Labs meet in H302 this week ? final REA due! Parasitism/Mutualisms on Thurs (dCBH 13 & 14)(read Disease Ecology/exam review Tues after spring break (R4) spring break Exam II, Thurs after spring break Key points 1 Pdt dhbi. Preda ors an herbivores can act as agents of selection 2 Pdt dhbi. Preda ors an herbivores affect population & community community dynamics Predation-Herbivory Types of interactions - + - 1 2 - 1 2 + 1 2 + 1 2 - 1 2 + 0 0 Types of interactions - + - 1 2 - 1 2 + 1 2 + 1 2 - 1 2 + 0 0 Evolutionary Arm?s Race against predation/herbivory Evolution of defense and counter defense such that no species ?wins? Red Queen Hypothesis Red Queen Hypothesis Reed warbler feeding cuckoo chick Reed warbler feeding cuckoo chick C Reed warbler feeding cuckoo chick Cuckoos have co- evolutionary relationships with some bird species, with egg mimicry evolving egg which reduces egg rejection Ck hCuckoos ave co- evolutionary relationships with some bird species, with egg mimicry evolvingcy C C Reed warbler feeding cuckoo chick P iti l d t l ti farasitism e o se ec on o reduced intra-clutch variation Cuckoos have co- evolutionary relationships Df with some bird species, with egg mimicry evolving Defense CC Reed warbler feeding cuckoo chick Counter Defense Parasitism led to selection of reduced intra-clutch variation - Mantid Moth Hemeroplanes ornatus Sphingid moth Hemeroplanes ornatus Aposematism-organisms with ddl i dfdeadly or nox ous e enses possess conspicuous warning signals Warning signals are not always honest?. Monarch Viceroy ? Batesian mimicry: resemblance of an of an edible to an unpalatable (Bates 1862) Monarch = toxic Viceroy = mimic Mountain King Snake Coral snake Ki kng sna e = mimic Coral = toxic Ki kng sna e = mimic Coral = toxic WHY DOES THE YELLOW-EYED R3 Kth t l 2008 E l ti ENSATINA HAVE YELLOW EYES? : Kutc ae a . vo u on Strong neurotoxin in skin Mimic Poisonous one Mimic Control Survivorship curves illustrate that the non-mimic species has a short survival curve survival ?. Press Release: -What is the ?big-picture? issue? -What was the observation and the and study hypothesis? H did th th dd- ow did e au ors a ress the hypothesis? -What did they find ? explain the key figure(s)? -Why should folks care? ? Batesian mimicry: resemblance of an of an edible to an unpalatable ? Mullerian mimicry: mutual resemblance of titiftwo or more species o re n orce avoidance by predators (Mueller 1879) Looking like a co-model increases life expectancy with 3 species of Helioconid butterflies Predator learning behavior high high No Ecosystem Escapes Herbivory Mtt tilMost erres r a ecosystems lose 15- 20% f ANPP o annually (Cyr and P 1993)ace Why is the world green? Why is the world green? Why is the world green? 1. Herbivores are limited by predationyp Why is the world green? Herbivores are limited by predation by predation Plants have evolved traits to limit herbivory ? herbivory as selective agent (?the world is prickly and tastes bad?)g( ? History - Murdoch (1966) ? ?The World Tastes Bad Hypothesis? ? Pimm (1991) ? ?the world is prickly and taste bad? Wldi b tltidiblf thbiorld s green ecause mos plants inedible or mos erbivores Structural defense Acacia collinsii Chemical defenses Associational defense Galerucella calmariensis Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria Myrica gale Hamback et al. 2000 Associational defense Masting mast year non-mast year 3 1% of seeds destroyed 38% of seeds destroyed.1% of seeds Id ddfInduce e enses W ) 16 With herbivore Without herbivore a nnins (% D W 10 12 14 C ondensed t a 4 6 8 Genotype C 0 2 Induced defenses What do herbivores do do about these defenses? Coevolutionary arms race Plant evolves defense Avoidance by ll ia spec es Adaptation by a few species Increased herbivory Pl t lan evo ves another defense Avoidance by all species Adaptation by a few species Dave Dussourd, University of Central Arkansas in Conway, AR Key points 1. Predators and herbivores can fliact as agents of select on 2. Predators and herbivores affect population & community dynamics 10 year old deer exclosures in GSMNP Inside the exclosure=no deer Outside the exclosure=with deer Key points 1. Predators and herbivores can act as agents of selection 2. Predators and herbivores affect population & community community dynamics Rdh?13&14f Th !Read c ap s 13 &14 or Thurs Jen Schweitzer Microsoft PowerPoint - Predation_Herbivoryb.ppt [Compatibility Mode]
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