Chromosome without a membrane covering it. Located in Bacteria Cytoplasm. Circulards DNA. *There are exceptions where some have more than one chromosomes and some that are membrane bound
Plasmids in Bacteria Cytoplasm
R, F, Col, Virulence, Metabolic
What is Curing in Bacteria?
Nucleus is not evenly split in the daughter cells so only one daughter cell is without a nucleus
Storage compartments for glycogen, sulfur, and etc. Some a bounded to a membrane.
Gas vesicle proteins that help maintain buoyancy
Made of protein and RNA, location of protein Synthesis (matrix ribosomes and plasma memb. ribosomes) and they are smaller than the eukaryote (70s-50s & 30s)
Bacteria Plasma Membrane
Its made up of a lipid bilayer consisting of phospholipids and proteins. Has no sterols and hopanoides. The cell membrane has infoldings inside of the cell wall.
Cell Wall Purpose
Prevents cell from lysis where swelling then bursting due to H2O influx.
Composition of Cell Wall
Polymers = NAM and NAG, amino acids and connected monomers. Made of Peptidoglycan. Can be directly or connected by a peptide bridge and Gram - lacks a bridge.
Gram + Cell's Teichoic Acids
They are polymers of glycerol or ribotol, Covalentlyconnected to NAM or plasma membrane. Maintains cell structure and gives it a neg. surface charge.
Gram + Cell's Proteins
Interacts with the environment, involved in synthesis of peptidoglycan, help attach to surfaces, blocks phagocytosis
Gram -- Cell's Periplasmic Space
Contains proteins for nutrition, peptidoglycan sysnthesis and neutralizes toxins. Also contains the cell wall.
Gram -- Cell's Outer Membrane
Contains lipopolysaccharide(LPS): Lipid A is for toxins, Core Polysaccharides give a neg charge, and O-chain for immunogenic. Also has Porins and Braun's Lipoproteins
Cell Wall secretion systems
Secretion dependent pathway systems for proteins and there are 5 in gram - bact.
Transports protein across plasma membrane
Gram -- Type 1 Secretion
Transports toxins, proteases, also known as ATP binding cassete
Gram -- Type 3 Secretion
Secretes and injects virulence factors. "Needle like"
Bacteria Outer Layer
Capsule- Well organized, not easily removed, resists phagocytosis and drying Slime Layer- not as organized, washed away easily, helps with motility Glycocalyx S Layer- Regular layers of protein(glyco), protects against pH, osmotic stress, and enzymes
First only a few cells attach then slowly more and more add on to form a colony and then it grows to be massive
External Structures of Bacteria
Fimbriae- Small tube like used for attachment and gliding Pili- A little larger and required for mating Stalk- A holdfast that acts as an anchor
Single flagellum at one end
Several flagellum extended form both sides
Randomly distributed flagellum all over the cell
3 Parts of the Flagella
Filament- main portion extending from cell to tip Basal Body- in the cell acts as a motor Hook- links filament to basal body
Flagellar proteins are exported from the basal body then transported through the filament. It self assembles at the tip and not the base.
Rotating clockwise gives it a forward run while counterclockwise gives a tumble
Chemo-receptors give more runs than tumbles. Others include aero-taxis, photo-taxis, thermo-taxis, and osmo-taxis.
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