Lecture 7 Progressivism Questions for the day: What was progressivism? Why did it emerge when it did? What did it achieve? What were its limitations? Outline Characteristics & Origins of progressivism Grassroots progressivism Progressive Theory Theodore Roosevelt Limits of Progressivism IA. Origins of Progressivism Progressive movements Collection of disparate movements Reaction to problems created by urban industrialism 1890s-1920 II. Grassroots Progressivism Progressivism started at the grassroots level and moved to higher levels Settlement Houses Social Gospel Movement Social Purity Movement Progressives and the Working Class IB. Characteristics of Progressivism Scientific investigation Expertise Scientific management; efficiency Pragmatism Middle class A. Settlement Houses Women?s role in private charity Jane Addams, Hull House 1889 Live among and aid immigrant community Health, hygiene, cultural education Hull House B. Social Gospel Movement Theological doctrine Churches must make Christianity relevant to urban problems Reform society rather than just individuals Churches began providing social services Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918) C. Social Purity Movement Main targets: alcohol and prostitution Women?s Christian Temperance Union (1873) Anti-Saloon League (1900) Pragmatic reasons: reform the city & conserve human resources Local and state temperance laws Eighteenth Amendment 1919 C. Social Purity Movement Prostitution: worst of all evils Vice commissions National Police Gazette, 1880 Limited achievements Mann Act (1910) Raise age of consent Syphyllis tests before marriage D. Progressives & the Working Class Progressives sympathized with industrial workers but didn?t really understand their issues Neither group had much power over industry D. Progressives & the Working Class Garment industry employed 1000s of women in NYC 56 hours/week for $6 Factories in loft buildings Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911 146 died State legislation: 54-hour week for women prohibited child labor safety regulations III. Progressive Theory Reform Darwinism Pragmatism Scientific Management A. Reform Darwinism Lester Ward Evolution would be advanced if humans (and gov?t) reformed society Scientific method & efficiency B. Pragmatism Pragmatism: philosophy should be concerned with problem solved Dewey: child-centered education focused on process John Dewey C. Scientific Management Statistics-minded group Frederick Taylor: can rationalize human society just as one can rationalize work in factories IV. Theodore Roosevelt Trusts Square Deal Pure Food and Drugs Conservation Progressives gradually looked to state- and national-level solutions Attention to economic system Greatly expanded governmental power A. Trusts 1897-1904: 4227 companies became 257 corporations Brought suit against the Northern Securities Co 1902 (Railroads); ordered dissolved 1904 Trust-buster but not anti-business Good trusts vs. bad trusts Elkins Act (1903) Hepburn Act (1906) B. Square Deal Saw his role as arbiter between business and labor 1902 Anthracite coal strike, led by UMW Workers got 10% raise Helped legitimate labor by recognizing it ?Square Deal? C. Pure Food and Drugs TR read The Jungle by Upton Sinclair Meat Inspection Act 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 Meat processing plant, 1906 D. Conservation Tripled amount of land for national forests Raised consciousness about conserving natural resources Conservation rather than preservation V. Limits of Progressivism Unlike socialists, progressivism believed in the system. Middle-class reformers rarely consulted those they tried to help. NAACP Key Terms Social Gospel Movement Meat Inspection Act NAACP Muckrakers Reform journalism Lincoln Steffen, ?Tweed Days in St. Louis? McClure?s 1902 Ida M. Tarbell attacked the Standard Oil Company
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