Practice Test for Exam 1 1. Attachment problems in childhood have been suggested as a cause of personality disorder. a. avoidant b. dependent c. obsessivecompulsive d. paranoid 2. Robert complained of complete lack of sensation in both knees, but a physical exam revealed no physiological damage. Which of the following would be the most likely diagnosis for Robert? a. body dysmorphic disorder b. somatization disorder c. conversion disorder d. hypochondriasis 3. Which of the following suggests that many "witches" condemned during the inquisition were, in fact, mentally disordered individuals? a. The inquisitors themselves read letters from witches. b. The witches were typically from lower social classes. c. The witches "confessed" to delusions and hallucinations. d. The witches were labeled insane by the courts of the times. 4. In one research study, psychopaths' impulsivity was examined using a card guessing task. Impulsivity was shown by participants? responses to having to wait before a. the experiment began. b. the next trial. c. receiving feedback. d. making a guess. 5. Narcissistic personality is primarily characterized by a. avoidance of others. b. a lack of selfconfidence. c. multiple, vague physical complaints. d. selfcenteredness with fantasies of success. 6. Schizotypal, but not schizoid, personality disorder involves a. odd, eccentric beliefs and behaviors. b. interpersonal problems, few friends. c. flat affect, emotional indifference d. social anxiety, fear of others. 7. Which of the following is an obsession? a. Repeatedly checking that the water is turned off. b. Humming a tune over and over. c. Having a recurring fear that one is giving others illnesses when they actually are not. d. Having excessive worry over finances. 8. Compared to a person with paranoid schizophrenia, a person diagnosed as having paranoid personality disorder is a. less likely to experience social and occupational dysfunction. b. more disturbed. c. suffering from a more chronic and severe mental illness. d. more likely to respond to medication. 9. Most approaches to treating dissociative disorders include elements of a. psychoanalytic techniques. b. behavioral techniques. c. cognitive approaches. d. All of the above are correct. 10. Mildred has been struggling with feelings of chronic depersonalization for several years. If she has depersonalization disorder, she most likely a. has impaired memory functioning. b. has a welldeveloped sense of self, just feelings of not being present. c. has experienced some abuse at an earlier age. d. is not employed. 11. The treatment of somatoform disorders is relatively primitive because a. sufferers rarely seek mental health treatment. b. they are rare in the population. c. efforts to treat them have been unsuccessful. d. of legal and professional prohibitions. 12. Which of the following best illustrates hypochondriasis? a. An ulcer caused by stress. b. A persistent unsubstantiated fear of having cancer. c. Having obsessions with an imagined physical defect, such as facial wrinkles. d. Experiencing recurring pain with no physical basis. 13. A primary characteristic of histrionic personality disorder is a. avoidance of others. b. multiple, vague physical complaints. c. inability to make realistic life plans. d. overly dramatic and attention seeking behavior. 14. People who cope with a trauma by avoiding it a. are less likely than others to develop PTSD. b. have a less vivid memory of the trauma. c. are more likely to become depressed than develop PTSD. d. are more likely than others to develop PTSD. 15. A study of compulsive checkers (people who continually check to see if they have done something such as turning off the stove) found that these individuals a. have a memory deficit for actions they have performed. b. are likely to confront sources of threat. c. are more likely to live alone. d. have a vulnerability schema. 16. Symptoms of PTSD are grouped into which of the following major categories? a. reexperiencing of traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with event and anxiety b. hypervigilance, avoidance of stimuli associated with event and exaggerated startle response c. avoidance of stimuli associated with event, symptoms of increased arousal and symptoms of suicidality d. reexperiencing of traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with event and symptoms of increased arousal 17. Which of the following is a compulsion? a. A persistent fear of getting dirty. b. Having persistent doubts about whether the stove was turned off that morning. c. Persistent checking for one's keys. d. Persistent thoughts about harming one?s spouse. 18. An individual diagnosed with a social phobia a. exhibits paranoid symptoms, believing others are plotting to hurt him or her. b. is unable to speak in the presence of other people. c. is terrified of being in public places and may become housebound. d. becomes extremely anxious when in certain situations which involve activities done in the presence of other people. 19. Which of the following situations is most similar to the concept of reliability in making psychiatric diagnoses? a. You see identical twins that have identical mannerisms. b. After watching a new T.V. show, you and a friend independently decide that it is lousy. c. You're not sure what time a baseball game is on and guess it is at 1:00. You look in the T.V. guide and it is, in fact, at 1:00. d. You meet someone new at a party and decide she/he is a shy person. Sure enough, she/he hardly speaks to anyone at the party. 20. Which of the following is a dimensional classification system? a. gender b. college major c. telephone number d. grade point average 21. The diathesisstress paradigm emphasizes that abnormality results from a. biology and the unconscious. b. biology and stress. c. physiology and biochemistry. d. attachment and gestalt problems. 22. Dr. Arthur and his colleagues are investigating a new drug that stimulates serotonin?s sensitivity. Dr. Arthur is most likely investigating which kind of drug? a. antagonists b. agonists c. second messengers d. dopamine 23. Edna does not currently have panic disorder. However, she cannot leave her house and required home sessions when she began therapy. It is likely a. Edna has agoraphobia, does not meet criteria for panic disorder. b. Edna does not have agoraphobia. c. Edna is faking her symptoms. d. that Edna has more severe panic but is able to cope with the symptoms. 24. As part of therapy, you are asked to lie on a couch and say anything that comes to mind. This is called a. interpretation. b. transference. c. real analysis. d. free association. 25. Cindy is an accomplished lawyer who sought psychological help in dealing with the stresses of balancing work and family responsibilities. Which definition of abnormality applies to Cindy? a. harmful dysfunction b. violation of social norms c. personal distress d. disability 26. What diagnosis would be most appropriate for Tonya? She says she would like to meet people but is too afraid of saying something foolish to speak to them. She describes herself as the ultimate social klutz because she never knows what to say or do. As a result, she keeps to herself except for interacting with a few friends she has known since childhood. a. schizoid personality disorder b. schizotypal personality disorder c. avoidant personality disorder d. dependent personality disorder 27. Psychiatrists differ from clinical psychologists in that psychiatrists a. receive training in scientific bases of behavior. b. receive training in diagnosis of psychopathology. c. undergo personal analysis as part of their training. d. prescribe medication. 28. When comparing the startle response of psychopaths and nonpsychopaths (both groups were jail inmates), researchers found that psychopaths a. were more easily startled due to hyperarousal. b. were less responsive to the aversive stimuli. c. were more likely to try to frighten their victims. d. did not demonstrate any startle response. 29. Veronica imagines that she will one day have great success in business, although she now is working as a waitress. She has difficulty getting along at work because she envies her boss' position of authority (feeling she is more intelligent than him) and expects special favors such as not having to clean the stove like the other waitresses. Which of the following personality disorders best fits Veronica? a. narcissistic b. borderline c. histrionic d. avoidant 30. The goal of panic control therapy for panic disorder is to help clients a. reexperience the trauma that led to the panic attacks. b. relax when symptoms of a panic attack appear. c. experience attacks fully so the panic extinguishes. d. view their symptoms as harmless and controllable. 31. The dimensional approach to personality disorders a. places people into distinct categories of personality style. b. explains personality disorders as extremes of normal personality traits. c. views personality disorders as learned evolutionary behaviors. d. identifies personality disorders according to four key dimensions. 32. What is the most appropriate label for Lakeisha? Following an auto accident, she reports that, "Everything is strange. It's like I'm not me. I'm just going through the motions. Nothing seems real anymore." a. dissociative amnesia b. dissociative fugue c. depersonalization disorder d. dissociative identity disorder 33. Many men developed conversion symptoms following World War I. This supports the hypothesis that a. men are more susceptible to conversion disorder. b. conversion symptoms often develop to help individuals to avoid some unpleasant activity. c. conversion symptoms often begin after a life stressor. d. All of the above are correct. 34. Lucy complained of paralysis in her leg that made it impossible for her to work or do household chores. When in the emergency room, she appeared unconcerned with her ailment and discussed it at great length. She even invited people to come and poke her leg to show that she experienced no sensations. She would most likely be diagnosed with a. somatization disorder. b. conversion disorder. c. malingering. d. hypochondriasis. 35. Sharon, a fiveyearold girl, developed the following symptoms after being sexually molested: difficulty sleeping, nightmares, a tendency to be easily startled, and bedwetting. Which of the following would be the most likely diagnosis for Sharon? a. generalized anxiety disorder b. adjustment disorder c. depressive disorder d. posttraumatic stress disorder 36. Treatment for the mentally ill became more humane when a. treatment was introduced that focused on the individual. b. asylums were abolished. c. abnormal behavior was seen as based upon medical problems. d. specialty hospital wards were created for the mentally ill within general care facilities. 37. There has recently been a debate regarding whether clinical psychologists should be allowed to a. focus on research rather than clinical practice. b. study social factors influencing psychopathology. c. admit patients to the hospital. d. prescribe medication. 38. Yolanda vacillates between feeling extremely positive feelings for her friend, to having extreme negative feelings for her, often for no apparent reason. When these changes in her disposition occur, she also experiences deep depression and sometimes engages in selfinjurious behavior. On the basis of this information, Yolanda most likely has ______________ personality disorder. a. borderline b. schizoid c. obsessivecompulsive d. paranoid 39. Louise arrived at the emergency room complaining of severe stomach pain. After careful evaluation, it became clear that Louise had purposely given herself food poisoning. She would most likely a. be malingering. b. have somatization disorder. c. have la belle indifference. d. have factitious disorder. 40. Which of the following is characteristic of obsessivecompulsive personality disorder? a. The person is filled with fears that things were not done right. b. The person is bothered by recurring, uncontrollable thoughts. c. The person engages in elaborate, senseless rituals. d. The person is preoccupied with details, rules, and schedules. 41. Psychopathology has been dominated by biological hypotheses because of the a. dominance of nonmedical professionals in the area. b. discovery of the link between general paresis and syphilis. c. general lack of other theories. d. identification of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia. 42. The dimensional approach to personality disorders a. clearly distinguishes normal from disordered personality. b. has been shown to be a comprehensive theory for identifying the personalities of the DSM. c. eliminates the problem of comorbidity among personality disorders. d. None of the above choices are correct. 43. Explicit memory is to conscious recall of experiences as implicit memory is to a. repressed memories. b. behaviors based on experiences that cannot be consciously recalled. c. behaviors based on experiences that occurred before the onset of speech. d. dreams. 44. Cognitivebehavioral treatments for hypochondriasis a. are aimed at focusing the person on their bodily sensations. b. encouraging the person to seek reassurance from a medical doctor. c. are effective only for women. d. have proven effective in reducing health concerns and health care utilization. 45. Theories of the etiology of narcissistic personality disorder suggest such people actually have a. distorted perceptions. b. no conscience. c. weak egos. d. low selfesteem. 46. Nina has hypochondriasis. She notices a red splotch on her face that seems to be getting larger each day. Nina will most likely believe that this symptom a. is due to a psychological problem. b. is due to a serious underlying disease. c. will go away once she visits a doctor. d. is a bug bite. 47. Why are agoraphobia and panic disorder discussed together? a. Panic disorder often leads to agoraphobia. b. Panic disorder is a primary characteristic of agoraphobia. c. The two terms are synonymous. d. Their etiology and treatment is very similar. 48. According to the DSMIV diagnosis, adults with antisocial personality disorder must have shown problems such as running away, truancy, and theft prior to age a. 12. b. 15. c. 18. d. 7. 49. Hippocrates' view of mental illness was superior to demonology in that it a. promoted a scientific study of abnormal behavior. b. made connections between brain and behavior more clearly determined. c. allowed for clearer description of symptoms. d. All of the above are correct. 50. The psychoanalytic theory rests upon the assumption that psychopathology is the result of a. incomplete superego development. b. unconscious conflicts. c. ego defense mechanisms. d. over control of the pleasure principle. 51. Social interactions and roleplay situations are used in the treatment of a. specific phobias. b. social phobia. c. panic disorder. d. obsessivecompulsive disorder. 52. Contemporary views on genetic and environmental factors in behavior emphasize that a. genes are important for only some behaviors. b. a good environment can overcome genetic limitations. c. both factors influence each other. d. the percentage of genetic influence on a behavior can be measured. 53. Studies examining the eyeblink component of the startle response have consistently found psychopaths to be ____reactive as normal controls when presented with negative stimuli. a. as b. more c. less d. None of the above; findings have been inconsistent. 54. Ms. Hall consulted a physician because of the following experience: The week before, she felt that another voice was talking to her, although she tried to ignore it. She then had a period of hours which she was unable to recall, but her boyfriend reported later that during that period she behaved like a completely different person, being loud and boisterous in contrast to her usual shy and sedate personality. She had never had a similar experience and was at a loss to explain it. Ms. Hall's symptoms most likely meet the criteria for a. schizophrenia. b. depersonalization disorder. c. dissociative identity disorder. d. None of the above is correct. 55. If a diagnosis helps clinicians make good predictions and informs them of the likely course of the disorder, psychologists would say that the diagnosis has a. interrater reliability. b. construct validity. c. test validity. d. internal consistency. 56. Mark, Bill and John are survivors of political imprisonment in Bosnia. Mark and Bill both developed PTSD, while John did not. Based on this information, what is one reason why John may not have developed PTSD? a. Mark and Bill worried more while they were imprisoned. b. John dissociated from the experience. c. John had a sense of perceived control over the experience. d. Mark and Bill were younger than John. 57. Following a dissociative fugue episode, the person often a. does not remember the events that occurred during the episode. b. remembers most of the events occurring during the episode, although they may be denied to avoid embarrassment. c. is predisposed to have further episodes at times of stress. d. is likely to develop another type of dissociative disorder. 58. Individuals with borderline personality disorder are especially difficult because they a. require intensive, longterm psychodynamic therapy. b. rarely seek or accept therapy. c. never learn from their experiences. d. act erratically toward the therapist. 59. Nick was born with a predisposition for aggression and impulsivity which has resulted in frequent trouble with the law. As a result of time spent in jail, Nick has developed alcohol dependence. This is an example of a. linkage analysis. b. epigenetics. c. a geneenvironment interaction. d. a reciprocal geneenvironment interaction. 60. Unlike most conversations with a friend, a clinical interviewer would focus on a. structure. b. how the person responds. c. objectivity. d. humor.
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