Practice test #5 All language questions are based on the lateralization of language in 90% of the population. 1) Much of our knowledge about the physiology of language has been obtained by studying A) changes in verbal behavior after consumption of drugs such as alcohol. B) rats and mice. C) blood flow to language areas in normal subjects while they are talking. D) people who have suffered strokes and other brain damage. 2) A primary characteristic of Wernicke's aphasia is A) mutism. B) fumbling for the right word. C) effortless production of meaningless speech. D) speech that lacks rhythm and tone. E) labored and nonfluent speech. 3) Misfolded beta-amyloid proteins make up aggregations known as A) free radicals. B) beta-amyloid precursor proteins. C) neuritic plaques. D) neurofibrillary tangles. E) Lewy bodies. 5) The two categories of symptoms noted in schizophrenia include A) hallucinations and social withdrawal. B) thought disorder and impaired language ability. C) delusions and hallucinations. D) positive symptoms and negative symptoms. E) delusions and profound sadness. 6) Verbal behavior is said to be a lateralized function of the left hemisphere because A) most persons show a greater movement of the lips on the right side of their mouth during speech. B) electrical stimulation of the left hemisphere has a less effect on language than does similar stimulation of the right hemisphere. C) most language problems are noted after damage to the right than the left hemisphere. D) most language problems are noted after damage to the left rather than the right hemisphere. E) right-handed persons are more likely to have their language center located within the right hemisphere. 12) Which disorder is caused by degeneration of dopamine-secreting neurons of the substantia nigra? A) Myasthenia gravis. B) Schizophrenia. C) Parkinson's disease. D) Alzheimer's disease. E) All of the above are correct. 13) A seizure that results in an alteration in, but no loss of, consciousness is called a A) absence seizure. B) complex partial seizure. C) simple partial seizure. D) monotonic seizure. E) simple generalized seizure. 14) Which of the following statements about an embolism is correct? A) It causes the rupture of blood vessels in the brain. B) It is due to pressure exerted by a tumor. C) It may be due to an infection at the site of damage. D) It is composed of debris that becomes lodged in an artery. E) All of the above are correct. 16) A person with pure word deafness CANNOT A) understand speech. B) read lips. C) hear. D) speak. E) understand nonspeech sounds. 18) Which of the following is true about Alzheimer's disease? A) Cognitive losses may be slowed by administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. B) Most cases of Alzheimer's disease are not hereditary. C) It may involve mutations on one or more genes. D) Degeneration is seen throughout the cortex, limbic system and brain stem. E) All of the above are correct. 21) A tonic-clonic seizure A) is an example of a complex partial seizure. B) is the most severe form of seizure. C) can produce convulsions, but not unconsciousness. D) can dim consciousness, but does not produce motor convulsions. E) is usually localized to a small focus within the brain. 22) What causes the death of neurons following a stroke? A) A decrease in free radicals. B) Neuronal firing produced by a loss of sodium from the cell. C) Enhanced release of the inhibitory transmitter GABA. D) Over-stimulation of neurons by abnormally high levels of glutamate. E) Interruption of glycogen delivery to the brain. 24) Pure alexia is produced by damage to pathways that carry ________ information to the ________. A) auditory; left extrastriate cortex. B) visual; right extrastriate cortex C) auditory; Wernicke's area D) auditory; right striate cortex E) visual; left extrastriate cortex 27) Surface dyslexia refers to _________, phonological dyslexia refers to _________. A) an impairment in whole-word reading; an impairment in phonetic reading. B) an impairment in phonetic reading; an impairment in whole-word reading. C) an inability to comprehend written words; an impairment in phonetic reading. D) a developemental reading impairment; an acquired reading impairment. E) the inability to comprehend written words; and inability to comprehend spoken words. 28) Patients with pure anomia might use ___________ . A) circumlocution B) repetition of words C) confabulation D) lip reading E) prosody 29) Studies of patients with conduction aphasia have led to which of the following conclusions about language? A) The sound and meaning of words are neurologically inseparable. B) The anterior commisure sends information about the meaning of words to the frontal lobes. C) There are different neural pathways for sounds and for meanings of words. D) Both right and left parietal lobes analyze the sounds of words. E) Wernicke's aphasia is not a form of receptive aphasia. 33) Which of the following is not true of transient ischemic attack? A) Blood flow to the brain is not affected. B) Neurological symptoms clear within 24 hours. C) Resulting damage is not as extensive as that following stroke. D) Severe impairments are typically seen following multiple attacks. E) TIA is always obstructive in nature. 36) The negative symptoms of schizophrenia may be related to A) protein accumulations in the brain. B) excessive birth weight. C) brain abnormalities. D) overactivity of GABA neurons. E) overactivity of dopaminergic neurons. 38) People with Broca's aphasia would have the most difficulty A) recognizing complex geometrical forms. B) reading a map. C) spelling content words. D) saying function words. 40) Which of the following is an important implication of transcortical sensory aphasia? A) Speech recognition comes after speech comprehension. B) Wernicke's area is not important for speech repetition. C) Speech recognition and comprehension are different processes. D) The posterior language area is key for speech repetition. E) B and D are correct. 42) The first symptom of Alzheimer's disease is A) memory impairments. B) trembling. C) balance difficulties. D) mood swings. E) an inability to rise from bed in the morning. 45) Which of the following forms a direct neural connection between Broca's area and Wernicke's area? A) The anterior commissure. B) The stria teminalis. C) The corpus callosum. D) The fornix. E) The arcuate fasciculus. 46) Which of the following is most likely to be associated with the development of schizophrenia? A) Being born in the summer. B) Being born during the last month of a flu epidemic. C) Being born into an affluent family. D) Being Rh-negative. E) Being born in a rural area. 47) Damaged neurons in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease exhibit _________, which are filled with _________. A) Lewy bodies; misfolded alpha-synuclein protein. B) Neuritic plaques; misfolded beta-amyloid protein. C) Neurofibrillary tangles; misfolded tau protein. D) Enlarged sulci; misfolded beta-amyloid protein. E) Diminished ventricles; blood. 49) Which of the following speech deficits are a common feature of all forms of aphasia? A) Anomia. B) Agrammatism. C) Articulation difficulties. D) Dysgraphia. E) Dyslexia 52) The meanings of words are most likely stored in A) primary auditory cortex. B) lateral temporal cortex. C) Broca's area. D) Wernicke's area. E) association cortex.