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Bell-Magendie Law: sensory nerves enter dorsally, motor nerves exit ventrally- two separate sets of nerves
What was the significance of the Bell-Magendie law in the history of psychology?
-Discovered that some nerves are specialized to carry sensory information to the brain, where as others are specialized to carry sensory information from the brain to the muscles of the body.
-Proven experimentally that nerves have specific functions; brain is in control rather than spirits, starting to cross over into the idea that we can study our thoughts and brain
The amount of energy an organism expended was directly proportional to the amount of food and oxygen it consumes, thereby showing that the principle of conservation of energy applied to living organisms as well as to physical systemsUse science to study human beings, we are like machines that can be studied.
How did Helmholtz explain perception?.
THEORY OF PERCEPTION: past experience converts a sensation (raw input) into a perception (sensations processed through past experiences to contain meaning) – thought perceptions were learned
The tiny fibers of the basilar membrane of the inner ear are stimulated by different frequencies of sound. The shorter the fiber, the higher the frequency to which it responds. Shows connection between physical and psychological.
- An active mind that takes whatever sensory information is available and creates the best possible interpretation of external reality.
-Paved the way for materialists with physiology, objective physical laws.-More than anyone before him he SHOWED WITH EXPERIMENTAL RIGOR the mechanisms by which we interact with the physical world- explained in objective, physical laws- no magic or unscientific forces applied.
Postulates three different types of color receptors on the retina, not just one specific nerve energy as Muller had thought, combinations of these three could produce a wide variety of colors as represented to the brain.
Most highly developed part of the eye (cones).
Acuity is reduced and color distinction is gone, but night vision is better (rods) was more primitive.
1- Achromatic color vision
2- Blue-yellow sensitivity3- Red-green sensitivity- assumed to be most fragile b/c most recently evolved, thus more red-green color blindness
Phrenology-examination of the bumps and depressions on the skull in order to determine the strengths and weaknesses of various mental faculties.
-Tried to relate brain activity to personality and behavior; Gall's influence and reputation helped-Popular because it appeared to offer practical information
1- Mental faculties do not exist to the same extent in all humans.
2- Faculties are housed in specific areas of the brain.3- Well-developed faculties present bumps or protrusions on the corresponding part of the skull, underdeveloped faculties cause hollows or depressions.
1- Studied the brain of several animal species, suggested a relationship between cortical development and mental function.
2- Larger better developed cortices associated with more intelligent behavior.
3- First to distinguish functions of gray matter and white matter.4- Promoted the idea that different cortical regions are associated with different functions.
He made clinical observations and then used autopsy examinations to locate the brain area Responsible for a disorder. He discovered the location of speech in the brain.Used the “clinical method” to cast doubt on Flourens’ conclusions.
-First to measure sensations systemic variation as a function of physical stimulation.
-Just noticeable difference sensation
-First statement of systematic relationship between physical stimulation and psychological experience.
-Method of limits, method of stimuli, method of adjustment.
-Night view vs Day view (materialism vs spirituality, mind, consciousness) accepted Spinoza’s double aspectism- consciousness is matter.
-Psychophysics-Manipulated a variable; he made it scientific.
-School: group of people coming together to solve a problem-Voluntarism: Through the process of apperception, individuals could direct their attention toward whatever they wanted; there’s something causing you to focus on an idea and you can choose to focus on it.
-Mediate: instrument in between the data and the scientist, the physicist records the data these devices provide and then uses the data to analyze the characteristics of the physical world.
*see how much the cake weighs and put on a scale*
-Immediate: the response recorded of what is happening, nothing in between, the person gives the data, subject reality of the person matters.*looking at pictures and pressing a button to show exact response when scared*
-Used as a technique to determine whether or not the subject is experiencing a specific sensation; used to study immediate experience.
-Sensations – occurs whenever a sense organ is stimulated and the impluse reaches the brain.
-Feelings – described in terms of the attributes of pleasantness-unpleasantness, excitement-calm, and strain-relaxation.
any feelings can be described in terms of the degree to which they possess three attributes; pleasantness-unpleasantness, excitement-calm, and strain-relaxation.-Attempt to quantify the emotions being experience, to make psychology more scientific.
occurs whenever a sense organ is stimulated and the impulse reaches the brain; described in terms of modality and intensity, unconsciousness.
-Study of higher mental process.-Experimentation is limited, worked on a larger scale, historical, sociological, cultural context to have more accurate findings.
-Psychology should focus on studying immediate experience (consciousness).
Why-search for the neurological correlates of mental events, to understand the brain and how it works.
Wundt: Tridimensional theory of feeling: any feelings can be described in terms of the degree to which they possess three attributes; pleasantness-unpleasantness, excitement-calm, and strain-relaxation. Voluntarism.
Titcheners: pleasant and unpleasantness, one dimension. Structuralism.
-Introspective analysis should be directed at intact, meaningful psychological experience instead of the elements of thought.
-Major influence on those individuals who later created the school of Gestalt psychology.-Experimental bias idea - should do a double blind experiment.
Compare Darwin’s concept of fitness with the sociobiologists’ concept of inclusive fitness. What are the implications of the difference between the two concepts for the explanation of human social behavior?
In what ways did Binet’s approach to intelligence testing differ from Galton’s and Cattell’s?
-discovered Clever Hans Phenomenon
-Rosenthal Effect: if a researcher knows if-Double-Blind Experiment: researchers doesn’t know if participant received placebo
-Eugenics: belief of improving the genetic quality of the human population. People with desired traits should reproduce while people with undesirable traits should not.
-Regression Toward the Mean:-The Word-Association Test: list of 75 words; subconscious influences on thought, influenced Freud in future
-experiments with animals, used puzzle boxes to see if cats can learn-Cats don’t really know what they’re doing, no insight; more trial and error
-had a patient with brain damage, had aphasia (had a hard time finding words); after patient died, found a lesion on frontal lobe
-found evidence that part of the left frontal lobe of the cortex is specialized for articulation
-Broca’s area: the speech area on the left frontal lobe side of the cortex-Clinical Method: first determine a behavior disorder in living patient, after he dies, locate the part of the brain responsible for behavior disorder
-Phrenology: belief that the magnitude of one’s faculties could be determined by examining the bumps and depressions on one’s skull; popular because it appeared to offer practical information-Formal Discipline: formal training on a certain faculty could increase its ability; not necessarily true, just may become more efficient
*-Law of contiguity: what you do last in a situation is what you will tend to do if the situation recurs; how soon the behavior happens after consequence
-Guthrie accepted Watson’s recency principle
-One-trial learning: a stimulus pattern gains its full associative strength on the occasion of its first pairing with a response (you learn it all at once)-rejection of the law of frequency
One of the fathers of organizational psych
Approach- Approach: Can’t have the cake and eat it too,
Avoidance - Avoidance - hard time to choose between two things you don’t want, fat and exercise
light spacequazi needs
Stimuli either inhibits or excites brain, all central nervous system activity can be characterized as either excitation or inhibition
-1st Signal: the condition stimulus that causes response
-2nd Signal: the unconditioned stimulus can cause same response
-conditional reflexes could be explained by the associative principles of contiguity and frequency
-resisted study of conditioned reflexes bc of their apparently subjective natural
-all behavior is reflexive, caused by antecedent stimulation-constantly experiencing a wide array of stimuli, some of them tending to elicit behavior and others inhibit
-Simon-Binet Intelligence Test-created to test for deficiencies to help students
-Pragmatism: if it works, it’s valid
-Stream of Consciousness:
Personal - thoughts are unique to the individual.
Breaking consciousness into parts ruins the thought, you must understand it as a whole.
Consciousness is selective, we can focus our attention on one particular thing and ignore others
Consciousness is functional, helps individual adapt
-Habit: repetition-James-Lange Theory of Emotion: response to stimulus causes the emotion later
-Intelligence Quotient: Mental Age/Actual age x 100-adaptation to environment
-Theory of Evolution
-struggle for survival: there are more offspring than can survive in a given environment
-natural selection: accidental variations among members of a species that prove to have survival value
-fitness: ability to survive and reproduce-adaptive features: allow adequate adjustment to environment
-studied under Helmholtz, more mechanistic
-Immediate: direct, objective experience as it occurs
-Two Goals for Experimental Psychology:
1) Discover elements of thought (complex thoughts that can be broken down into parts)2) How those elements combine to create complex mental experiences
-color vision evolved in 3 stages: achromatic vision, then blue-yellow, then red-green.-denied for many years from getting doctorate because she was a woman.
-strict materialist, anti-vitalism (by combining everything you don’t get more)
-Stand against vitalism: belief that living organisms are complex machines
-Principle of Conservation of Energy
-Rate of Nerve Conduction: concluded that the rate of nerve conduction in humans was 165-330 ft/sec; showed that nerve impulses are measurable and fairly slow-Theory of Color Vision
-Two point threshold: the smallest distance between two points of stimulation at which the two points are experienced as two points rather than one; kinesthesis/touch; tongue/mouth has more neurons, smaller threshold
-Just Noticeable Difference (jnd)
-Weber’s Law-studies of how the brain perceives things laid foundation for psychophysics (sensation and perception)
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