_____ is the key to social facilitation effects, whereas _____ is the key to social loafing effects.
Both social facilitation and social loafing are manifestations of the influence that the presence of others have on our behaviors. These phenomena differ, however, in that presence of others ______ in social facilitation situations and _______ in social loafing situations.
Assume that you are playing pool at the student union when several of your buddies surround the table to watch you play. If you are _____ player, you would ____ because of the arousing effects of their presence.
an excellent; make even more of your shots
Social loafing is most likely to occur when
a team of volunteers stuffing envelopes for a large mailing.
Under what conditions will groups tend to make better decisions than individuals?
when you rely on the person with the most experience.
_____ refers to the tendency of people to perform better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when others are present.
Recall that in the Stanford Prison Study conducted by Philip Zimbardo and his colleagues (1973), guards became increasingly sadistic and prisoners became increasingly submissive and withdrawn, all in under a week. Results of this (aborted) study suggest that
social roles can take on a power that causes people to be individualized.
Many Asian cultures are collectivistic; they tend to place a greater emphasis on the welfare of the group than on the individual. Conversely, Western cultures tend to stress individual performance more than that of the group. A reasonable hypothesis would be that the social loafing effect is
Stronger in western cultures.
_____ refers to the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their individual members.
According to a social comparison interpretation, group polarization tends to occur because individuals can present themselves in a more _____ light by taking slightly more _____ positions than the norm of the group.
Proponents of the _____ theory of leadership assume that certain key personality traits (e.g., decisiveness, intelligence, compassion) make someone a good leader.
Research on deindividuation suggests that when people are part of a crowd, they become
more likely to act on impulse or in a deviant way.
Social loafing is a(n) _____ reduction in effort due to _____.
unintentional; the belief that one's individual efforts cannot be monitored.
Studies of group decision-making demonstrated that groups made riskier decisions than individuals do. The concept of "risky shift" was born. Later studies, revealed that group decisions are not necessarily more risky than individual decisions; they are more extreme. The concept of _____ was born.
Jan is the leader of a cohesive "knowledge masters" group that is preparing to compete against teams from other colleges. To prevent groupthink and ensure that her group is successful, she should:
Invite experts who are not members of the group to attend practice sessions and give critical feedback.
Whereas _____ specify how all group members should behave, ___________ specify how individuals in particular positions should behave.
norms ; roles
In order to predict whether the presence of others will help or hinder performance, one needs two pieces of information: whether _____ and whether _____
individual performance can be evaluated; the task is simple or complex
According to social psychological reasoning, a large "student body" is not a social group because
each student could not possibly interact with all other students and they don't depend on one another in any way.
Deindividuation is defined as the feeling of anonymity that often results in
impulsive, deviant acts
How do norms differ from roles? Norms _____, whereas roles _____.
apply to all group members; apply to specific group members
Group discussion often pushes people's initial individual decisions to the extreme, yielding group polarization. According to the persuasive arguments interpretation, this is because
others bring up perspectives or issues that the individual hadn't considered.
Recall that one reason that deindividuation often leads to impulsive or destructive behaviors is that the presence of many other people can reduce self-awareness, thus making people
forget their internal values or moral standards.
_____ refers to the loosening of normal behavioral constraints when people are in a crowd, leading to increases in impulsive and deviant acts.
In order to avoid the phenomenon of groupthink, the leader of a group should
form subgroups that discuss the problem seperately
Zajonc employed the lowly cockroach in studies social facilitation. In the presence of others, roaches would run faster down straight to escape a bright light than alone, but took longer in the presence of an audience when the escape route complicated (i.e. maze). This supports that
the presence of other members of a species elicits the most dominant response.
For Halloween, Jeff wears a sheet and goes to a party as a ghost. How is this costume likely to influence his behavior? He will
feel less personally accountable for his behavior.
__________ support the contention that watching media violence is associated with increased aggression in children.
Correlation Studies, Laboratory experiments, field studies, and research on violent video games.
Research suggests that men are more likely than women to interpret __________ situations as provocative and thus to respond aggressively.
_____ theory can be used to explain why participants will derogate victims after they have done those victims physical (Glass, 1964) or psychological harm (Davis & Jones, 1960).
Russell (1983), a sports psychologist, observed the behavior of fans during a violent hockey game. He found that as the game progressed, spectators became more belligerent and hostile. These findings present a direct challenge to the assumption that _____ reduces aggression.
vicariously discharging aggressive impulses
You woke up late and are far behind at work. When you reach the end of your rope, you treat your secretary with hostility and disrespect. This mistreatment causes you to experience dissonance, which you are most likely to reduce by
thinking about all the irresponsible or inept things he's ever done.
______ reflects the idea that if people can "aggress" in harmless ways, built up aggressive energies will diminish, reducing the odds of further aggressive behavior.
Teresa punches a pillow every time she feels aggression building up toward her younger brother, and this makes her feel relieved and more relaxed. Such an outcome supports the notion of _____.
According to the relation between frustration and aggression, who is most likely to get into an argument with someone who cuts in line ahead of him or her?
Barbara, who is the next in line at the grocery store check-out counter
A country called Asukistan has just entered a war with a neighboring nation. Based on cross-cultural research by Dane Archer and Rosemary Gartner (1976, 1984), how will the citizens of Asukistan be affected?
Their own homicide rates will increase.
_____ occurs when a person is thwarted on the way to an expected goal or gratification.
Hostile aggression differs from instrumental aggression in that instrumental aggression
involves inflicting pain as means to an end.
The goal of _____ aggression is to inflict pain; the goal of _____ aggression is to achieve some other outcome.
Hostile ; instrumental
In a "natural experiment," (Ebbesen, Duncan, & Konecni, 1975), technicians who had been laid-off were allowed to verbalize their hostility toward their ex-bosses. Later, when they were provided the opportunity to describe their ex-bosses, those who _____ provided ________.
expressed hostility; more punitive descriptions
Dan Olweus (1991) was able to curtail bullying in a Norwegian school system by training administrators and teachers to be vigilant and to make timely and reasonable interventions. The levels of punishment found to be effective in these studies are fairly mild, consistent with the principles of
A steady diet of violent television fare can encourage aggression in children who are consequently _________ respond aggressively in real life.
John and Sam get into a fistfight in the middle of a gun shop. The presence of the guns would be an example of
One determinant of whether we will respond aggressively when provoked is whether
if we feel it was intentional
Little Neil is frustrated and is threatening to throttle his baby sister. His mother intervenes, and suggests that Neil "get over it" by taking a dozen eggs and smashing them against the tree in the front yard. Neil's mother appears to be a proponent of _____ as a means of reducing aggression.
According to most social psychologists, aggression is defined as
. behavior intended to cause harm to or pain in another.
Research on the effects of aggressive stimuli shows that
the presence of guns increases the probability of aggressive behavior in the presence of a frustration or provocation.
According to comments made by Bandura in a video we viewed in class, the chief factor influencing aggression is
cognitive processes, such as construals, attributions, and outcome expectancies
Bandura's studies with children viewing adult models enacting novel aggressive behaviors toward "Bobo dolls" demonstrated that
new patterns of aggressive behavior can be acquired without the process of shaping, merely by observing others observing the consequences (reinforcement or punishment) of others' aggressive behavior can influence the probability of the observer's engaging in the behavior changing outcome expectancies without directly experiencing reinforcement or punishment can alter the frequency of aggressive behavior
Which of the following provides the best example of a commons dilemma?
conserving water during a drought
Which of the following provides the best example of a public goods dilemma?
donating to a public television station.
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