Practice test #3 1) A person who feels rested after sleeping five hours a night A) probably does not need more sleep. B) is likely to develop a serious form of insomnia. C) is underestimating the amount of sleep time needed. D) is probably sleeping at their desk during the day. E) has insomnia. 2) The transition between wakefulness and sleep is marked by the appearance of ________ waves in the sleep record. A) theta B) alpha C) gamma D) beta E) delta 4) A ________ is a stimulus that resets an internal biological clock. A) chronopulse B) zeitgeber C) synchronizer D) pacemaker E) pacing stimulus 5) Which brain area is most important for male sexual behavior? A) Periaqueductal gray matter. B) Sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. C) Medial preoptic area. D) Ventromedial hypothalamus. E) Central nucleus of the amygdala. 7) A pheromone is a A) chemical located on the tongue that binds with sugar. B) chemical that is released by one animal that affects the behavior of another of its species. C) hormone released from the gut after the ingestion of fat. D) type of enzyme that deactivate cyclic nucleotides. E) substance used to create human perfumes. 8) Beta brain wave activity is not a reliable indicator of being awake because A) this wave form waxes and wanes during the day. B) this brain wave pattern also appears during sleep. C) it can be induced by certain drugs such as alcohol. D) this pattern is seen in children but not adults. E) A and C are correct. 9) The primary function of slow-wave sleep is to A) promote dreaming. B) clear brain waste products produced by REM sleep. C) facilitate learning. D) rest the brain. E) promote brain development. 11) The firing rates of norepinephrine cells within the locus coeruleus A) decrease during sleep and increase at awakening. B) are unrelated to behavioral arousal. C) are highest during REM sleep. D) alter EEG cortical arousal. 14) Which sleep disorder below is the opposite of REM-sleep behavior disorder? A) Sleep attacks. B) Cataplexy. C) Somnambulism. D) Nocturnal enuresis. E) B and C are correct. 15) The "ticking" of a clock cell in the SCN appears to involve A) interlocking feedback loops of protein production/inhibition. B) interactions between two adjacent clock cells. C) the rhythmic opening of sodium channels in the membrane. D) the buildup of adenosine over a 24 hour cycle. E) the rhythmic opening of calcium channels in the membrane. 17) A full day of diligent studying for exams would be expected to A) reduce the amplitude of delta activity in the frontal lobes. B) increase the amount of time spent in slow-wave sleep. C) increase the frequency of theta waves in the brain stem. D) produce insomnia. E) decrease the time spent in REM sleep. 18) Your best guess as to the state of consciousness of a person whose brain waves are mostly high-amplitude delta waves would be that they are A) in stage 2 of slow-wave sleep. B) dreaming. C) in stage 1 of slow-wave sleep. D) in either stage 3 or 4 of slow-wave sleep. E) awake. 19) The ________ effect refers to the situation in which the odor of a male rodent will accelerate the onset of puberty in a female rodent. A) Lee-Boot B) Whitten C) Bruce D) Bruce-Lee E) Vandenbergh 20) A key difference between rodent and human females is that A) a human female requires a progesterone surge for sexual receptivity. B) the rat estrous cycle is longer than the human menstrual cycle. C) rats mate during diestrus as a form of birth control. D) a female rat can only mate during estrus. E) rats are capable of mating at any point during the estrous cycle. 21) Hypocretin neurons are active during ________ but inactive during ________. A) slow-wave sleep; REM sleep B) REM sleep; waking C) slow-wave sleep; waking D) REM sleep; slow-wave sleep E) waking; sleep 22) Seasonal rhythms are under the control of ________ secreted by cells within the ________. A) melatonin; retina B) melatonin; pineal gland C) melanopsin; preoptic hypothalamus D) histamine; pineal gland E) histamine; suprachiasmatic nucleus 23) The onset of REM sleep is triggered by ________ neurons located in the ________. A) norepinephrine; lateral preoptic area B) histamine; preoptic area C) adrenaline; dorsolateral thalamus D) acetylcholine; peribrachial area E) acetylcholine; basal forebrain 24) Which of the following brain regions directly inhibits the spinal motor neurons that control male copulatory movements? A) Medial preoptic area. B) Medial amygdala. C) Ventromedial hypothalamus. D) Nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) of the medulla. E) Rostral hypothalamus. 26) Which of the following events takes place at the onset of puberty to start sexual maturation? A) The ovaries and testes release gonadotropic hormones. B) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland. C) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is secreted by the hypothalamus. D) Sexual maturation is not a hormonally-dependent process. E) Gonadotropic hormones are released from the hypothalamus. 27) All of the following are characteristics of androgen insensitivity syndrome EXCEPT A) testes. B) breast growth at puberty. C) female external genitals. D) female internal genitals. E) the inability to have children. 29) Which of the following is true of REM sleep? A) The motor cortex is inhibited during REM sleep. B) REM sleep depends on release of hypocretin from the lateral hypothalamus. C) Genital arousal during REM sleep is an indicator of sexual dream content. D) REM sleep begins with PGO waves. E) REM sleep is increased by antidepressants that increase serotonin and norepinephrine. 31) Symptoms of narcolepsy involving REM sleep such as cataplexy are effectively treated by drugs that A) act as catecholamine agonists. B) increase serotonin activity in the brain. C) impair the release of hypocretins in the brain. D) block hypocretin receptors. E) block serotonin receptors. 32) Which hormone below facilitates nest building? A) Progesterone. B) Prolactin. C) Oxytocin. D) Testosterone. E) Estradiol. 33) Sleep stages 1-4 are termed ________. A) non-REM sleep B) REM sleep C) slow-wave sleep D) paradoxical sleep E) hypnogogic sleep 34) REM sleep is inhibited by A) increased activity of neurons within the locus coeruleus. B) increased activity of peribrachial neurons. C) increased activity of neurons within the raphe nucleus. D) decreased activity of neurons within the thalamus. E) A and C are correct. 35) Which of the following is true of the sleep cycle during a night of sleep? A) As the night goes on, the relative length of REM sleep decreases in each successive cycle. B) People spend more time in REM sleep as they age. C) Stages 3 and 4 of slow-wave sleep increase in length with each successive cycle. D) Each non-REM/REM cycle lasts about 90 minutes. 36) Which of the following is true of male sexual behavior? A) Intromission refers to a break between bouts of sexual behavior. B) Pelvic thrusting can only be accomplished by males. C) The sexual behavior of human males requires the presence of testosterone. D) Orgasm requires intromission. E) Ejaculation requires a refractory period of pelvic thrusting. 37) Human females are more likely to initiate sexual activity A) at a point in the menstrual cycle when estradiol levels are highest. B) in the winter months. C) when estradiol levels are lowest. D) just prior to menstruation. E) just after a surge in testosterone from the adrenals. 38) Which sleep disorder below results in a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood? A) Sleep apnea. B) REM sleep behavior disorder. C) Narcolepsy. D) Cataplexy. E) Insomnia. 39) The primary biological clock that controls daily sleep-wake cycles in mammals is located in the A) pineal gland. B) suprachiasmatic nucleus. C) ventrolateral preoptic area. D) lateral hypothalamus. E) superior colliculus. 40) A novel female will elicit another bout of sexual behavior in a sexually satiated male rat. This is referred to as the ________ effect. A) Whitten B) Lordosis C) Lee-Boot D) Coolidge E) Vandenbergh 41) All of the following findings support the hypothesis that homosexuality may be biological EXCEPT A) testosterone has different activational effects in homosexual men than in heterosexual men. B) there are size differences in several brain regions that correlate with sexual orientation. C) the concordance rate for sexual orientation is high in male and in female identical twins. D) maternal stress during pregnancy decreases androgen production in male rats causing decreased male and increased female sexual behaviors. E) B and C are correct. 42) The conversion of the undifferentiated gonads into the testes is controlled by the A) Tny gene. B) X chromosome. C) leptin protein. D) anti-Mullerian hormone. E) Sry gene. 44) Cataplexy may be brought on by A) strong emotions or physical exertion. B) staying awake for long periods of time. C) overuse of amphetamines. D) damage to neurons that initiate REM sleep. E) high blood levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. 46) Which of the following is a primary effect of sleep deprivation in humans? A) Concentration is imparied after sleep deprivation. B) Secretion of stress hormones. C) Depression. D) Physical exercise is impaired after sleep deprivation. E) Psychosis. 47) A hormone that prevents the prenatal development of the Mullerian system is said to have a(n) A) activational effect. B) feminizing effect. C) non-selective action on the undifferentiated gonads. D) masculinizing effect. E) defeminizing effect. 48) The sleep pattern of the bottlenose dolphin is unique in that A) sleep and waking occur independently in the two hemispheres. B) blindness has eliminated the need for sleep. C) no eye movements occur during sleep. D) slow-wave sleep is absent from their sleep pattern. E) C and D are correct. 49) Which of the following are true of neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPA)? A) VLPA neurons secrete glutamate to excite regions that control arousal. B) VLPA neurons have a low firing rate during sleep. C) Electrical stimulation of VLPA neurons produces signs of drowsiness. D) VLPA neuron damage produces narcolepsy. E) Electrical stimulation of VLPA neurons produces insomnia. 50) Which of the following would be expected to promote sleep? A) An adenosine antagonist. B) Damage to the ventrolateral preoptic area. C) An adenosine agonist. D) Activation of histamine neurons. E) Activation of hypocretin neurons. 1) The optimal value of the system variable in a homeostatic system is termed the A) homeostatic variable. B) detector. C) thermostat. D) set point. E) correctional mechanism. 2) Because there is a delay between the ingestion and digestion of a substance, a ________ is needed to help regulate ingestive behavior. A) positive feedback loop B) correctional mechanism C) set point D) negative feedback signal E) satiety signal 4) Which fluid compartments must be precisely regulated? A) intracellular; cerebrospinal B) intravascular; intracellular C) extracellular; intracellular D) interstitial; intracellular E) transvascular; interstitial 6) Osmoreceptors are located within the A) amygdala. B) orbitofrontal cortex. C) zone incerta. D) AV3V region. E) medial hypothalamus. 7) The two stimuli that evoke volumetric thirst are ________ and ________. A) reduced blood flow to the kidneys; reduced stimulation of atrial baroreceptors. B) increased sodium within the preoptic region; loss of intracellular water C) loss of intracellular water; reduced stimulation of atrial baroreceptors D) increased blood flow to the kidneys; lack of renin in the blood E) lack of renin in the blood; lack of AII in the blood. 9) ________ is secreted by pancreatic cells in response to ________. A) Leptin; a fall in blood glucose B) Insulin; a fall in blood glucose C) Glucagon; a rise in blood glucose D) Glucagon; a fall in blood glucose E) Amylin; entry of fat into the duodenum 11) The long-term fuel reservoir is filled with ________ and is located in ________. A) glycogen; the brain B) triglycerides; the liver C) triglycerides; fat cells D) insulin; the pancreas E) glycogen; the liver 13) Detectors for glucose are located within A) the duodenum and the pancreas. B) blood vessels and the vagus nerve. C) the liver and the brain. D) heart muscle and the kidneys. E) the pancreas and the kidneys. 15) Insulin in the blood appears to be interpreted by the brain as A) a hunger signal. B) a satiety signal. C) an indicator of the entry of fat into the duodenum. D) an indicator that the body is in the fasting phase of metabolism. E) A and C are correct. 16) Which of the following shows the correct sequence of activation by volumetric thirst? A) Atrial baroreceptors-->nucleus of the solitary tract-->median preoptic nucleus-->drinking B) Angiotensin II-->subfornical organ-->medial preoptic area-->drinking C) Angiotensin II-->OVLT receptors-->lateral preoptic area-->drinking D) Atrial baroreceptors-->subfornical organ-->OVLT receptor-->drinking E) Renin-->subfornical organ-->median preoptic nucleus-->nucleus of the solitary tract-->drinking 17) Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus ________ . A) activate thermogenesis B) impair expression of thirst C) inhibit eating D) produce eating E) produce drinking 18) The effects of NPY on ________ are localized within the ________. A) metabolism; hypothalamus B) eating; hypothalamus C) satiety; AV3V region D) drinking; hypothalamus E) drinking; AV3V region 20) Which pair below represent orexigens? A) NPY; insulin B) CCK; ghrelin C) NPY; AGRP D) ghrelin; CART E) insulin and leptin 23) Which of the following is TRUE of leptin's role in obesity? A) Most obese humans have unusually low blood plasma levels of leptin. B) Most obese humans lack the gene that produces leptin. C) Most obese humans lack the receptor for leptin. D) Obesity may occur when too little leptin is transported into the brain. 24) A key aspect of anorexia nervosa is A) low blood plasma levels of NPY. B) an intense fear of obesity. C) excessive release of leptin. D) the binging and subsequent purging of food. E) both A and C.