PS 219: Session 9 Bureaucracy and the Courts Bureaucracy Outline Forms Roles Images Relationships With Other Bodies Regulatory Role The Courts Bureaucracy Forms: Executive Office of the President Cabinet Agencies Regulatory Agencies in Cabinet Agencies Independent Regulatory Agencies Advisory Councils Executive Office of the President Offices: ?West Wing?: Chief of Staff, Close Advisers OMB Council of Economic Advisers National Security Council Closest Working Relationships to most Presidents Cabinet Agencies 15 By Last Count Most Important: Defense, State, Treasury, and maybe Health and Human Services Secretaries are Key Appointments Agencies, Administrations within Cabinet Agencies The Working Heart of Government: Regulations, Implementation, Enforcement Regulatory Agencies Some in Cabinet Agencies: FDA (HHS), EPA (Environment) Some Independent: SEC, FAA, FCC, AEC What Are All These? Advisory Boards Dozens and Dozens - Every Imaginable Area: Music, Arts, Science (250in HHS alone), Stamps - Some Are Ad Hoc and Become Independent Commissions: 9/11; Katrina They Are: Voluntary; Honorific; Sometimes Payback for Political Favors or Contributions Also Exist in States Bureaucracy (Cont.) General Roles: Implement the Laws: Interpret Regulations Enforcement Account for the Cash Help in the Creation of New and Amendment of Old Laws Aid in the Formation of Budgets Bureaucracy (Cont.) Images: Often Derided But That is Probably Off-Base Frustrations for Bureaucrats Hierarchies and Career Paths Constraints on Action Political Interference But Enormous Residual Influence Bureaucracy (Cont.) Relationships With Other Bodies Iron Triangles Subcommittee (Chair) Bureau (Chief) Interest Group (Lobbyist) Issue or Policy Networks More Recent Above + Expert Community + Courts + Media Regulatory Role Recall: Some in Cabinet Agencies; Some Independent Role: Continuous Rulemaking and Oversight of Specific Functions, Services, Organizations Often given Broad Discretion by Congress Issues Businesses Claim Interference But Also a Theory of Capture Recently Flat Out Incompetence: SEC and Bernie Madoff Affair; Banking Oversight Courts Constitutional Provisions (Article III) Supreme Court ? Appointed By President Congress to Create Other Courts As Needed Provides Specific Jurisdiction, Especially Between States and Individuals/States Courts Today 13 Federal Circuit Courts of Appeal 94 Federal District Courts Special Federal Courts (Tax, Bankruptcy, Military) State Courts (Supreme, Appeals, District) Local Courts: County and Municipal
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