the reading of some event one could otherwise have no access to.
type 1 error
reject null hypothesis when it is true (false positive)
type 2 error
accept null hypothesis even though its false (false negative)
z= (the number of occurrences of a particular pattern of interest) minus .5 minus [(number of observations one has)times (the probability of the problem to happen apriori)] all divided by the square root of (NP(1-P))
that one assumes something before it happens
associated with chance (like a coin flip 50-50)
means knowing something after the fact
associated with base rate (like births actually not 50-50 although you would think that)
Law of large numbers
expected probabilities are approximated the more occurences of a given phenomenon we have.
the physical property of things having color and light (perceived as brightness in our brain)
difference of gaussians (DoGs)
also known as the mexican hat function. its computed by multiplying the bell curve for excitation and inhibition of the receptor cells
multiplying a sine wave function with Gaussian
more accurate description of what happens in cortical areas than a sine wave function is
a model to explain how temporal inhibition works in audition. shows neurons that measure where both signals intersect. the closer the intersection is to the center of the line the more in front of the subject the sound is coming from.
measures the interaural time difference (or ITD) of two sounds
in the LGN big cells
make up about 10 percent of LGN they are rapidly conducting and respond to luminance (light and dark) and not to color
in the LGN smaller cells
relatively slow conducting, respond to color, and make up 80 percent of the LGN
bands that are observable between the layers
make up 10 percent of the LGN
the flattened out brain diagram (conformal map)
primary visual cortex
V1: codes seven dimension: orientation, two space dimensions, spatial frequency, motion and rest, eyes (left and right visual fields), and color
the tectopulivinar system has information coming from the retina and moves only through the magno cells. (this indicates that the parvo system may be newer in evolution). it then gots to the superior colliculus instead of the LGN, then to the pulvinar, then to V2 (skips V1)
pertains to doing, the one in the top of the brain.
bottom system, is newer and contributes to that perception needed for categorization it is the "what" system
words, matching, verbal and visual judgments
familial left hander
parent or grandparent are also left handed
language is likely in the left hemisphere
nonfamilial left hander
language can be represented in the left side, or bilaterally, in the brain
muscles that move towards us
ipsilaterally controlled and contralaterally
muscles that take away
separates temporal and frontal lobs
developed due to the temporal lobe, which has grown out and extended forward
broca's and Wenicke's area
language areas in the brain on either side of the motor and somatosensory cortex
Broca's area controls ability to talk
Wernicke's area controls the ability to understand
85% of brain cells are not neurons, they are glia, involved in a high number of important things that are so important that they are also involved in a number of devastating diseases
travel around the brain's intercellular space and fight disease (not with the blood)
guard the blood brain barrier, which is the network of vessels that oxygenate the brain. astrocytes take this oxygen and move it to brain tissue.
wrap themselves around the neurons and have myelin in them, helping insulate the neurons.
happen due to a blockade of blood
occur when the blood-brain barrier is broken
transient ischemic attacks
passing stokes, normally occur in prior stroke patients
language disruption: either can't talk, or can't understand language.
How many receptors per degree are there in our fovea?
120 recepters per degree, so therefore one receptor is the equivalent of 30 seconds of arc.
eye test chart that doesn't require literacy
requires literacy normal eye chart
also called hyperacuity can be detected at around 5 seconds of arc (one sixth of a receptor's width)
the ability to tell the difference between two lines that are in perfect alignment or not with each other.
asks how little i can make a disk before you stop seeing it.
as a black disc gets smaller it starts to look grey to the retina not black
Contrast sensitivity function
shows what our eyes see. Everything above the curve is invisble
threshold contrast/ Michelson contrast
can be found by dividing the difference between minimum and maximum amplitudes of the sine wve of the wavelength we see by the sum of these wavelengths.
amount of light per unit time
occurs when the cornea is not round.
address how well one can see different contrasts as a function of their gradients. basically state that if contrast is reduced, having the bars further out fromone another can makethe bars equally visible to those that were closer together but had higher contrast
when something is clearly visibile, it is not more visible than other clearly visible things.
there is no information in any modality that tells usthat one thing is on top of the other in a drawing.
from the stimulus to the retina, to lgn, to v1, etc
stimulus influences how the brain perceives it
brain influences how the stimulus is perceived
gastaltists were top down contenders
magno cells report there and this layer responds to motion
thin stripes receive information from blobs which process color
code for form
responds to color and luminance differences
processes form and movement
responds to luminance, high spatial frequency, orientation, and bidirectional movement
processes motion and depth
when color differences are present but luminance differences are not
inhibition (or one excited neuron suppressing the activity of its neighbor neurons) that is transmitted laterally across a nerve circuit. In the retina, lateral inhibition is transmitted by horizontal and amacrine cells.
exceptions to the rule of opposition (things that do not decussate)
audition (for some of it)
foveal representation in vision,
manual control (muscular control)
and neck muscles
face perception, certain spatial skills
language and speech,
normally calls the shots between the two hemispheres
contends that humanities and human sciences can be reduced to psychology, which can be reduced to biology, which can be reduced to chemistry, which can be reduced to physics, which can be reduced to mathematics.
philosophical reductionism contends that it is possible to reduce psychological phenomena to biological ones
methodological reductionism proposes that reductionism is the only route for understanding the world
pragnanz/goodness of form
one of the main gestalt principles that says that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. A form is dynamic and will change.
Thomas Kuhn: how do we choose among theories in science? (Criteria a theory should have)
1 accurate in predictions
2. relatively simple
3. broad in scope
4. internally consistent
5. able to generate new research and findings
Newton's three discoveries
divisibility of white light into rainbow colors
rainbow colors turn into white light
just three colors can still turn into white light
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