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Which of the following statements about prejudice is false?
a. Everyone, no matter their origin, is a potential target of prejudice.
b. While our enemies regard us in distorted fashion, our allies perceive us without prejudice.
c. Prejudices exist for nationalities, gender, sexual orientation, religion, and aspects of appearance and health.
d. Prejudices tend to “cut both ways”; if we have prejudice about one group, they will have prejudices about us.
According to the authors, one nearly inevitable consequence of being the target of relentless prejudice is
c. lower self-esteem.
Prejudice against ethnic minorities is well-known. Which of the following is true about the limits of who experiences prejudice?
a. Only ethnic minorities experience prejudice and discrimination.
b. Only ethnic minorities and women experience prejudice.
c. Any group can experience prejudice.
d. Prejudice is a thing of the past; no groups experience it anymore.
________ refers to an attitude toward a distinguishable group of people based solely on their group membership.
Lucas reads an article in the newspaper about a man recently arrested for polygamy. “Yuck! That lifestyle disgusts me!” Lucas says with disdain. Lucas is expressing his ________ about polygamy.
d. politically correct opinion
According to your text, prejudice can be considered a(n)
7. Which of the following best exemplifies the concept “prejudice” as used by social psychologists?
a. At parties, Lynne tends to seek out people who, like her, are psychology majors.
b. Kevin feels mistrustful of and uncomfortable around people from the Middle East.
c. Maria seldom hangs out with people who are not Catholic.
d. Barbara believes that women are smarter than men.
Kevin only buys clothes made in America. He never buys clothes made in India or Pakistan. This demonstrates the ________ component of his attitude.
________ is to affect as ________ is to cognition.
a. Stereotype; prejudice
b. Discrimination; stereotype
c. Prejudice; discrimination
d. Prejudice; stereotype
One reason why logical arguments often fail to change stereotypes is that they are emotion-based arguments. The other reason is that
a. attitudes are organized such that schema-consistent information is given more attention.
b. stereotypes are perpetuated so strongly in the news media.
c. people who are prejudiced tend to also have lower I.Q.s.
d. stereotypes are usually ingrained since birth.
Which of the following examples best captures the social-psychological concept of a stereotype?
a. Arlene refuses to enter an elevator in which men are riding.
b. Mitch believes that women are seductive, duplicitous, and not to be trusted.
c. Aaron becomes uncomfortable when a man sits too close to him.
d. Nicole avoids homeless people on the street.
Stereotypes are perpetuated in a culture. Thus, members of a culture may not believe the stereotypes, but most
a. will subscribe to them as adults.
b. will be aware of what the stereotypes are.
c. will use them to judge others.
d. have experiences that are in line with the stereotype.
The term ________ was coined by journalist Walter Lippman (1922), who referred to these phenomena as “the little pictures we carry around in our heads.”
Stereotypes are the ________ component of a negative attitude toward a group of people.
Although psychologists usually refer to stereotypes only in a ________ sense, it is possible for a person to have a ________ stereotype about a particular group.
a. benign; destructive
b. positive; negative
c. negative; positive
d. specific; diffuse
When asked to imagine someone who fits the description “construction worker,” many people picture a man in a hard hat and work clothes. Such mental images of a group of people are examples of
Shane believes that women are more dependent, more nurturing, more intuitive, and less rational than men. These are examples of Shane’s ________ women.
a. prejudice toward
b. stereotypes about
c. discrimination against
d. negative affect toward
________ are generalizations about a group of people in which identical characteristics are ascribed to all members of the group, regardless of within-group variations.
c. In-group biases
d. Negative stereotypes
Stereotyping is a way of ________ the complex information around us, and thus is sometimes ________.
a. coding; destructive
b. simplifying; adaptive
c. justifying; reassuring
d. judging; decisive
When Gordon Allport (1954) described stereotyping as “the law of least effort,” he was suggesting that stereotypes arise
a. from personal experience.
b. to help us conserve cognitive energy.
c. at the service of the ego.
d. to justify objectionable actions quickly and easily.
Stereotypes are harmful to the extent they
b. are overgeneralized to members of a group.
c. are based on experience.
d. reduce cognitive effort.
Stereotypes are beneficial to the extent that they
a. are selectively applied.
b. simplify a complex social world.
c. are reserved for ambiguous situations.
d. minimize differences within a group of people.
Keep in mind Gordon Allport’s (1954) description of stereotyping as “the law of least effort.” From Allport’s perspective, people are often
a. motivated tacticians.
b. cognitive misers.
c. prone to scapegoating.
d. lay scientists.
A cashier at the store assumes that because his next customer is elderly, she will take a long time to pay. The cashier is using his stereotypes about the elderly and not taking the time or energy to carefully consider each customer in his line as an individual. His use of stereotypes best exemplifies Allport’s idea of
a. the contact hypothesis.
b. the law of least effort.
d. natural prejudice.
If someone from Texas and someone from Massachusetts were asked about their stereotypes of Hollywood actors, they would probably have remarkably similar stereotypes. This is because stereotypes are perpetuated in a culture on a large scale through
c. the media.
Alan just met Tina who is from a small rural town in the South. Alan believes that people from the South are narrow-minded, conservatively religious, and prudish. Tina, however, is none of these. What will Alan think?
a. His stereotype about southerners is incorrect.
b. Tina is an exception to his stereotype about southerners.
c. His stereotype needs revision.
d. His emotions about Tina aren’t appropriate.
A(n) ________ refers to the tendency to see relations between objects or events that are not actually related.
a. artificial association
b. incidental inference
c. illusory correlation
d. bogus association
You don’t know very many people with blue hair, but you happen to observe that when fights break out, they seem to involve people with blue hair. You draw the conclusion that people with blue hair are particularly violent, even though they are not. This conclusion reflects a(n)
a. subliminal prime of stereotypic information.
b. automatic activation of a stereotype.
c. artificial association.
d. illusory correlation.
You have seen few people with nose rings, and few car accidents in your life. You happen to observe several car accidents involving people with nose rings, and come to the conclusion that people with nose rings drive badly. You have just created a(n)
a. illusory correlation.
b. plausible judgment.
c. incidental inference.
d. artifactual connection.
a. illusory correlation.
In the past, journalists would routinely report the race of an alleged criminal when he or she was black, but not when he or she was white. This media practice was likely to confirm in some readers’ minds the tendency of African Americans to commit criminal behavior. This phenomenon illustrates
a. a liberal media bias.
b. automatic activation of stereotypes.
c. an illusory correlation.
d. cognitive busyness.
You don’t know very many people with visible tattoos, but you happen to observe that when fights break out, they seem to involve people with tattoos. You draw the conclusion that there must be an association between having tattoos and being prone to aggression. This conclusion reflects a(n)
a. subliminal prime of stereotypic information.
b. automatic activation of your stereotype.
c. artificial association.
d. illusory correlation.
Research on the illusory correlation indicates that a correlation is found between minority status and negative events because minority status is
Researchers exposed participants to a twenty-minute audiotape of a college basketball game. Half of the participants were led to believe that one player, Mark Flick, was African American, and the other half were led to believe that Mark Flick was Caucasian. When participants were asked to rate Mark Flick’s performance,
a. they rated the “white” Mark Flick as a uniformly better player.
b. white participants and black participants demonstrated a “same race” bias.
c. they rated the “African American” Mark Flick as more athletic.
d. they did not rate the “African-American” and “white” Mark Flick differently.
Researchers exposed participants to a twenty-minute audiotape of a college basketball game. In this research, “Mark Flick” was rated by participants as more athletic if the participants thought he was
b. Caucasian .
c. African American.
Some would argue that the stereotype that African Americans are athletic is flattering. Which of the following is one reason why it is abusive?
a. It is a gross overgeneralization.
b. It is denying Caucasian children the opportunity to play sports.
c. It implies that African Americans are built for hard labor.
d. It is a means of scapegoating.
Julius is an African American and Mike is a Caucasian; both are basketball players for high-school teams. They both score same number of baskets and have similar records of assists, rebounds, and free throws. According to information from your text, who would be viewed as having more athletic ability and as having played a better game overall?
c. It depends on the ethnicity of the person you ask.
d. They would be view equally.
Which of the following is out of place?
A benevolent sexist would endorse which of the following statements?
a. “Women are just not capable of doing good science.”
b. “Women should not serve in the military because they aren’t as brave as men.”
c. “Women should stay home because they are too precious and sweet to waste on the working world.”
d. “Women shouldn’t teach men because they aren’t very intelligent.”
c. “Women should stay home because they are too precious and sweet to waste on the working world.”
One common stereotype about women that your text discusses is that they tend to be
b. better than men at throwing long distances.
c. more nurturing.
d. good at math.
Because we live in a ________ society, many men have feelings of ________ towards women.
a. patriarchal; ambivalence
b. patriarchal; hatred
c. modern; pleasure
d. modern; fear
Both benevolent sexism and hostile sexism are alike in that they
a. put women on a pedestal.
b. idealize women romantically.
c. have uniformly negative views of women.
d. view women as the weaker sex.
Men who are “benevolent sexists” have positive feelings about women as a group, but
a. while their views may be old-fashioned, there is no harm in them.
b. unconsciously have a strong underlying hatred of women.
c. are not inclined to put women on a pedestal or idealize them romantically.
d. their views also serve to justify relegating women to traditional, stereotyped roles.
Tara’s boss always calls her “Miss,” but refers to his other employees by name. He also goes out of his way to hold open a door for her, and has asked her a number of times to bring in some of her fabulous cookies for the office. Tara is experiencing ________ sexism from her boss.
At work, Julie is often told, “Get out of the way, this is man’s work, little woman.” Her coworkers will often belittle her when she makes a tiny mistake, but let it slide when another man makes a similar mistake. Julie is experiencing ________ sexism.
Tina’s dad is a benevolent sexist. He’s most likely to approve of which of the following as Tina’s choice of major?
a. Law. He’s looking forward to her becoming a defense attorney.
b. Art. He wants her to continue making the world beautiful.
c. Chemistry. He would like for her to use her talents to make an incredible amount of money.d. Criminal justice. He wants her to be the first female chief of police of their town.
Findings in research (Dovidio & Gaertner, 2008) on prejudice suggest that for many people, prejudice
a. lurks just below the surface.
b. does not exist.
c. is consciously active all of the time.
d. leads to aggression
According to some research, the degree of ________ prejudice has declined, but the degree of ________ prejudice keeps it alive under the surface.
a. implicit; explicit
b. explicit; implicit
c. benevolent; hostile
d. hostile; benevolent
According to some research, the degree of explicit prejudice has declined, but because of implicit prejudice it has
a. gone underground and become more overt.
b. gone underground and become more covert..
c. become a thing of the past.
d. become irrelevant to the lives of students today.
Discrimination is the ________ component of negative attitudes toward a group of people.
The definition of ________ is “unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group.”
a. affirmative action
Jessica isn’t invited to a Super Bowl party her coworkers are throwing because she’s a woman. Jessica is experiencing ________ from her coworkers.
c. hostile sexism
d. race-based exclusion
Which of the following is an example of discrimination?
a. Luke thinks all women are manipulative.
b. Ryan feels mistrustful of Jews.
c. Laura scoots over a few feet when an African American sits next to her in a waiting room.
d. Jenny believes that all Hispanics are fluent in Spanish and can cook terrific Tex-Mex food.
Ken needs help with his algebra homework. He looks around the room at his new roommates and blurts out, “Hiro, you’re good at math, right? You can help me with my homework.” Because Hiro is Japanese American, Ken assumes he’s good at math. This represents a(n)
Which of the following is not a microaggression?
a. seating an African American couple in the terrible seats near the kitchen door
b. speaking loudly and slowly to the blind guy on the project team
c. locking the car door when getting out at home
d. telling the Asian man at the grocery that his English is not too bad
Results of a field study on how homosexuals are treated when they apply for jobs indicate that there was
a. no evidence of any kind of discrimination against homosexual applicants.
b. significant formal discrimination against homosexual applicants (e.g., employers being less likely to indicate that jobs were still available), but no informal discrimination (e.g., less eye contact).
c. no formal discrimination against homosexual applicants (e.g., employers being less likely to indicate that jobs were still available), but there was significant informal discrimination (e.g., less eye contact).
d. both formal discrimination against homosexual applicants (e.g., employers being less likely to indicate that jobs were still available) and informal discrimination (e.g., less eye contact).
Based on the results of a field study on employers’ reactions to homosexual job applicants, which of the following interactions is most likely to occur?
a. When Jarvis, who is gay, responds to an ad for a salesperson, the employer is open and friendly, but indicates that the job has already been filled (even though the ad just appeared that morning).
b. When Stacia, who is a lesbian, responds to an ad for a waitress, the restaurant owner calls her back for a second interview but is not very talkative and does not make eye contact with her.
c. When Marvin, who is gay, responds to an ad for a bank teller, the interviewer is verbally abrupt and does not even allow him to fill out an application.
d. When Holly, who is a lesbian, responds to an ad for a receptionist, the boss is verbally very friendly and calls her back for a second interview.
Which of the following groups of people is not protected by national laws banning discrimination in the workplace?
c. ethnic minorities
d. people with disabilities
According to research presented in your text, homosexuals are more likely to encounter ________ discrimination and less likely to encounter ________ discrimination.
a. formal; informal
b. interpersonal; formal
c. formal; interpersonal
d. informal; violent
John, who is gay, goes on a job interview. His interviewers give him very good reviews, but seemed aloof and didn’t make a lot of small talk or eye contact with him. In this example, John was the target of
b. formal discrimination.
d. interpersonal discrimination.
Modern racism is ________ than “traditional” prejudice.
a. more blatant
b. more indirect
c. more explicit
d. less serious
________ refers to the idea that because people have learned to hide prejudiced attitudes to avoid allegations of racism, they reveal their prejudice in more subtle and indirect ways.
a. Realistic conflict theory
c. Modern racism
John says he is against the practice of bussing, but it turns out that he has no objections when his own children are bussed to a school in an all-white neighborhood. This suggests that John’s attitude towards bussing is a result of
a. cognitive dissonance reduction.
b. realistic conflict.
c. overt racism.
d. modern racism.
The bogus pipeline is an instrument that was developed to measure attitudes that are otherwise difficult to measure because
a. of motivations to give a socially desirable response.
b. the attitudes in question are negative rather than positive.
c. the attitudes in question are weak and not clearly developed.
d. participants feel ambivalent about the issue in question.
Arnold is taking a test which measures his reaction time to faces paired with words. When he responds more slowly to black faces paired with positive words it means he has a
a. negative implicit prejudice.
b. positive implicit prejudice.
c. negative explicit prejudice.
d. positive explicit prejudice.
Critics of the Implicit Association Test propose that the best way to measure implicit prejudice is to observe people then they are
a. spending money.
b. stressed or angry.
d. talking with friends.
Researchers had participants look at photos of African American and white young men holding various objects in their hand. The participants’ job was to determine if the object in the hand was a gun or not, and to press a button labeled “shoot” if the object was a gun. This research demonstrated a greater likelihood to
a. press the button and “shoot” the black young men, regardless of what they were holding.
b. press the button and “shoot” the white young men, regardless of what they were holding.
c. not press the button at all and thereby be shot themselves.
d. press the button for every young man they saw.
Researchers (Rogers & Prentice-Dunn, 1981) conducted a Milgram study with in which participants believed they were either shocking a Caucasian or an African-American “learner.” The pattern of the results for African-American learners can be best described as:
a. Caucasians used lower levels of shock.
b. Caucasians used higher levels of shock.
c. Caucasians used lower levels of shock initially, then higher levels after being insulted.
d. Caucasians used higher levels of shock initially, then lower levels after being insulted.
According to social-psychological research, someone who would score high on modern racism
a. is prejudiced at the automatic level but not the controlled level.
b. is prejudiced at the controlled level but not the automatic level.
c. is prejudiced at both the automatic level and controlled level.
d. always exhibits racist behaviors even though he or she means well.
Devine (1989) argues that even though we all hold ________ stereotypes, ________ can influence whether we believe and act on them.
a. negative; experience
b. automatically activated; conscious processing
c. simple; complex contradictory information
d. gender; interacting with others
Even non-prejudiced participants in research by Devine (1989) can recognize such negative stereotypes as “Jews are materialistic” or “African Americans are hostile.” Still, non-prejudiced participants do not endorse those stereotypes. This is because the activation of stereotypes is ________, whereas the refutation of stereotypes is ________.
a. automatic; controlled
b. controlled; automatic
c. difficult; effortless
d. distressing; a relief
Devine’s (1989) research indicates that both low-prejudiced and high-prejudiced people’s stereotypes are ________, but low-prejudiced people want to ________ their stereotypes.
a. suspended; activate
b. accessible; suspend
c. known; reveal
d. common; use
In contemporary stereotyping research such as that conducted by Devine (1989), out-group stereotypes are typically activated by
a. asking participants to interpret stories of in-group and out-group members.
b. exposing participants to “subliminal” cues associated with out-group members.
c. asking participants to generate as many out-group stereotypes as they can.
d. providing participants with out-group stereotypes and having participants refute them.
Gabriella is driving during rush hour through a neighborhood where most of the people are African American. Her children in the backseat are arguing and she’s trying to remember a list of items she needs to retrieve from the grocery. Even though she is ________ in prejudice, she finds herself locking her car doors because she has ________ cognitive resources with which to examine and change her behavior.
a. high; ample
b. low; ample
c. low; few
d. high; few
When we have unwittingly caused our stereotypic expectations to be confirmed by an out-group member’s behavior, we have actually created a(n)
a. self-fulfilling prophecy.
b. fundamental attribution error.
c. minimal group bias.
d. expectations relapse.
Researchers (Word, Zanna, & Cooper, 1974) tested the self-fulfilling prophecy as it relates to prejudice. They observed the differential behaviors of Anglo-American interviewers who interviewed either African-American or Anglo-American job candidates. They then trained other interviewers to manifest these two different interview styles. When the new interviewers later interviewed Anglo-American job applicants, the applicants who were treated as African Americans in the first study
a. confronted the interviewers and terminated the conversation.
b. actually behaved in less effective and comfortable ways.
c. experienced a loss of self-esteem.
d. became more convinced that their initial negative expectations were confirmed.
As the only African American in his class, LaMonte tends to worry about committing errors because he does not want his white counterparts to think that all African Americans are intellectually inferior. LaMonte is experiencing
a. class anxiety.
b. stereotype threat.
c. group hostility.
d. attribution error.
________ refers to the apprehension among minority group members that they might confirm to existing cultural stereotypes.
a. Performance ambivalence
b. Stereotype threat
c. Stereotypic anxiety
d. Evaluation apprehension
Which of the following people is most likely to experience stereotype threats?
a. an African-American student who believes that he is about to take a test that measures intellectual ability
b. an African-American student who believes that her performance on the test will not reveal anything about her actual intellectual ability
c. a white student who believes that he is about to take a test that measures intellectual ability
d. a white student who believes that his performance on the test will not reveal anything about his actual intellectual ability
In a series of experiments, Steele and Aronson (1995) had both African-American and Anglo-American students at Stanford University take a verbal test. In one condition, the test was described as a valid measure of intelligence, and in the other condition, the test was described as neither a reliable nor valid measure of intelligence. In the former condition, African Americans performed more poorly than did Anglo Americans because
a. African Americans were overwhelmed by a fear of success.
b. African Americans experienced stereotype threat.
c. Anglo Americans were determined that African Americans would not “outscore” them.
d. African Americans shared the cultural stereotype.
The underlying reason why stereotype threat can undermine the performance of members of a group with respect to some ability is that the experience of stereotype threat fosters
a. depression and low self-esteem.
b. anger and aggression.
c. evaluation apprehension.
d. the self-verification motive.
A woman would be most likely to experience stereotype threat when completing a(n)
a. calculus examination.
b. vocational interest questionnaire.
c. gender-neutral task.
d. English assignment.
In which of the following cases would stereotype threat not be likely to occur?
a. an African-American male taking a difficult and presumably diagnostic test of intellectual ability
b. a white female taking a difficult and presumably diagnostic test of mathematical ability
c. a white male taking a difficult and presumably diagnostic test of verbal ability
d. a white male taking a difficult and presumably diagnostic test of mathematical ability in competition with a group of Asians
In a study by Stone and his colleagues (1999), when Caucasian and African-American participants played a game of miniature golf, the Caucasian participants outperformed African Americans when the game was framed as ________, but African-American participants outperformed Caucasian participants when the game was framed as ________.
a. Scottish in origin; Egyptian in origin
b. a measure of natural athleticism; a measure of sports intelligence
c. being mentally challenging; a test of hand-eye coordination
d. a measure of sports intelligence; a measure of natural athleticism
Under which of the following conditions have Caucasian males shown signs of stereotype threat?
a. when taking a math test in a room with women
b. when taking a math test in a room with Asian Americans
c. when taking a standardized test in a room with women and ethnic minorities
d. when taking a physics exam in a room with Germans
According to the research by Aronson and his colleagues (2006) on overcoming stereotype threat, which of the following would help a female taking a math exam?
a. Don’t worry. You’re pretty; you’ll do fine in life.
b. You are a good student in a selective major.
c. People here in Texas are good at this.
d. Use those gifts that you have been given.
Dweck’s idea of a ________ mindset is an effective way to counteract stereotype threat.
Thurgood Marshall is known as a former Supreme Court justice. Yet he made other important contributions to policies related to prejudice, including
a. proposing affirmative action policies.
b. the Emancipation Proclamation.
c. developing the Civil Rights Act.d. arguing the case of Brown v. Board of Education
Prejudice may be maintained by ________ normative rules.
a. the rejection of
b. conformity to
c. the avoidance of
d. ignorance of
A number of colleges, universities, and corporations are encouraged to hire equally qualified women and minorities for high status positions. In support of this practice, some argue that the paucity of women and minorities inadvertently communicates to students and workers that members of these groups are not as competent or worthy of consideration. In essence, those who support the diversification of the workforce point to ________ as a source of negative stereotypes and prejudice.
a. realistic conflict
c. affirmative action
d. institutional racism and sexism
One of the hazards of institutional racism and institutional sexism as sources of negative stereotypes and prejudice is that they are
a. so blatant that out-groups refuse to participate in the system.
b. so subtle that we don’t even notice these influences on our attitudes.
c. widely endorsed by those in powerful positions.
d. more prevalent during times of economic and social uncertainty.
Fiona isn’t really sure what to believe about Indian immigrants to England, but she knows what her parents and friends think. Because she is concerned with being accepted by these important people in her life, Fiona adopts their beliefs and feelings about this out-group. This example best illustrates ________ as a source of prejudicial attitudes.
a. informational conformity
b. competition for scarce resources
d. normative conformity
Researchers discovered that many ministers who supported desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas did not use their pulpits to air their (unpopular) views for fear of losing contributions and church members. This is a real world example of the power of ________ to exacerbate prejudice and discrimination.
a. social censure
b. informational conformity
c. normative conformity
d. attitude ambivalence
Anecdotal evidence shows that African-American and white coal miners in the 1950s were completely segregated above ground and completely integrated below ground. In addition, most ministers in the 1950s supported desegregation but kept this support to themselves. These examples suggest the operation of ________ in prejudice.
d. self-fulfilling prophecies
From a social cognitive perspective, the first step toward prejudice is
a. the categorization of people into groups.
b. the preference we give to in-groups.
c. our tendency to disparage out-groups.
d. identification with similar others.
An in-group is a group with which individuals
Which of the following statements about in-groups is true?
a. Almost any group can be an in-group.
b. We seldom identify with fellow members.
c. We are likely to compete with in-group members.
d. In-groups are always minimal groups.
If Julie identifies herself as a woman, a mother, and a teacher, who would not be another in-group member for her?
a. Jake, a high-school math teacher
b. Lucy, who waits tables as the corner diner
c. Bill, an accountant
d. Mary, a mother of three
“Klee style” versus “Kandinsky style,” blue eyes versus brown eyes, and tall versus short all represent meaningless criteria by which to
a. create in-groups and out-groups.
b. minimize the effects of group membership.
C. perpetuate stereotypes.
d. reduce prejudice.
Recall that British social psychologist Henri Tajfel (1982) divided strangers into groups based on such criteria as whether their artistic taste represented a “Klee style” or a “Kandinsky style.” Tajfel designed such experiments to determine
a. the minimal conditions for establishing in-group bias.
b. when existing stereotypes will overshadow the effects of minimal categorization.
c. how to minimize competition between in-groups and out-groups.
d. the effects of minimal categorization on people’s implicit personality theories.
When a member of your in-group performs particularly well in a competition, you most likely
a. are depressed that you did not win.
b. experience a decrease in self-esteem.
c. experience no change in self-esteem; after all, you didn’t do anything.
d. experience an increase in self-esteem.
British social psychologist Henri Tajfel (1982) asserted that in-group bias is
a. an automatic product of information processing.
b. motivated by the desire to enhance self-esteem.
c. a result of the need to perceive the world accurately.
d. more likely in people who are “cognitive misers.”
In the United States, the statement, “I’m proud to be an American” exemplifies a(n)
a. in-group bias.
b. minimal group effect.
c. consequence of groupthink.
d. collective cognition.
An instructor divides her class into two groups: those who prefer chocolate candy, and those who prefer fruit-flavored candy. By doing this, the instructor has created
b. minimal groups.
c. preference-based circles.
“Like them better.” “Give more rewards to them.” “Believe they are more pleasant.” All these describe
a. in-group members
b. out-group members
Cialdini and his colleagues (1976) counted the number of college insignia T-shirts worn by university students on the Monday after their teams played football. These researchers found that students were more likely to wear such shirts after victories than after losses. These findings suggest that
a. in-group identification is a source pride and self-esteem.
b. minimal categorization can have effects on competition.
c. in-groups can provide support after setbacks.
d. the establishment of in-group bias can contribute to intergroup conflict.
________ refers to our tendency to view members of ________ as more similar to one another than they really are.
a. In-group bias; our in-group
b. In-group heterogeneity; our in-group
c. Out-group homogeneity; an out-group
d. Out-group heterogeneity; an out-group
When prejudiced people say, “They all look alike to me,” they are illustrating the
a. out-group homogeneity bias.
b. in-group bias.
c. illusory correlation.
d. ultimate attribution error.
Researchers showed rival Princeton and Rutgers students videotapes of decisions made by a male character. Half the time the character was allegedly from the participants’ university, and half the time, he was from the rival university. Participants then predicted what percentage of students at that university would make a decision similar to the target’s. In support of their “out-group homogeneity” hypothesis, Quattrone and Jones found that participants viewed one person’s behavior as predictive of his group when the
a. target was a member of the rival school.
b. behavior in the videotape matched stereotypes.
c. target was a member of the participants’ in-group.
d. behavior in the videotape was negative.
Juliet is Jewish, and is going on a date with a Catholic. “Just don’t bring up abortion—you know all Catholics are pro-life,” cautions her sister. Juliet’s sister is exhibiting the bias known as
a. in-group favoritism.
b. out-group derogation.
d. out-group homogeneity.
The tendency to make a dispositional attribution about an entire group of people is called the
a. fundamental attribution error.
b. ultimate attribution error.
c. out-group homogeneity bias.
d. actor/observer effect.
________ is to individuals as ________ is to groups.
a. Fundamental attribution error; ultimate attribution error
b. Accuracy; biases
c. Stereotype; prejudice
d. Personal attribution; collective attribution
Christians have historically committed the ________ when they attributed Jews’ banking and money-lending to ________.
a. fundamental attribution error; greed and laziness
b. ultimate attribution error; restrictive laws
c. ultimate attribution error; greed and laziness
d. fundamental attribution error; forces beyond their control
In research presented in the text, college student participants played the role of jurors in a mock trial. The researcher found that something as simple as ________ evoked dispositional attributions and caused jurors to ignore extenuating circumstances in the case.
a. a Hispanic surname
c. random minimal group criteria
d. an offender-crime match
Why would something as apparently innocuous as a defendant’s name influence the inferences and decisions of mock jurors in the experiment by Bodenhausen (1988) mentioned in the text?
a. Negative out-group stereotypes were activated, and they biased information processing.
b. Group polarization during deliberations made stereotypes more extreme.
c. Groups were more likely than individuals to commit the ultimate attribution error.
d. Names are often a criterion used to establish minimal in-groups and out-groups.
Researchers systematically varied the contents of prisoners’ (fictitious) parole files provided to participants. They found that when ________ with participants’ stereotypes, participants were harsher in their parole recommendations.
a. crimes were consistent
b. crimes were inconsistent
c. prison behavior was consistent
d. prison behavior was inconsistent
Researchers systematically varied the contents of prisoners’ (fictitious) parole files provided to participants. When the prisoners’ crimes were consistent with participants’ stereotypes, they were harsher in their parole decisions. Practically speaking, results of this study support the policy of
a. allowing prisoners to speak on their own behalf during such hearings.
b. removing information about race or ethnicity from parole files.
c. educating members of parole boards about the causes and consequences of prejudice.
d. only allowing people of the prisoner’s same race on the parole board.
________ is to personal attribution for misfortune as ________ is to situational attribution for misfortune.
a. Empathy; victim blame
b. Stereotype; ultimate attribution error
c. Victim blame; empathy
d. Lax standards; stringent standards
A person who believes in a just world would likely believe that a date-rape victim should
a. take counseling at a crisis center.
b. not date.
c. press charges against the alleged rapist.
d. have known her date better.
Jerry Falwell and his followers claim that the attack on the U.S. on September 11, 2001 occurred because the U.S. is “gay-friendly.” In essence, his controversial message is that the World Trade Center attacks occurred because the U.S. deserved it on some level. Jerry Falwell and his followers probably have a strong
a. need to belong.
b. stereotype threat.
c. belief in a just world.
d. egalitarian attitude.
120. Research has shown that when most people are confronted with evidence of an inequitable outcome that is difficult to explain, they will
a. revise their stereotypes.
b. blame the victim.
c. believe in a just world.
d. abandon their belief in a just world.
Research has shown that when fate (e.g., a flip of a coin) determines the allocation of rewards for completing a task, participants will often
a. feel empathy for the “loser” and share their rewards.
b. convince themselves that the “loser” didn’t do a fair share of the work.
c. share their winnings to bolster their belief in a just world.
d. revise their stereotypes of the “loser.”
Researchers provided college student participants with a description of a woman’s friendly behavior. In addition, some participants were told that the woman was raped by the man, whereas others were provided no such information. When participants judged the appropriateness of the woman’s behavior,
a. men in the “rape” condition engaged in victim blame, but the women didn’t.
b. participants in the “rape” condition judged the woman’s behavior as inappropriate.
c. only participants who believed in a just world blamed the victim.
d. female participants were better able to empathize with the rape victim.
According to Crandall and Eshleman’s (2003) model, people struggle with their urge to express prejudice and their
a. need to maintain a positive self-view and not be seen as a bigot.
b. need to be correct.
c. need to belong to a meaningful group, no matter the cost.
d. desire for affiliation.
According to the justification-suppression model presented in your text, once a person is able to find valid justification for disliking a group, they are more likely to
a. refrain from acting on their prejudices.
b. act against those group member without cognitive dissonance.
c. behave in accordance with their egalitarian beliefs.
d. experience empathy for that group.
George is rear-ended by a Hispanic woman. Although George usually does not express his prejudice, he gets out of the car and yells several racist and sexist remarks at the driver. This behavior is best explained by
a. considering prejudice to be an attitude.
b. the perspective that stereotypes are schemas.
c. the justification-suppression model.
d. the contact hypothesis.
According to realistic conflict theory, prejudice and discrimination often follow from
a. negative stereotypes.
b. scarce resources.
c. losing out-group status.
________ posits that increased prejudice and discrimination result from limited resources and consequent intergroup conflict.
a. The self-fulfilling prophecy
b. Relative deprivation theory
c. Attribution theory
d. Realistic conflict theory
Consider the following examples of prejudice: anti-Chinese prejudice in the United States after the transcontinental railroad was completed; anti-Mexican prejudice in the United States when agricultural jobs are scarce; anti-Turkish prejudice in Germany after reunification; anti-Arab and anti-Jew prejudice in the Middle East; and anti-immigrant prejudice during times of high unemployment. These examples best illustrate the ________ theory of prejudice.
b. realistic conflict
Consider how realistic conflict theory has played a role in how Chinese immigrants were seen in the U.S. When they were competing with Caucasians during the gold rush, they were seen ________, but when they were helping construct the transcontinental railroad, they were seen ________.
a. favorably; unfavorably
b. neutrally; unfavorably
c. unfavorably; favorably
d. favorably; neutrally
a. there will be less prejudice against minorities.
b. there will be more cooperation among minorities and the majority group.
c. minorities will benefit more from affirmative action than is really fair.
d. there will be more prejudice against minorities.
Recall that Sherif and his colleagues (1961) created conflict between two groups of boys in a summer camp. Intergroup hostility was relatively easy to generate. To do this, the researchers first ________ and then ________.
a. created out-group cohesiveness; initiated competitive games
b. created in-group cohesiveness; set up a series of competitive situations
c. created minimal groups; generated frustration by taking away desired objects
d. set up a series of competitive situations; created in-group cohesiveness
Recall that Sherif and his colleagues (1961) created conflict between two groups of boys in a summer camp. Once in-group cohesiveness was established, they set up a series of competitive situations such as tug-of-war and other competitive games. Conflict between the two groups escalated. This field study provided support for the ________ theory of prejudice.
b. realistic conflict
c. out-group disparagement
d. ultimate attribution
Many years ago, advertisers aired a TV commercial for decaffeinated coffee. A daughter complains to her mother, “Sure, you’re tense and irritable, but don’t take it out on me!” This commercial captures the essence of the ________ theory of prejudice.
a. victim blame
c. realistic conflict
d. modern racism
The process whereby frustrated and angry people displace their aggression from its real source to a convenient target is called
a. blaming the victim.
d. symbolic aggression.
Scapegoating is most likely to occur when the majority group is ________ and the group being scapegoated is ________.
a. at the peak of their power; hard to identify
b. frustrated; visible and powerless
c. angry; angry
d. demoralized; angry
The major difference between the scapegoat theory of prejudice and the realistic conflict theory of prejudice is that the scapegoat theory is applicable when
a. in-groups are small.
b. in-group members are frustrated.
c. in-group members target powerless, disliked victims.
d. in-group frustration is psychological in origin.
According to the text, in Nazi Germany, the Jews were used as ________, much like how Rev. Jerry Falwell currently views homosexuals in the U.S..
Informational attempts to “re-educate” prejudiced people have proved ineffective in large part because
a. prejudice is an inevitable part of our sociobiological heritage.
b. there is a powerful emotional component to prejudice.
c. stereotypes are a product of erroneous information.
d. it is difficult to influence or control economic forces.
Amelia is trying hard to explain to Ricardo why women should not be restricted to the home. Even though Ricardo has no firm basis for his beliefs, Amelia’s logical arguments fail to persuade him in this case because
a. logical arguments rarely work on the emotional basis of attitudes.
b. Ricardo holds negative stereotypes about women, including Amelia.
c. Amelia’s arguments are too difficult to follow.
d. logical arguments rarely change sex-role stereotypes.
According to the authors of your text, it is primarily the ________ aspect of prejudiced attitudes that make them relatively impervious to rational or logical arguments.
Researchers presented participants with just one or two examples of information that strongly challenged their pre-existing stereotypes. These researchers found that, when presented with just one or two examples that challenge a strongly held stereotype, people
a. created new subtypes.
b. dismissed the new information and strengthened their stereotypic beliefs.
c. abandoned their stereotypes.
d. revised their stereotypes, as the bookkeeping model would predict.
Researchers (Kunda & Oleson, 1997) presented people with one or two examples that countered people’s strongly held stereotypes and found that some people actually strengthened their belief in the stereotype when confronted with such disconfirmations. According to the researchers, this occurred because the people
a. simply ignored the evidence.
b. misperceived the evidence in line with their preconceptions.
c. were motivated by the counterexamples to find even more reasons why their belief held.
d. in the experiment were a clinical sample of sociopaths; this occurs only for this subgroup.
How are stereotypes likely to change? Evidence indicates that
a. stereotypes, once formed, virtually never change.
b. stereotypes change suddenly in response to a single, dramatic, disconfirming example.
c. stereotypes change in response to two or three disconfirming examples.
d. stereotypes change only gradually, in response to many examples that are inconsistent.
One of your friends holds very negative stereotypes about Ugandans. Which of the following is the best way to change your friend’s stereotypes?
a. Give your friend a couple of examples of Ugandans who are good people.
b. Argue logically with your friend.
c. Tell your friend he or she is just wrong.
d. Give your friend many examples of great Ugandans—and some time.
a. norms; people become less prejudiced
b. economic conditions change; people become less prejudiced
c. economic conditions improve; prejudice declines
d. norms; conformity pressures change attitudes
d. norms; conformity pressures change attitudes
Designers of a new campus housing unit want to create an environment that helps reduce prejudice among the students. Which of the following would you suggest?
a. Assign all White students to one floor and all Hispanic students to another floor.
b. Create apartments and living suites that mix racial and ethnic groups.
c. Put some students in single-race living suites but encourage eating with other groups.
d. Encourage everyone to join ethnic student organizations.
The idea that prejudice can be reduced by interacting with members of an out-group is called the
a. interactional theory.
b. mere exposure paradigm.
c. contact hypothesis.
d. interpersonal model.
Research by Deutsch and Collins(1951) suggests that when residents of a segregated versus racially integrated housing project were surveyed after living there for several months, people who had lived in the integrated environment tended to
a. feel more prejudice than they had before.
b. feel less prejudice than they had before.
c. express less prejudice, but still feel it very strongly.
d. commit more discriminatory acts.
Walter Stephan (1978) conducted a careful study of the effects of school desegregation. Contrary to results found in the study of the desegregation of housing projects, Stephan found that
a. racial attitudes improved, but minority self-esteem did not.
b. racial attitudes improved, but minority achievement did not.
c. minority achievement improved, but racial attitudes did not.
d. racial attitudes did not improve and minority self-esteem decreased.
Suppose that Herman is prejudiced toward members of Group A. Increasing Herman’s contact with Group A is most likely to reduce his prejudice if
a. he develops a friendship with one member of Group A, but never meets any other members of this group.
b. his basketball team often plays other teams that have lots of Group A members.
c. he volunteers to help build a house for Habitat for Humanity, and several of his coworkers are members of Group A. At the end of the day, he and all the other workers often go out to dinner together.
d. he gets a job with a company that hires lots of Group A members. Herman has a management position, whereas all of the Group A workers have lower status jobs.
Recall that Sherif and his colleagues (1951) created conflict between two groups of boys in a summer camp. Once in-group cohesiveness was established, they set up a series of competitive situations such as tug-of-war and other competitive games. Conflict between the two groups escalated. Sherif and his colleagues were only successful in reducing conflict and hostility when
a. they brought the groups together in neutral situations.
b. leaders endorsed a truce between the two rival groups.
c. they constructed situations that fostered mutual interdependence.
d. groups were punished for behaving with hostility.
________ characterizes a situation in which two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal important to each group.
b. Mutual interdependence
c. Zero-sum dynamics
d. Mutual exclusivity
Which of the following statements is false? Hostility between two groups can be reduced by
a. having the two groups work together to achieve a common goal.
b. making sure that the two groups are of equal status.
c. having the groups interact in a formal setting with each group occupying half of the room.
d. making sure that it is clear that norms favor equality.
Alice’s three children are driving her crazy. They are constantly squabbling, calling one another names, and generally tormenting one another. To preserve what’s left of her sanity, Alice has decided to try to convince the youngsters to get along. Based on the contact hypothesis, what’s the best way to do this?
a. Cook a good, hearty meal and have them all gather at the table.
b. Promise to take them to a funny movie only if they clean the playroom in thirty minutes.
c. Send them outside to play in the yard.
d. Have a family meeting so that they can air their grievances.
Alice’s three children are driving her crazy. They are constantly squabbling, calling one another names, and generally tormenting one another. To preserve what’s left of her sanity, Alice has decided to try to convince the youngsters to get along. She promises them that she will take them to a funny movie if they will work together to clean their playroom in under thirty minutes. Which of the preconditions for reducing conflict does this illustrate?
a. one-on-one interactions between in-group and out-group members and an informal setting
b. the reduction of frustration and a common goal
c. a neutral setting and role differentiation
d. mutual interdependence and a common goal
In a typical classroom, informal contact between students is often called “talking to your neighbor” and is discouraged. This violates which precondition for the reduction of prejudice and hostility between students? Contact must occur in
a. situations in which social norms promote equality.
b. a tightly structured situation controlled by authority.
c. a friendly setting where group members can interact on a one-to-one basis.
d. the service of attaining a common goal.
Conditions under which contact situations reduce prejudice include
a. biased attenuation, schematic interference, and hierarchical status.
b. multiple contacts, mutual interdependence, and equal status.
c. stereotype suppression, enhanced independence, and positive affect.
d. affective suppression, mutual dependence, and repeated contact.
According to your text, what is one reason why early attempts at desegregation failed?
a. Children were too prejudiced.
b. Teachers were modeling discrimination.
c. Students were not of equal status.
d. Students worked together and cheated off of each other.
Shawna (who is Mexican American) has recently been bussed into a school with predominantly white, middle-class students. Based on information from your text, why is she likely to have difficulty?
a. She is less intelligent than her classmates.
b. Her classmates are prejudiced against her.
c. The classroom of her new school isn’t exactly cooperative.
d. Her teacher will make a negative example of her.
In the jigsaw classroom, when a student is having trouble mastering his or her material, other group members benefit most by
a. taking over and doing the student’s assignment.
b. asking the teacher to clarify things.
c. asking friendly and good questions.
d. focusing their attention on students who have mastered the material.
In the jigsaw classroom technique,
a. children work on jigsaw puzzles to foster cooperative interdependence.
b. lessons are structured so students’ only access to most of the information they will be tested on is from other students.
c. lessons are structured so each student works at his or her own pace and can feel a sense of mastery.
d. lessons are structured so that groups compete for small prizes to create incentives for learning.
Why does the jigsaw classroom yield such positive results with regard to self-esteem, achievement, and positive informal contact between children of various racial and ethnic groups?
a. Students’ responsibilities are informally structured.
b. It appeals to young children’s natural empathy for others.
c. It is in each child’s self-interest to cooperate with others.
d. Minority children are required to compete when they otherwise wouldn’t.
Many researchers have evaluated the effectiveness of cooperative learning techniques. Researchers such as Gaertner and his colleagues (1990) believe that one reason why such techniques work is that small, cooperative learning groups
a. break down in-group and out-group categories into a perception of a single group.
b. are more likely to follow egalitarian norms.
c. provide for contact between members of different racial and ethnic groups.
d. are more pleasant and thus reduce academic frustration.
Who is least likely to experience a reduction in prejudice?
a. Jason, who does a favor for Pablo
b. Margo, who has participated in a program to increase her empathy and perspective-taking ability
c. Gina, who asks LaToya to do a favor for her
d. George, who participates in a jigsaw classroom
Researchers state that one reason the jigsaw classroom is effective is that it allows the individual to develop a category of “oneness.” By this he means that
a. everyone, without exception, is seen as part of a single group.
b. the individual sees him or herself as an individual separate from the group.
c. in-groups are seen as superior to out-groups, bolstering self-esteem.
d. out-groups are seen as a single, homogeneous unit separate from the in-group.
Recall that Bridgeman (1981) conducted an experiment with ten-year-old children, half of whom had previously had two months’ experience in a jigsaw classroom. In this experiment, she showed the youngsters a cartoon in which a little boy waves goodbye to his father at the airport, receives a package from the postman, and bursts into tears upon finding out that it contains a toy plane. Children who had two months’ experience in the jigsaw groups were more likely than the control group to say that the
a. boy cried because the gift reminded him of his father leaving.
b. boy cried because he missed his father.
c. postman was confused about why the boy cried.
d. postman knew the boy was sad because the gift reminded him of his father’s leaving.
Recall that Bridgeman (1981) conducted an experiment with ten-year-old children, half of whom had previously had two months’ experience in a jigsaw classroom. In this experiment, she showed the youngsters a cartoon in which a little boy waves goodbye to his father at the airport, receives a package from the postman, and bursts into tears upon finding out that it contains a toy plane. Children who had previously participated in the jigsaw classrooms were more likely to say that the postman would be confused at seeing the boy cry after receiving a present. This reflects the idea that jigsaw groups promote the development of
a. spatial skills.
Which of the following is not a benefit of cooperative learning?
a. improving race relations
b. building empathy
c. improving instruction
d. lowering class size
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