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Ability needed for schoolwork; likelihood of success in mastering academic work, as estimated from measures of the necessary abilities. (Also called scholastic aptitude.)
A change in how a student accesses and demonstrates learning, but it does not substantially change the instructional content. Accommodations do not change the content being taught or assessed.
An adjective referring to any variety of feelings, emotional accompaniment.
Step-by-step procedure used to solve a problem; use of formulas or mathematical shortcuts.
Statement describing the anticipated growth of a student’s skill and knowledge written into a student’s yearly Individualized Education Program (IEP).
Anomaly Some irregularity in development or a deviation from the standard.
An abnormal and overwhelming apprehension and fear often marked by physiological signs (i.e., sweating, increased pulse, breathing difficulty).
The application of behavioral learning principles to understand and change behavior.
A combination of abilities and other characteristics, whether innate or acquired, believed to be indicative of an individual's ability to learn in some particular area.
The enunciation of sounds, words, and sentences.
Any item, piece of equipment, or product system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability.
A chronic respiratory condition characterized by repeated episodes of difficulty breathing and coughing.
Characterized by difficulty with voluntary movements, especially in controlling those movements in the desired direction (demonstrated by extra or purposeless movements).
Current term for disruptive behavior disorders marked by over activity, excessive difficulty sustaining attention, or impulsiveness.
The length of time an individual can concentrate on a task without being distracted or losing interest.
A graph on which a person’s ability to hear different pitches (frequencies) at different volumes (intensities) of sound is recorded.
The number of related or unrelated items that can be recalled immediately after hearing them presented.
Basic reading texts that reinforce basic skills in the primary grades.
The Basic Skills Tests essential competencies in reading, mathematics and writing.
Systematic application of antecedents and consequences to change behavior.
Instructional objectives stated in terms of observable behaviors.
From bilateral, meaning to use both sides of the body in a simultaneous and parallel fashion. Especially related to hemispheric functioning and the two sides (right-left) of the body.
Visual acuity for distance vision of 20/200 or less in the better eye after best correction with conventional lenses; or a visual field of no greater than 20 degrees in the better eye.
Intensive study of one person or one situation.
Memory strategies that associate one element in a series with the next element.
A strategy that develops fluency and expression in reading, where the teacher models fluent reading of a passage and the students repeat the reading in unison.
Grouping individual bits of data into meaningful larger
A congenital, reparable split in the palate that affects one's articulation and speech.
A behavior that signifies pattern completion; the mechanism responsible for the automatic completion of familiar events.
Professional relationship that provides mentoring with demonstration of new strategies, technical feedback, and analysis of application over time to a colleague in need.
Modes of thought, knowing, and symbolic representation, including comprehension, judgment, memory, imaging, and reasoning.
Instructional objectives stated in terms of higher-level thinking operations.
Voluntary interaction between professionals having a parity of knowledge and skills.
Group administered, mostly or entirely multiple-choice, "objective" tests in one or more curricular areas. Scores are based on comparison with a reference or norm group. Typically must be purchased from a private vendor.
Students read to comprehend. Comprehension is the knowledge gained through the act of comprehending/understanding. The teaching of comprehension involves specific strategies students use to identify what they do and do not understand in a text.
A conventional speech sound produced, with or without laryngeal vibration, by certain successive contractions of the articulatory muscles which modify, interrupt, or obstruct the expired air stream to the extent that its pressure is raised.
Providing information to another teacher about educational strategies.
The range of different educational placement options that a school district can use to serve children with disabilities; range from least restrictive to most restrictive.
A standard by which a test may be judged or evaluated; a set of scores, ratings, etc., that a test is designed to predict or to correlate with. See validity.
Criterion-referenced tests determine what test-takers can do and what they know, not how they compare to others. Report on how well students are doing relative to a predetermined performance level on a specified set of educational goals
Assessment of each student's mastery of course objectives.
Testing in which scores are compared to a set performance standard.
Evaluation method using frequent tests of specific skills and knowledge.
A technique for analyzing data collected from an FBA assessment.
Formative tests to determine students' areas of weakness; also individually administered tests to identify special learning problems.
A procedure in which any behavior except the targeted inappropriate response is reinforced; typically, this results in a reduction of the inappropriate behavior.
The traditional way to provide instruction. The goal of this method is the students’ mastery of skills. demands that the instructor have a solid understanding of the subject material and present the material in a clear, logical, and sequential way.
Bruner's approach, in which students work on their own to discover basic principles.
The involuntary shifting of a student's attention from the task at hand to sounds, sights, and other stimuli that normally occur in the environment.
: Consciously applied skills to reach goals in a particular subject or problem area.
Caring only about one's self and/or centering one's view around one's own needs or desires.
- a mild form in which dizziness or staring into space takes place.
a seizure in which there are severe convulsions and loss of consciousness or coma.
- spasms mainly limited to one side of the body and often to one group of muscles.
Use of criteria (rubric) or an instrument developed by an individual or organization external to the one being assessed. Usually summative, quantitative, and often high-stakes (see below). Example: GRE exams.
Externality refers to the extent to which the results of the assessment can be generalized to a similar context.
A procedure in which reinforcement 4 a previously reinforced behavior is withheld; if the actual reinforcers that are maintaining the behavior are identified and w/held, the behavior will gradually decrease in frequency until it no longer occurs.
Motivation created by external factors like rewards and punishments.
A technique for errorless learning whereby the teacher cues the child with multiple stimuli to make the correct response. Gradually, the number of cues are reduced, or "faded," until only one stimulus comes to exert control over the responding.
The ability to read a text accurately and quickly with appropriate pauses and emotion.
Term used in P.L. 94-142 to mean special education and related services that are provided through an IEP and at no cost to the parents.
The use of prev learned knowledge or skills under conditions diff fm which they were originally learned; stimulus generality occurs when a student performs a behavior in the presence of relevant stimuli other than those that were present originally
The extent to which assessment findings and conclusions from a study conducted on a sample population can be applied to the population at large.
The way students relate to others who are also working toward a particular goal.
Normal hearing (-10 dB to 15 dB)
Slight loss (16 dB to 25 dB)
Mild loss (26 dB to 30 dB)
Moderate loss (31 dB to 50 dB)
Moderate/Severe (51 dB to 70 dB)
Severe loss (71 dB to 90 dB)
Profound loss (91 dB or more)
Thinking that takes place in the higher levels of the hierarchy of cognitive processing beginning from knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, to evaluation.
A unit of sound frequency equal to one cycle per second; used to measure pitch.
refer to that which occurs immediately before an event
Amendment to PL 94-142. Provides money to educate students who are disabled.
Human mind's activity of taking in, storing, and using information.
A learning method where students develop solutions to their own questions under the guidance of a teacher. Approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation and students solve the problem by gathering data and testing their conclusions.
Those intermittent schedules of reinforcement in which the contingency is based on the passage of time since the last reinforcement. In general, the overall rate of responding on interval schedules is low compared to ratio schedules.
Presenting a reinforcer after some but not all responses.
Internal validity refers to (1) the rigor which the study was conducted and (2) the extent to which the designers of a study have taken into account alternative explanations for any causal relationships they explore.
A method of teaching words by using the muscles and motor movement.
Study of the causes and treatment of disorders of symbolic behavior.
A disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding and using language, spoken and written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, write, spell, read, or do math calculations.
Preferred ways of studying and learning, such as using pictures instead of text, working with other people versus alone, learning in structured or in unstructured situations, and so on.
Defines how people prefer to receive information according to their senses (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, tactile). Characteristic approaches to learning and studying.
Lengthwise, running in the direction of the long axis of the body, organ, or part.
Data collected from the same population at different points in time.
Least restrictive alternative; maximum integration in the regular classroom, coupled with concrete assistance for the non-special education teacher; see inclusion.
A slowness in certain specialized aspects of neurological development.
Arithmetical average. The arithmetical average, the sum of all scoresdivided by the number of scores.
Knowledge about our own thinking processes.
A group of letters that convey meaning but cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. For example, a word such as man or the part of the word such as ed in stopped.
A stimulus to action; something (a need or desire) that causes one to act.
In Gardner's theory of intelligence, a person's seven separate abilities: logical-mathematical, verbal, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal.
A relationship between two variables in which a high value on one is associated with a low value on the other. Example: height and distance from top of head to the ceiling.
A procedure for strengthening behavior when the consequence of that behavior is the termination or avoidance of an aversive stimulus. That is, the response is followed by the avoidance or termination of some event noxious to the individual.
A norm-referenced test is designed to highlight achievement differences between and among studies to produce a dependable rank order of students across a continuum of achievement from high achievers to low achievers.
Assessment of students' achievement in relation to one another.
Testing in which scores are compared with the average performance of others.
A term formally used to indicate visual acuity of 20/70 to 20/200, but also used to describe visual impairment in which usable vision is present.
The study of the nature of disease and its resulting structural and functional changes.
: Percentage of those in the norming sample who scored at or below an individual's score.
A competency-based method whereby abilities are measured in most direct, real-world approach. Systematic measurement of overt demonstration of acquired skills.
A personal intention to seem competent or perform well in the eyes of others.
environment in which a stud education will take place. Special education services and support are provided on a continuum, w the goal being 2 prov services n the least restrictive environment, which is 1 as similar 2 the reg ed setting of peers
A relationship between two variables in which the two increase or decrease together. Example: calorie intake and weight gain.
A technique for analyzing data collected from an FBA assessment.
Knowledge that is demonstrated when we perform a task; "knowing how."
Long-term memory for how to do things.
Pertaining to the motor effects of psychological processes. Psychomotor tests are tests of motor skill which depend upon sensory or perceptual motor coordination.
Collects data that can be analyzed using quantitative methods.
Occurs when there are excessive electrical discharges released in some nerve cells of the brain. The brain loses control over muscles, consciousness, senses, and thoughts.
An inability to perform an appropriate behavior (ie; Trish does not have the social problem-solving skills to interact appropriately with her peers on the playground).
Hypothetical estimate of variation in scores if testing were repeated.
Whole-number scores from 1 to 9, each representing a wide range of raw scores.
type of observation in which the observer specifies or defines the behaviors to be observed and then counts or otherwise measures the frequency, duration, and/or magnitude of the behaviors.
The educational goal a teacher has set for the students to work toward. What a teacher intends the students to learn by the end of the instructional period.
Learning arrangement in which team
members prepare cooperatively, and then meet comparable individuals of competing teams in a tournament game to win points for their team.
Students are grouped on the basis of ability; currently an illegal practice.
The use of a combination of assessment methods in a study. An example of triangulation would be an assessment that incorporated surveys, interviews, and observations.
A three-part description of the mental abilities (thinking processes, coping with new experiences, and adapting to context) that lead to more or less intelligent behavior.
Standard score with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10.
technology, such as computers, transparency machines, etc
Validity refers to the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure. Validity has three components:
the option measures your educational objective as precisely as possible
Observable characteristics that vary among individuals responses.
Application of conditioning principles of speech. Verbal behavior can be controlled by the systematic application of reinforcement to specific aspects of speech.
Ability to communicate orally. Typically referred to as oral expression.
The ability to coordinate vision with the movements of the body or parts of the body.
An intelligence test of general intellectual ability; used primarily to identify key cognitive functions.
An intelligence test of general intellectual ability that is commonly used in schools; used primarily to identify key cognitive functions.
Phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support.
Standard score indicating the number of standard deviations above or below the mean.
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