Typically an EPSP is produced by opening ion channels for ________; while an IPSP results from the opening of _______ ion channels. A. K+ or Cl-; Na+ and K+ B. Na+ and K+; K+ or Cl- C. Ca++; Na+ and K+ D. Na+ and K+; Ca++ 18. Applying a drug that increases activity of phospholipase C will result in increased ______ in the cell. A. IP3 B. DAG C. Ca++ D. PIP2 E. A, B and C are correct 19. An experimenter studying a synapse in the reticular formation finds that release of the neurotransmitter results in an EPSP being generated despite the fact that there is no indication of any accompanying increase in postsynaptic membrane permeability (membrane conductance). How would you interpret this? The EPSP is generated as a result of ______ channels for ______. A. closing; Na+ B. opening; Na+ C. opening; K+ D. closing; K+ 20. An increase in the intensity of a stimulus is encoded as an ________________ by sensory receptors such as Meissner?s corpuscles. A. increase in receptor potential amplitude B. increase in frequency of action potential discharge C. increase in action potential amplitude D. both A and B are correct E. both A and C are correct 21. In the resting muscle, Ca++ is stored primarily in the __________. A. Z line B. transverse tubules C. sarcoplasmic reticulum D. All of the above are correct E. None of the above is correct 22. In a typical resting cell, diffusion of K+ across the cell membrane is controlled by an _______ chemical concentration diffusion gradient and an _______ electrical charge diffusion gradient. A. inward; outward B. inward; inward C. outward; inward D. outward; outward 23. If a tumor develops in the dorsal column tract of the spinal cord, what sensory modality will be most affected? A. touch B. temperature C. pain D. physical contact 24. The size of the receptive fields of the ___________ receptors is correlated with the location of their sensory terminals in the skin. Those whose terminals are located in the superficial dermis (just beneath the epidermis) have _______ fields than those located in the deep dermis. A. pain sensitive free nerve ending; smaller B. pain sensitive free nerve ending; larger C. morphologically specialized; smaller D. morphologically specialized; larger 25 When one shifts one?s gaze from a distant object to a near object _______ of the ciliary muscle _______ lens convexity thereby shifting the point of sharp focus _______ the lens. A. contraction; decreases; away from B. relaxation; decreases; away from C. contraction; increases; closer to D. relaxation; decreases; closer to E. contraction; increases; away from 26. In the normal functioning eye, the visual image that is formed on the retina is _______. A. out of focus B. inverted C. distorted D. all of the above are correct E. none of the above is correct 27. Junctional complexes interconnecting cells forming ________ tissue layers are composed of ______________. A. epithelial; desmosomes and tight junctions B. connective; desmosomes and tight junctions C. epithelial; gap junctions and desmosomes D. connective; gap junctions and desmosomes 28. Match the following pairs and arrange them in the proper sequence for production of a nerve action potential: 1. rising phase; 2. falling phase; 3. after hyperpolarization; 4. recovery; 5. depolarize to + 50 mV; 6. repolarize to -70mV; 7. hyperpolarize to -80; 8. repolarize to -70mV A. 1-7; 2-6; 3-5; 4-8 B. 1-6; 2-7; 3-8; 4-5 C. 1-6; 2-7; 4-5; 3-8 D. 1-5; 2-6; 3-7; 4-8 29. The net rate of diffusion increases with a (an) ________ in _____________. A. increase; diffusion distance B. increase; molecular weight C. decrease; chemical concentration gradient D. increase; temperature E. decrease; negative charge 30. In the spinal cord ____________________ are located in the __________ located spinal ______ matter, while ____________________ form the more __________ located spinal ______ matter. A. synapses/neuron cell bodies; superficially; gray; spinal tracts; centrally; white B. spinal tracts; superficially; gray; synapses/neuron cell bodies; centrally; white C. spinal tracts; centrally; gray; synapses/neuron cell bodies; superficially; white D. synapses/neuron cell bodies; centrally; gray; spinal tracts; superficially; white 31. Arrange the correct sequence of events: 1. sound waves vibrate the tympanic membrane; 2. stirrups vibrate the round window of the cochlea; 3. stirrups vibrate the oval window of the cochlea; 4. middle ear bones vibrate; 5. vibrations are transmitted into the cochlear duct; 6. stereocilia of hair cells are deflected; 7. mechanically activated K+ channels open depolarizing hair cells; 8. mechanically activated K+ channels open hyperpolarizing hair cells; 9. hair cells release glutamate onto auditory nerve fibers A. 1; 3; 5; 6; 7; 9 B. 1; 2; 5; 6; 7; 9 C. 1; 3; 5; 6; 8; 9 D. 1; 2; 5; 6; 8; 9 E. 1; 4; 8; 6; 9 32. The modality of the stimulus sensation produced by stimulating a sensory receptor is determined by _____________. A. the connections that its synaptic terminals make in the spinal cord or brain stem. B. the sensitivity of the ion channels in its sensory terminals C. the rate of action potential discharge produced by the sensory nerve in the spinal cord or brain stem D. the specific neurotransmitter released from its synaptic terminals in the spinal cord or brain stem E. the nature of the stimulus (visual, mechanical, chemical, etc) that excites the sensory receptor 33. Which of the following regions of the cerebral cortex has (have) a somatotopic organization? A. primary motor cortex B. primary somatosensory cortex C. both A and B are correct D. none of the above is correct 34. If in an experiment, one increases the concentration of K+ in the extracellular fluid bathing a cell, one would expect the membrane potential to (become) ____________. A. more negative B. less negative C. remain the same 35. Muscle contraction depends upon the formation of bonds between ____________. A. actin and myosin B. tropomyosin and myosin C. tropomyosin and actin D. tropomyosin and calcium 36. The resting membrane potential is approximately equal to the Nernst potential for _______. A. Ca++ B. K+ C. Na+ D. H+ 37. If you inject a local anesthetic into the middle of the ________ spinal cord you would expect to block neural activity of preganglionic __________neurons. A. thoracic; parasympathetic B. sacral; sympathetic C. lumbar; sympathetic D. cervical; parasympathetic 38. The low concentration of Na+ in the resting cell is due to ___________________. A. high membrane permeability for Na+ B. high concentration of organic anions in cell C. activity of the Na+/K+ primary active transporter D. high concentration of Na+ in the extracellular fluid 39. The longest axons of sensory neurons in the nervous system run in the _________ (tracts) to terminate in the _______. A. spinothalamic; medulla B. dorsal columns; medulla C. spinothalamic; thalamus D. dorsal columns; thalamus E. dorsal columns; cerebral cortex 40. ?Coactivation? refers to: A. the simultaneous activation of the muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs B. a mechanism for maintaining muscle spindle sensitivity during muscle contraction C. a mechanism for maintaining Golgi tendon organ sensitivity during muscle contraction D. a mechanism for initiating muscle contraction by exciting the gamma motor neurons only E. a mechanism for initiating muscle contraction by exciting the alpha motor neurons only 41. When a cell is placed in a (an) _______ solution it will _______ its volume. A. isotonic; increase B. hypertonic; increase C. isotonic; decrease D. hypotonic; increase 42. Typically an increase in cellular levels of cAMP activates a ______. A. protein phosphatase A B. protein kinase A C. protein phosphorylase A D. Ca++ activated protein phosphorylase E. both C and D are correct 43. Referred pain is the result of visceral _______ fibers running _______ in the chain of sympathetic ganglia before they terminate in the spinal cord. A. sensory; anterior B. motor; anterior C. sensory; posterior D. motor; posterior 44. In a typical nerve cell the sodium equilibrium potential (Nernst potential) ENa+ is approximately ____. A. -90 mV B. 0 mV C. +60 mV D. -60 mV 45. Sympathetic control of the diameter of coronary blood vessels depends upon the relative effects of norepinephrine vs. epinephrine on contraction of the vascular muscle in the walls of the coronary vessels. ______________ which primarily binds to ______ receptors excites the vascular muscle, constricting the vessels, while ______________ which primarily binds to ______ receptors relaxes the vascular muscle dilating the coronary vessels. A. Epinephrine; alpha 1; norepinephrine; beta 2 B. Norepinephrine; alpha 1; epinephrine; beta 2 C. Epinephrine; beta 2; norepinephrine; alpha 1 D. Norepinephrine; beta 2; epinephrine; alpha 1 46. A near sighted (myopic) eye the visual image comes into focus _______ the retina as a result of the eye ball being too ____. A. behind; short B. behind; long C. in front of; short D. in front of; long 47. Which of the following contractile/regulatory proteins form the backbone of the thin filament? A. actin B. myosin C. troponin D. tropomyosin 48. Choose the correct pairings from the following: 1. desmosomes; 2. gap junctions; 3. tight junctions; 4. cytoplasmic interconnections between cells; 5. membrane adhesion proteins interconnect cells; 6. membrane fusion of adjacent cells A. 1-4; 2-6; 3-5 B. 1-6; 2-5; 3-4 C. 1-4; 2-5; 3-6 D. 1-5; 2-4; 3-6 E. 1-6; 2-4; 3-5 49. __________is the commonest excitatory synaptic transmitter in the brain, while ________ is one of the commonest inhibitory synaptic transmitters. A. Glutamate; GABA B. Glutamine; acetylcholine C. GABA; norepinephrine D. Glycine; glutamine E. Glutamate; glutamine 50. Choose the correct sequence of events: 1. light strikes rhodopsin; 2. rod hyperpolarizes; 3. Na+ channels open; 4. Na+ channels close; 5. G protein (transducin) activated; 6. cGMP hydrolyzed to GMP; 7. cGMP synthesized from GTP A. 1; 5; 7; 3; 2 B. 1; 5; 7; 4; 2 C. 1; 5; 6; 3; 2 D. 1; 5; 6; 4; 2
Want to see the other 8 page(s) in Practice Exam Systems Physiology?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!