The science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they contain, and their actions within the body (including ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion). A broader definition includes the social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of food and eating.
products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissues
the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks.
foods that contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions; sometimes called designer foods or nutraceuticals.
nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body.
the capacity to do work. The energy in food is chemical energy. The body can convert this chemical energy to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy.
chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues. Nutrients may also reduce the risks of some diseases.
Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins - because the body requires them in relatively large amounts (many grams daily).
Vitamins and minerals - because the body requires them in small amounts (milligrams or micrograms daily).
not containing carbon or pertaining to living things.
in chemistry, a substance or molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds.
grown without the use of pesticides
nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs; also called indispensable nutrients. About 40 nutrients are currently known to be essential for human beings.
the nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use. They can be found in: Carbohydrates Fat Protein
units by which energy is measured. Food energy is measured in kilocalories (1000 calories equal 1 kilocalorie), abbreviated kcalories or kcal. One kcalorie is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree C. The scientific use of the term kcal is the same as the popular use of the term calorie.
the process by which nutrients are broken down to yield energy or used to make body structures
a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food (kcalories/gm).
organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health.
inorganic elements. Some minerals are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health.
the complete set of genetic material (DNA) in an organism or cell. The study of genomes is called genomics.
the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes. (nutrigenomics) and how genes affect the interactions between diet and disease (nutrigenetics).
determine the incidence and distribution of diseases in a population. Include: cross-sectional, case control, and cohort studies. Strengths: can narrow down the list of possible causes, can raise questions to pursue through other types of studies Weaknesses: cannot control variables that may influence the development or the prevention of a disease, cannot prove cause and effect
explore the effects of a specific variable on a tissue, cell, or molecule. Lab-based studies are often conducted in test tubes (in vitro) or on animals. Strengths: can control conditions, can determine effects of a variable Weaknesses: cannot apply results from test tubes or animals to human beings
Human Intervention or Clinical Trials
involve human beings who follow a specified regimen. Strengths: can control conditions (for the most part), can apply findings to some groups of human beings Weaknesses: cannot generalize findings to all human beings, cannot use certain treatments for clinical or ethical reasons
an experiment in which the subjects do not know whether they are members of the experimental group or the control group.
a group of individuals similar in all possible respects to the experimental group except for the treatment. Ideally, the control group receives a placebo while the experimental group receives a real treatment.
the simultaneous increase, decrease, or change in two variables. If A increases as B increases, or if A decreases as B decreases, the correlation is positive. If A increases as B decreases or vise versa, the correlation is negative.
Double Blind Experiment
an experiment in which neither the subjects nor the researchers know which subjects are members of the experimental group and which are members of the control group, until after the experiment is over.
a group of individuals similar in all possible respects to the control group except for the treatment. The experimental group receives the real treatment.
an unproven statement that tentatively explains the relationship between two or more variables.
A process in which a panel of scientists rigorously evaluates a research study to assure that the scientific method was followed.
an inert, harmless medication given to provide comfort and hope; a sham treatment used in controlled research studies.
a change that occurs in response to expectations about the effectiveness of a treatment that actually has no pharmaceutical effects.
a process of choosing the members of the experimental and control groups without bias.
repeating an experiment and getting the same results.
the people or animals participating in a research project.
a tentative explanation that integrates many and diverse findings to further the understanding of a defined topic.
having the quality of being founded on fact or evidence.
factors that change. a variable may depend on another variable, or it may be independent. Sometimes both variables correlate with a third variable.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the United States and Canada. These values are used for planning and assessing diets and include: Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI)
the lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
the average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people; a goal for dietary intake by individuals.
the amount of a nutrient below which almost all healthy people can be expected, over time, to experience deficiency symptoms.
Adequate Intake (AI)
the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion; a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects.
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
the average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance an good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)
ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients.
deficient energy or nutrients
excess energy or nutrients
a comprehensive analysis of a person's nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet histories; anthropometric measurements; physical examinations; and laboratory tests.
relating to measurement of the physical characteristics of the body, such as height and weight.
a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient.
a nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates us, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient.
a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared
a national public health initiative under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that identifies the most significant preventable threats to health and focuses efforts toward eliminating them.
diseases characterized by a slow progression and long duration.
a condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal. Leading risk factors for chronic diseases include: obesity, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, physical inactivity, and a diet high in saturated fats and low in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
American Dietetic Association (ADA)
the professional organization of dietitians in the U.S.
a person who has been granted a document declaring his or her authority as a nutrition professional.
a person who has completed a minimum of an associate's degree at an accredited college and an approved dietetic technician program that includes a supervised practice experience.
Registered Dietetic Technician
a dietetic technician who has passed a national examination and maintains registration through continuing professional education.
a person trained in nutrition, food science, and diet planning.
a person who specializes in the study of nutrition .
Public Health Dietitians
dietitians who specialize in providing nutrition services through organized community efforts.
Registered Dietitian (RD)
a person who has completed a minimum of a bachelor's degree from an accredited college, has completed approved course work and supervised practice program, has passed a national exam and maintains continuing professional education.
providing all essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health.
providing foods in proportion to one another and in proportion to the body's needs.
kcalorie (energy) control
management of food energy intake
a measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides. The more nutrients and the fewer kcalories, the higher the nutrient density.
a popular term used to denote foods that contribute energy but lack protein, vitamins, and minerals.
ranking foods based on their nutrient composition
providing enough but not too much of a substance.
eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups.
Food Group Plans
diet planning tools that sort foods into groups based on nutrient content and then specify that people should eat certain amounts of foods from each group.
Discretionary kcalorie allowance
the kcalories remaining in a person's energy allowance after consuming enough nutrient-dense foots to meet all nutrient needs for a day.
Healthy Eating Index
a measure that assesses how well a diet meets the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPyramid.
diet planning tools that organize foods by their proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Foods on any single list can be used interchangeably.
Foods that have been treated to change their physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory properties.
the addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or present in insignificant amounts. Fortification can be used to correct or prevent a widespread nutrient deficiency or to balance the total nutrient profile of a food.
the process by which the coarse parts of a food are removed. When wheat is refined into flour, the bran, germ, and husk are removed, leaving only the endosperm.
the addition to a food of nutrients that were lost during processing so that the food will meet a specified standard.
a grain that maintains the same relative proportions of starchy endosperm, germ, and bran as the original (all but the husk); not refined.
Textured Vegetable Protein
processed soybean protein used in vegetarian products such as soy burgers.
contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition
foods that substitute for and resemble another food, but are nutritionally inferior to it with respect to vitamins, mineral, or protein content. If the substitute is not inferior to the food it resembles and if its name provides an accurate description of the product, it need not be labeled "imitation."
Foods that are designed to replace other foods.
Daily Values (DV)
reference values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels
Percent Daily Value (%DV)
the percentage of a daily value recommendation found in a specified serving of food for key nutrients based on a 2000 kcalorie diet.
statements that characterize the quantity of a nutrient in a food.
statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and a disease or health related condition.
statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body.
people who include milk and milk products, but exclude meat, poultry, fish, seafood, and eggs from their diets.
people who include milk, milk products, and eggs, but exclude meat, poultry, fish, and seafood from their diets.
a philosophical approach to eating mostly plant-based foods such as whole grains, legumes, and vegetables, with small amounts of fish, fruits, nuts, and seeds
products formulated to look and taste like meat, fish, or poultry; usually made of textured vegetable protein.
a fermented soybean food, rich in protein and fiber.
a curd made from soybeans, rich in protein an often fortified with calcium
people who exclude all animal derived foods (including meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products) from their diets.
a general term used to describe people who exclude meat, poultry, fish, or other animal derived foods from their diets.
the process by which food is broken down into absorbable units.
the uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph.
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
the digestive tract. The principal organs are the stomach and the intestine.
all the organs and glands associated with the ingestion and digestion of food.
the space within a vessel, such as the intestin
the passageway leading from the nose and mouth to the larynx and esophagus.
cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents fluid or food from entering it when a person swallows.
the food pipe; the conduit from the mouth to the stomach.
a circular muscle surrounding, and able to close, a body opening. Sphincters are found at specific points along the GI tract and regulate the flow of food particles.
a sphincter muscle at the upper or lower end of the esophagus.
a muscular, elastic, saclike portion of the digestive tract that grinds and churns swallowed food, mixing it with acid and enzymes to form chyme.
The circular muscle that separates the stomach from the small intestine and regulates the flow of partially digested food into the small intestine.
a 10 foot length of small-diameter intestine that is the major site of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. Its segments are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
The organ that sores and concentrates bile. When it receives the signal that fat is present in the duodenum, the gallbladder contracts and squirts bile through the bile dict into the duodenum.
a gland that secretes digestive enzymes and juices into the duodenum.
the top portion of the small intestine (about "12 fingers breatdh" long in ancient terminology).
the first two-fifths of the small intestine beyond the dudenum.
the last segment of the small intestine
the sphincter separating the small and large intestines.
Large Intestine or Colon
the lower portion of intestine that completes the digestive process. Its segments are the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colong, and the sigmoid colon
a narrow blind sac extending from the beginning of the colon that stores lymph cells.
the muscular terminal part of the intestine, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus
the terminal outlet of the GI tract.
a portion; with respect to food, the amount swallowed at one time.
the semiliquid mass of partially digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum.
wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push its contents along.
a periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intestine at intervals along its length by it's circular muscles.
proteins found in digestive juices that act on food substances, causing them to break down into simpler compounds.
an enzyme that hydrolyzes carbohydrates
an enzyme that hydrolyzes lipids.
an enzyme that hydrolyzes proteins.
a chemical reaction in which a major reactant is split into two products, with the addition of a hydrogen atom (H) to one and a hydroxyl group (OH) to the other (from water, H2O)
Cells or groups of cells that secrete materials for special uses in the body. Glands may be exocrine glands, secreting their materials out, or endocrine glands, secreting there materials into the blood.
exocrine glands that secrete saliva into the mouth
the secretion of the salivary glands. Its principle enzyme begins carbohydrate digestion.
exocrine glands in the stomach wall that secrete gastric juice into the stomach.
the digestive secretion of the gastric glands of the stomach.
the acid composed of hydrogen and chloride atoms (HCI) that is normally produced by the gastric glands.
a slippery substance secreted by cells of the GI lining that protects the cells from exposure to digestive juices. The lining of the GI tract with its coat of mucus (noun) is a mucous (adjective) membrane.
the organ that manufactures bile.
an emulsifier that prepares fats and oils for digestion; an exocrine secretion made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine when needed.
a substance with both water-soluble and fat-soluble portions that promotes the mixing of oils and fats in a watery solution.
the exocrine secretion of the pancreas, containing enzymes for the digestion of carbohydrate, fat, and protein as well as bicarbonate, a neutralizing agent. the juice flows from the pancreas into the small intestine through the pancreatic duct.
an alkaline compound with the formula HCO3 that is secreted from the pancreas as part of the pancreatic juice.
waste matter discharged from the colon; also called feces.
fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestin (singular) villus.
tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can tap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells (singular) microvillus.
tubular glands that lie between intestinal villi and secrete intestinal juices into the small intestine.
Cells of the GI tract (and lungs) that secret mucus.
small vessels that branch from an artery. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. Exchange of oxygen, nutrients, an waste materials takes place across capillary walls.
the large, primary artery that conducts blood from the heart to the body's smaller arteries.
vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues.
vessels that carry blood to the heart.
Hepatic Portal Vein
the vein that collects blood from the GI tract and conducts it to capillaries in the liver.
the vein that collects blood from the liver capillaries and returns it to the heart.
a loosely organized system of vessels and ducts that convey fluids toward the heart. The GI part of the lymphatic system carries the products of fat digestion into the bloodstream.
a clear yellowish fluid that is similar to blood except that it contains no red blood cells or platelets. Lymph from the GI tract transports fat and fat-soluble vitamins to the bloodstream via lymphatic vessels.
the main lymphatic vessel that collects lymph and drains into the left subclavian vein.
the vein that provides passage from the lymphatic system to the vascular system.
milk product that results from the fermentation of lactic acid in milk.
living microorganisms found in foods and dietary supplements that, when consumed in sufficient quantities, are beneficial to health.
the maintenance of constant internal conditions (such as blood chemistry, temperature, and blood pressure) by the body's control systems. A homeostatic system is constantly reacting to external forces to maintain limits set by the body's needs.
chemical messengers. Hormones are secreted by a variety of glands in response to altered conditions in the body. Each hormone travels to one or more specific target tissues or organs, where it elicits a specific response to maintain homeostasis.
a hormone produced by cells in the stomach wall. Target organ: the glands of the stomach. Response: secretion of gastric acid.
a hormone produced by cells in the duodenum wall. Target organ: the pancreas. Response: secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice.
a hormone produced by cells of the intestinal wall. Target organ: the gallbladder. Response: release of bile and slowing of GI motility.
a diminished blood flow to the intestines. It is characterized by abdominal pain, forceful bowel movements, and blood in the stool.
Medications used to prevent or relieve indigestion by suppressing production of acid in the stomach; also called H2 blockers.
Medications used to relieve indigestion by neutralizing acid in the stomach.
the expulsion of gas from the stomach through the mouth.
inflammation of the colon.
the popular, but potentially harmful practice of washing the large intestine with a powerful enema machine.
the condition of having infrequent or difficult bowel movements.
to move the bowels and eliminate waste.
the frequent passage of watery bowel movements.
sacs or pouches that develop in the weakened areas of the intestinal wall.
infected or inflamed diverticula.
the condition of having diverticula. About one in every six people in Western countries develop diverticulosis in middle or later life.
solutions inserted into the rectum and colon to stimulate a bowel movement and empty the lower large intestine.
the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus, causing damage to the cells of the esophagus and the sensation of heartburn.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
is characterized by symptoms of reflux occurring two or more times a week.
a burning sensation in the chest area caused by backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus.
a technique for dislodging an object from the trachea of a choking person.
painful swelling of the veins surrounding the rectum.
repeated cough-like sounds and jerks that are produced when an involuntary spasm of the diaphragm muscle sucks air down the windpipe.
incomplete or uncomfortable digestion, usually accompanied by pain, nausea, vomiting, hearburn, intestinal gas, or belching.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
an intestinal disorder of unknown cause. Symptoms include abdominal discomfort and cramping, diarrhea.
the entryway to the trachea that contains the vocal chords.
substances that loosen the bowels and thereby prevent or treat constipation.
a purified liquid derived from petroleum and used to treat constipation.
a lesion in the mucous membrane of either the stomach or duodenum.
the airway from the larynx to the lungs; also called the windpipe.
a lesion of the skin or mucous membranes characterized by inflammation and damaged tissues.
expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the esophagus to the mouth.
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