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s the management of communication between an organization and its publics (plural) through two-way communication and development of mutually beneficial relationships (good for both sides). This includes consideration of internal and external publics and incoming and outgoing communication. Public relations influences public opinion, manages and promotes a positive image and reputation, implements long-term and continuous strategies, coordinates internal and external communication, and counsels/advises management on policies and procedures. Public relations should incorporate open channels for listening and feedback. Trust and credibility should be pursued, as well as a focus on long-term and proactive efforts. Public relations efforts should also incorporate research and planning throughout any process.
that public relations often focuses on delayed impact and non-customer publics. Marketing does focus on both of these sometimes, but the area tends to focus on customer publics and more direct financial exchanges.
product, price, place, and promotion (with some considering promotion the same as PR). We also should consider personnel, prospects and perceptions.
is selling products, services, and ideas and promoting a positive financial exchange.
of PR can be a problem to deal with for many. Pubic relations is not just being nice; being a people person; being a party planner, social chair, or greeter; or being a professional liar.examples of people trying to sell at any cost. This includes telephone solicitors and those "marketers" who don’t know their products and only care about making money.
Working with employees or internal publics is considered by many as the most important function in public relations. Most experts say this public should be considered first in almost all plans. Relationships with this public affect all other relationships.
Writing and distributing uncontrolled news to media defines publicity. Publicity does not equal PR. They (media reps.) may run the information as you send it, edit and use it, or trash it, depending on their opinion of its newsworthiness. There are also VNRs (video news releases), which should be produced as if the TV station or other receiver produced them themselves.
This is simply bought space or time. You (the buyer) generally control the message. Advertorials are ads that are controlled, but they appear in more of a news-style format.
In this function, the sender (or press agent) doesn’t really care what is said, as long as something is said. Dennis Rodman (the former basketball player with multiple tattoos and who wore a wedding dress) and other "entertainers" come to mind as great examples. They don’t really care what you say, as long as you buy their book, watch their movie, etc. Many say this historical element of public relations is a major problem for the field because often the activities do not fit in with the overall purpose of a public relations program.
Those who work for the government or work for corporations and others with close government ties work in public affairs. However, at times this area focuses more on providing
information rather than persuading. The Gillett Amendment in 1913 stipulated that federal agencies can’t use funds for “publicity.” Some corporations and others also have departments called public affairs that work with government or related agencies. Corporations use the term related to corporate citizenship, social responsibility, and/or government relations.
At its core, lobbying is the effort to influence legislation or regulation. This is a legitimate function of public relations, but some crooked dealings unfortunately often put this in a bad light. Lobbyists have many regulations they must follow
This involves planning ahead (anticipating) to determine what courses of action your organization should take to keep a positive position based on what is happening in related areas. (Many say this is just positive public relations.)
This is an area of public relations that is very visible and people often equate with PR. This should involve planning well in advance and not just dealing with crises as they happen. Many “what-if’s” and strategic options should be analyzed prior to any likely situations.
Also known as IR, this specialized area of public relations focuses on relationships with those buying stock or otherwise investing in your organization. These duties also involve understanding Securities and Exchange Commission (the other SEC) rules. This is one of the highest paid areas.
This area focuses on raising money and membership in organizations, including working with volunteers. Foundations at universities, such as the MSU Foundation, are in development.
Who is the largest single employer for public relations
There are major opportunities for public relations work in major cities, but smaller towns also now have numerous public relations and related positions.
More people (by overall percentage) work in corporate settings, followed by nonprofits/associations, PR firms/agencies, and then government/military.
from around $30,000 to millions. Higher salaries tend to be based on years of experience, type of employer, geographic location, and other factors. Two of the highest paying specialty areas are financial and technology companies. APRs overall also earn more than those not accredited. Cost of living must be considered when viewing salaries.
are still unfairly paid less than men, even for the same work. It is getting better, but it’s still not even yet.
This is the doing aspect. Often this is limited to following directions of others (when not coupled with another role).
This is the boss position or the PR authority. He or she decides upon the major goals of the area and determines which people do what tasks. Sometimes those in this role become too dominant and do not include enough views from others.
People in this role mediate between an organization and various publics, seeking to facilitate information exchange. Effective two-way communication is used while in this role.
Those in this role are seeking to solve internal communication problems and keep processes and communication internally flowing smoothly
Personal professional success is determined largely by how much research a practitioner conducts. Also, education, experience, personality, and other factors will have an impact.
refers to “the million-dollar penalty for being a woman.” Women can see above, but often they cannot break through to the top. However, this problem is getting better. As more women become managers and other leaders, it should continue to get better.
women and others should be assertive, work on management skills, and aim as high as possible.
are not represented at a high enough level in public relations, but it does appear to be getting better. There are many firms and corporations now that are seeking qualified minorities from various backgrounds to work with specific publics because of their unique abilities to communicate effectively with those groups. The percentages in the field have increased, but not similar to the population. The term “minority” is becoming outdated since some groups are passing in numbers the traditional “majority” population.
public relations includes many qualifying based on actions and ethical conducts. We also have codes of ethics. It all comes down to personal choice and the potential impact we all can have.
Don’t focus solely on how hard you work, but focus on what happens as a result of your work.
Be able to figure out things quickly. Focus on client or employer needs.
Even though it’s listed at the end of work assignments earlier in the chapter, you must get along with people to succeed.
This relates more to attitude than dress or appearance. Figure out how to succeed and make things happen.
This includes charisma and presence. Try to solve problems, be a good listener, understand business, be able to use constructive criticism, keep learning, embrace versatility or work, apply healthy competitiveness, and help others.
The Public Relations Society of America (the largest);
the International Association of Business Communicators (second largest and more general
the Southern Public Relations Federation (four- states, including Mississippi)
the Public Relations Association of Mississippi (a state chapter of SPRF, with one in Starkville and numerous other towns).
advises and supports management
sets policies, and produces products and profits
both help practitioners plan for PR activities
Bernays turned 100 years old just after the video was produced in 1991. He wrote the first PR textbook, Crystallizing Public Opinion, in 1923.
to get kids to use soap (learning that they didn’t like soap in general because it got in their eyes).
is originally from Memphis and is a graduate of the University of Mississippi.
still leads Burson-Marsteller, one of the world’s largest public relations firms.
He started the firm in 1953, and their income is now in the hundreds of millions a year.
One trend he sees is that there are now many specialists in PR. It used to be that more people were generalists.
used to not get hired unless you had media experience. Now he says only about 20 percent of Burson-Marsteller employees have media experience.
He reminds us that we are advocates for our clients or employers, but we also do tell the truth. We are NOT surrogate journalists. We must keep in mind personal values, obligations to clients, commitment to society, and business judgments.
1. How do I say it? (during the ‘40s-‘60s) – PR people just followed orders on message distribution after action decisions were made and general message ideas were determined.
2. What do I say? (during the ‘60s-‘80s) – PR practitioners were allowed to determine the overall message and how to say it after the major actions were decided.
3. What do I do? (during the ‘80s-Now) – Often now PR professionals are called in to help with the decision-making process, as well as what to say and how to say it. This is a good sign because it shows a higher level of management and involvement.
(during the ‘40s-‘60s) – PR people just followed orders on message distribution after action decisions were made and general message ideas were determined.
(during the ‘60s-‘80s) – PR practitioners were allowed to determine the overall message and how to say it after the major actions were decided.
(during the ‘80s-Now) – Often now PR professionals are called in to help with the decision-making process, as well as what to say and how to say it. This is a good sign because it shows a higher level of management and involvement.
have a free market for public relations to work.
was fired from CBS TV and began a management consulting firm. His overall goal was to not “do PR,” but he helped solve business problems. (He advised only and did not actually implement the strategies he recommended.)
with AT&T as his client for 35 years (and had many other clients too)
He didn’t believe in a retainer (or having pay up front for work not done yet), because he wanted to make it as easy as possible for clients to “use” him.
His philosophy was to always put the client first, and then worry about billing.
1. breadth of perspective and experience (knowing industry and corporation);
2. integrity (telling the truth, but not abrasively); and
3. technical proficiency (or knowing how to do the job).
Burger said that the Public Relations Society of America is the glue that holds the industry together.
Burger said that licensing won’t work, but he agreed with Bernays on almost everything else.
Arthur Page as a big influence on him. Page was the corporate PR officer for AT&T for about 20 years, implementing many innovative public relations activities.
that individuals have more power than ever before, and the power is not just now in institutions. (America being extremely democratic, and openness is good for public relations.)
London is becoming the world capital of public relations, although New York is still a major area, as are most major cities in the United States.
Firms are hired because an organization needs their expertise, has headquarters far from a needed promotional location, needs the firm’s contacts, or because the hiring organization needs objective opinions, as well as other similar reasons.
serve as a general guide as to how an organization is structured. This does not mean the public relations professional cannot talk to or work with all levels in an organization.
check credentials of anyone hired to do research or work for the organization.
include usually having a variety of talents, objectivity, geographical breadth, and flexibility.
include cost, perceived threats to established internal practitioners, and a distrust or lack of cooperation by internal PR staff.
may charge by a monthly retainer that covers a set amount of work, a retainer and additional billing, straight hourly charges, and fixed fees from bids. Pay for results is another potential payment method that many see as unethical. Fees vary greatly for all public relations work. Retainers also vary from a very low to very expensive.
Employees at firms keep track of their hours with a time sheet that specifically lists activities in time frames. This time working is known as
advise only, advise and do the work with internal staff, or advise and do the work without help from internal staff.
most common title for departments. Otherwise, the names of classes, concentrations, organizations, and many other areas would have to change
should be careful not to overpromise results, overmarket their expertise, underservice their clients, only focus on money, wimp out if they know they are right, or act unethical.
Sometimes they work with the department, or they work separately from or instead of the department.
trying to do more with fewer people. However, long-term projections for the field look great.
Where is the PRSA/PRSSA International Conference being held this year?
Where is this year's PRAM Conference being held?
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