Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
4. Catecholamines can be decreased by _______, which serves to _______.
a. reserpine; block tyrosine hydroxylase
b. α-methyl-para-tyrosine; inhibit uptake into vesicles
c. α-methyl-para-tyrosine; block tyrosine hydroxylase
d. Adderall; inhibit reuptake
6. Activation of terminal autoreceptors inhibits dopamine release by
a. increasing Cl– entry into the terminal.
b. decreasing Ca2+ entry into the terminal.
c. preventing reuptake into vesicles.
d. decreasing Na+ entry into the terminal.
7. Which of the following about genetically engineered mice lacking the D2 autoreceptor is false?
a. They showed increased levels of spontaneous activity.
b. They had enhanced release of DA.
c. They showed an increase in appetite.
d. They showed enhanced sensitivity to cocaine.
9. _______ and _______ exert their pharmacological effects by blocking monoamine reuptake.
a. Cocaine; phenelzine
b. Cocaine; tricyclic antidepressants
c. Clonidine; tricyclic antidepressants
d. Clonidine; yohimbine
11. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a(n) _______ used to _______.
a. neurotoxin; damage catecholamine neurons
b. antagonist; block catecholamine receptors
c. transporter inhibitor; prevent catecholamine reuptake
d. agonist; activate catecholamine receptors
12. Which of the following statements about MPTP is false?
a. It can create parkinsonian symptoms when given to monkeys.
b. It was accidentally created during illicit drug synthesis and caused Parkinson’s disease in the addicts who took it.
c. It selectively kills cells in the substantia nigra.
d. It prevents the reuptake of dopamine in the striatum.
18. Which of the following regarding D2 dopamine receptors is false?
a. They do not act as normal postsynaptic receptors.
b. They function as autoreceptors.
c. They inhibit adenylyl cyclase and decrease the synthesis of cAMP.
d. They can enhance K+ channel opening via activation of a G protein.
20. Dopamine transporter knockout mice are hyperactive relative to wild-type mice because
a. they produce more dopamine than wild-type mice.
b. they have fewer receptors than wild-type mice.
c. the dopaminergic neurons cannot remove dopamine from the synaptic cleft.
d. they cannot synthesize dopamine.
23. Which of the following regarding receptor up-regulation is false?
a. It can lead to behavioral supersensitivity to an agonist.
b. It can result from chronic treatment with an antagonist.
c. It can result from depletion of normal neurotransmitter input.
d. It happens only with autoreceptors.
24. The main location of noradrenergic cell bodies in the CNS is the
a. ventral tegmental area.
b. locus coeruleus.
c. substantia nigra.
26. Which of the following statements about norepinephrine is false?
a. It acts in both the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
b. It is thought to play a role in arousal.
c. NE terminals are found in widespread brain regions.
d. NE producing cell bodies are found in widespread brain regions.
27. How can norepinephrine be considered a hormone?
a. It is released from the locus coeruleus into the general circulation.
b. It is released from the hypothalamus into the general circulation.
c. It is released from the adrenal glands into the general circulation.
d. It cannot be considered a hormone, only a neurotransmitter.
29. Like dopamine receptors, all norepinephrine receptors
a. are ionotropic.
b. inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
c. are metabotropic.
d. stimulate adenylyl cyclase.
30. β1- and β2-adrenoceptors _ while α2-receptors
a. stimulate adenylyl cyclase; enhance free Ca++ levels
b. inhibit adenylyl cyclase; stimulate adenylyl cyclase
c. stimulate adenylyl cyclase; inhibit adenylyl cyclase
dincrease K+ channel opening; inhibit adenylyl cyclase
31. Injections of isoproterenol and phenylephrine into the medial septum of the rat show that
a. NE is involved in hunger.
b. α1- and β-receptors are involved in wakefulness.
c. α1- and β-receptors are involved in sedation.
d. NE is important in pupil dilation.
32. Working memory can be enhanced by activation of _______ in the PFC, while activation of _______ in the PFC has detrimental effects on cognitive function.
a. α1-receptors; β1-receptors
b. α2-receptors; α1-receptors
c. β2-receptors; β1-receptors
d. α2-receptors; β1-receptors
39. Hypertension and _______ can be treated with β-receptor antagonists.
b. drug addiction
40. The treatment of generalized anxiety with β-receptor antagonists is effective because beta blockers
a. reduce some of the physical symptoms associated with anxiety.
b. act directly on brain regions involved in anxiety.
c. increase sympathetic nervous system activity and make the person feel better able to cope with the anxiety-producing situation.
d. cause sedation.
Changes in the brain resulting from repeated drug use
Attention-getting and desirable properties of stimuli
Substance considered Schedule I
Unpleasant mood state
Substance considered Schedule II
Psychiatric disorder(s) in addition to addiction
3. A specific marker for serotonin cells is
a. tyrosine hydroxylase.
b. tryptophan hydroxylase.
6. In order to study the effects of serotonin depletion in rodent studies,
a. tryptophan hydroxylase is inhibited by injection of PCPA.
b. tryptophan hydroxylase is stimulated by injection of PCPA.
c. animals are fed a high carbohydrate, low protein diet.
d. insulin is injected to alter the ratio of amino acids in the blood.
7. Researchers study the effects of serotonin depletion in human subjects by
a. using the synthesis blocking drug PCPA.
b. administering a special milkshake that is rich in tryptophan hydroxylase.
c. injecting subjects with insulin to alter the ratio of amino acids in the blood.
d. administering a cocktail of amino acids that compete with tryptophan for entry into the brain.
9. All of the following can increase the presence of serotonin in the terminal button or cleft except for
10. Autoreceptors on serotonin terminals are of the _______ subtype, while somatodendritic autoreceptors are of the _______ subtype.
a. 5-HT1A; 5-HT3
b. 5-HT1A; 5-HT1B or 5-HT1D
c. 5-HT1B or 5-HT1D; 5-HT1A
d. 5-HT3; 5-HT1A
12. The principal action of MDMA is to
a. prevent reuptake of serotonin.
b. inhibit synthesis of serotonin.
c. enhance tryptophan transport.
d. enhance serotonin release.
16. Knockout mice lacking the serotonin transporter SERT exhibit all of the following except for
b. a decrease in aggressiveness.
c. enhanced maternal behavior.
d. anxiety-like behavior.
18. Most of the cell bodies that produce serotonin in the CNS are found in the
b. raphe nuclei.
d. limbic system.
19. Serotonergic cell bodies are found
a. in the cerebellum and spinal cord.
b. in the midbrain, hypothalamus, and thalamus.
c. in the midbrain, pons, and medulla.
d. all across the brain.
22. Which of the following about 5-HT1A receptors is false?
a. They serve as somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nuclei.
b. They are located postsynaptically in the forebrain.
c. They serve as autoreceptors on serotonergic axon terminals in the forebrain.
d. They are concentrated in the hippocampus, septal area, and parts of the amygdala.
23. Activation of 5HT1A serotonin receptors can result in all of the following except for a(n)
a. increase in Na+ conductance.
b. reduction in cAMP synthesis.
c. increase in K+ conductance.
d. decrease in firing of the serotonergic neuron.
2. In acetylcholine synthesis,
a. the key catalyzing enzyme is acetylcholinesterase.
b. choline comes from the diet and the liver.
c. acetyl coenzyme A limits synthesis as it is not found in all cells.
d. coenzyme A is an important precursor.
3. Acetylcholine neurons can be identified by the presence of
b. acetyl coenzyme A.
c. choline acetyltransferase.
5. The drug vesamicol
a. blocks acetylcholinesterase.
b. decreases the amount of acetylcholine in the cytoplasm.
c. increases the rate of choline acetyltransferase activity.
d. decreases the release of acetylcholine from the terminal button.
9. Which of the following regarding botulinum toxin is false?
a. The bacterium grows anaerobically.
b. It prevents fusion of the synaptic vesicle containing ACh with the presynaptic terminal.
c. It is taken up by cholinergic neurons of the CNS.
d. It is a mixture of seven related proteins.
10. The function of AChE is to
a. help transmission proceed smoothly at the neuromuscular junction.
b. break acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid.
c. metabolize excess acetylcholine in the terminal button.
d. All of the above
15. Myasthenia gravis
a. involves a low production of acetylcholine.
b. is best treated by drugs such as Soman.
c. involves an autoimmune process that destroys acetylcholine receptors.
d. should be treated by neostigmine because it crosses the blood–brain barrier.
23. Because cholinergic interneurons are clustered in the _______ changes in cholinergic function can affect _______.
a. striatum; movement
b. thalamus; temperature regulation
c. amygdala; emotional responses
d. striatum; emotional responses
27. Nicotinic receptors
a. are found on muscle cells at the neuromuscular junction.
b. are metabotropic receptors.
c. can be overly stimulated by the poison D-tubocurarine.
d. possess two protein subunits, one α unit and one β unit.
28. Which of the following does not accurately describe activity at the nicotinic receptor?
a. The channel opens rapidly and depolarization occurs.
b. Sodium and/or calcium ions enter the next cell.
c. Prolonged stimulation of receptors can lead to desensitization.
d. Nicotine receptors in the muscles are more sensitive than those in the CNS.
32. A drug that produces a depolarization block of muscle cells is
34. Which of the following regarding muscarinic receptors is false?
a. They are metabotropic.
b. They all inhibit the formation of cAMP.
c. They can open potassium channels, causing inhibitory effects.
d. They are widely distributed in the brain.
35. Muscarinic receptors in the brain play a role in all of the following except for
a. motor function.
c. tobacco smoking.
d. dependence and addiction.
40. Which of the following drug/action pairings is incorrect?
a. Vesamicol – inhibits vesicular uptake of ACh
b. Atropine – muscarinic receptor antagonist
c. Physostigmine – inhibits choline reuptake
d. Sarin – irreversibly inhibits AChE
5. The first step in the metabolism of alcohol is its conversion to
c. acetic acid.
d. aldehyde dehydrogenase.
8. A decrease in _______ activity can lead to toxicity, including flushing, nausea, and vomiting.
a. alcohol dehydrogenase
b. acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
30. Alcohol increases synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens by
a. blocking the reuptake of dopamine by transporters.
b. increasing the firing rate of cells in the VTA.
c. inhibiting the metabolism of dopamine in the synaptic cleft.
d. decreasing action of autoreceptors which normally decrease release.
32. _______ are the two neurotransmitters most likely involved in the reinforcing effects of alcohol, with extrasynaptic _______ likely also playing a role.
a. Dopamine and glutamate; opioids
b. Dopamine and the opioids; GABA
c. The opioids and GABA; glutamate
d. GABA and glutamate; dopamine
33. Changes in which two neurotransmitter systems are most likely involved in the hyperexcitability seen during withdrawal from chronic alcohol?
a. GABA and glutamate
b. GABA and dopamine
c. Dopamine and glutamate
d. The opioids and dopamine
34. Which of the following effects is false?
a. Mice that lack the μ-opioid receptor do not self-administer alcohol.
b. Opioid receptor antagonists reduce alcohol self-administration in animals.
c. Clinical trials show that opioid receptor antagonists decrease relapse to drinking in humans.
d. Chronic alcohol use increases gene expression of endorphin and enkephalin.
4. All of the following are naturally occurring opiates except for
6. Which of the following about pure opiate antagonists is false?
a. They include drugs like naloxone and nalorphine.
b. They are important in understanding the action of opiate analgesics.
c. They can reverse the effects of an opiate overdose in approximately 2 hours.
d. They have structures similar to opiates but produce no activity at the receptor.
16. The μ-receptor
a. plays a role in analgesia and the rewarding effects of morphine.
b. overlaps with the κ-receptor in its distribution in the nervous system.
c. has been linked to hallucinations and dysphoria.
d. is found in the hypothalamus and pituitary.
17. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP-R)
a. is genetically related to the classical opioid receptors, μ, δ, and κ.
b. has a high binding affinity for the endogenous opioids.
c. is found only in limbic areas and the spinal cord.
d. produces euphoria when activated.
18. What do we know about the structure of the opiate receptors from receptor cloning studies?
a. Each receptor has between 650 and 700 amino acids.
b. The receptors appear to be metabotropic.
c. Each receptor has twelve transmembrane proteins.
d. Each receptor will bind to the same ligands in the same way.
20. The opioid propeptides
a. are made in the terminal button and cleaved by enzymes into the opiate peptides.
b. are referred to as the “enkephalins.”
c. are processed by proteases into both opiate and non-opioid peptides.
d. include the endorphins and the endomorphins.
21. POMC and its peptides play an important role in all of the following except for
a. secretion of hormones in response to hypothalamic releasing factors.
b. activation of the stress pathway in foot shock and swim stress.
c. action of dynorphin at κ-receptors.
d. linking pain and stress regulation.
22. The peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)
a. enhances opioid-mediated analgesia in supraspinal regions.
b. enhances motor performance.
c. is an analgesic at the spinal level.
d. suppresses feeding behavior.
24. Which of the following is about the effects of opiates on synaptic transmission is false?
a. They act on receptors that are coupled to inhibitory G proteins.
b. They affect endorphin autoreceptors and reduce the amount of transmitter released.
c. They cause postsynaptic depolarization by opening potassium channels.
d. They cause less transmitter to be released via axoaxonic inhibition.
30. Both “early” and “late” pain activate the
a. primary somatosensory cortex.
b. anterior cingulate cortex.
d. secondary somatosensory cortex.
33. Electrical stimulation of the PAG
a. produces changes in sensations of touch and pressure.
b. produces a type of analgesia that is not blocked by naloxone.
c. activates dopamine cells in the medulla, which in turn inhibit spinal cord pain transmission.
d. most likely releases endogenous opiates that act on μ- and κ-receptors.
35. Some researchers believe that opiates exert their effects on reinforcement by affecting cell bodies in the _______ that release _______.
a. nucleus accumbens; GABA
b. nucleus accumbens; dopamine
c. VTA; GABA
d. VTA; dopamine
6. Cocaine acts in the nervous system by blocking
a. monoamine transporters; voltage-gated potassium channels
b. monoamine release; voltage-gated calcium channels
c. monoamine transporters; voltage-gated sodium channels
d. monoamine synthesis; voltage-gated calcium channels
12. Psychostimulant injections
a. increase stereotyped behavior when microinjected into the nucleus accumbens.
b. increase locomotor behavior when microinjected into the striatum.
c. have their reinforcing effects effectively blocked by 6-OHDA lesions of the nucleus accumbens.
d. of amphetamine into the nucleus accumbens do not appear to be rewarding to animals, as they will not self-administer the drug.
25. Which of the following regarding sensitization to psychostimulants is false?
a. It can be divided into two phases, induction and expression.
b. Its expression involves enhanced dopamine activity in the VTA → nucleus accumbens pathway.
c. Glutamate from the medial prefrontal cortex plays a role.
d. It results from continuous drug infusion.
34. Amphetamine and methamphetamine affect synaptic transmission by
a. increasing catecholamine reuptake.
b. increasing metabolism by MAO.
c. releasing dopamine from vesicles into the cytoplasm.
d. shutting down the dopamine transporter.
5. Nicotinic receptors
a. are metabotropic receptors that bind acetylcholine.
b. consist of three subunits: α, β, and γ.
c. are constructed of subunits that form a potassium channel in the cell membrane.
d. can become silenced by depolarization block with repeated stimulation.
7. Nicotine self-administration
a. depends on the dopamine pathway to the nucleus accumbens for its reinforcing effects.
b. is equal to amphetamine or cocaine self-administration in intensity.
c. occurs at higher doses in adults than adolescents, according to animal studies.
d. depends on the α4 subunit of the nicotinic receptor.
33. In laboratory animals, the effect of increasing doses of caffeine causes
a. reduced activity, followed by increased activity.
b. dose-dependent increases in activity.
c. increased activity, followed by decreased activity.
d. dose-dependent decreases in activity.
39. Current evidence suggests that caffeine exerts its stimulant effects at the synapse by
a. inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterase.
b. decreasing cyclic AMP levels.
c. blocking adenosine receptors.
d. blocking GABAA receptors.
40. Which of the following is about adenosine is false?
a. It is a constituent of ATP.
b. It builds up during wakefulness, creating a state of drowsiness.
c. It acts on four different receptor subtypes.
d. It is released by caffeine.
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!