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is a broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition.
Treaty of Paris
Larger institutions and groupings such as the European Union to which state authority or national identity is subordinated.
States decisions to cooperate in order to create international organizations that are supranational-they subsume a number of states and their functions within a larger whole.
Institutions vs. nationalism and sovereignty.
The process by which supranational institutions replace national ones—the gradual shifting upward of sovereignty from state to regional or global structures. Ultimate expression of integration would be the merger of several states into a single state or into a single world government.
Growth of specialized technical organizations that cross national borders.
Functionalists believe technological and economic developments lead to more and more supranational structures as states seek practical means to fulfill necessary functions such as delivering mail from one country to another or coordinating the use of rivers that cross borders. States would be drawn together into stronger international economic structures.
A modification of functional theory by IR scholars to explain the creation of specialized agencies to include the development of more general, more political supranational bodies. Neofunctionalists argue that economic integration (functionalism) generates a political dynamic that drives integration further. Closer economic ties require more politicalcoordination in order to operate effectively and eventually lead to political integration as well—a process called spillover.
The process of losing cohesion or strength.
Created after WWII and has developed since. Like the UN.
Treaty of Rome
The same states involved in the ECSC created two new organizations. One extended the coal-and-steel idea into a new realm, atomic energy. (Euratom). A treaty setting up and defining the aims of the European Economic Community.
Euratom, European Community
Euratom—The European Atomic Energy Community, was formed to coordinate nuclear power development by pooling research, investment, and management.
European Community—Originally European Economic Community.
Free trade area
Lifting tariffs and restrictions on the movement of goods across (EEC) borders.
Participating states adopt a unified set of tariffs with regard to goods coming in from outside the free trade area. Without a unified set of tariffs, each type of good could be imported into the state with the lowest tariff and then reexported to other states in the free trade area—inefficient.
Member states allow labor and capital (as well as goods) to flow freely across borders.
Common Agricultural Policy
Key aspect of common market achieved. Led to recurrent conflicts among member states and tensions between nationalism and regionalism.
Care more about technical problem solving than about politics.
Economic and monetary union
Overall economic policies of the member states would be coordinated for greatest efficiency and stability.
Organization of Eurocrats at EU headquarters.
Council of the EU
A meeting of relevant ministers (foreign, economic, agriculture, finance, etc.) of each member state.
Falls somewhat short of a true legislature passing laws for all of Europe. A watchdog over the commission with the power to legislate.
European Court of Justice
Adjudicates disputes on matters covered by the Treaty of Rome—which covers many issues.
Single European Act
The first major revision of the Treaty of Rome that began a new phase of accelerated integration.
Dispute over the definition of chocolate.
Renamed the EC as the EU and committed it to further progress in three main areas—Monetary union (abolish existing national currencies and replace by a single european currency)
Justice and home affairs (european police agency and responded to new reality that borders were opening to immigrants, criminals, sex traffickers, and contraband) also expanded to idea of citizenship. Political and military integration, committed to working toward common foreign policy with a goal of eventually establishing a joint military force.
Greek economic crisis
Falsified economic data to be admitted to the eurozone, borrowed more than it could repay.
Created numerous changes in both the structure and the day to day operations of the EU. Promote more supranational decision making. Allowed citizens to place more checks on the EU power. Increase transparency by requiring meetings to be held in public.
Gap of rich and poor with Internet and phone capabilities as well as access to information technologies within countries.
One Laptop Per Child program
Computers designed by an MIT professor that can communicate with internet access points, such as school, and network with each other to extend internet access along a chain.
Governments spread of false as well as true information as a means of international influence.
UN General Assembly
A body composed of representatives of all states that allocates UN funds, passes nonbonding resolutions, and coordinates third world development programs and various autonomous agencies through the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
Lightly armed soldiers in armed vehicles with automatic rifles but without artillery, tanks, and other heavy weapons.
The active maintenance of a truce between nations or communities, especially by an international military force.
Secretary General (name of the current SG)
Assembles a peacekeeping force for each mission, usually from a few states totally uninvolved in the conflict, and puts it under a single commander.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) constitutes one of the principal organs of the United Nations. It is responsible for coordinating the economic, social and related work of 14 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
UN Programs: UNICEF, UNHCR, UNDP, UNCTAD
UNICEF—Children’s fund, which gives technical and financial assistance to poor countries for programs benefitting children.
UNHCR—The office of high commissioner for refugees. Coordinates efforts to protect, assist, and eventually repatriate the many refugees who flee across international borders each year to escape war and political violence.
UNDP—The UN development program, funded by voluntary contributions, coordinates all UN efforts related to development in poor countries.
UNCTAD—The UN conference on trade and development, negotiates international trade agreements to stabilize commodity prices and promote development.
Autonomous agencies: IAEA, WHO, FAO, WIPO
IAEA—International Atomic Energy Agency, the only agency involved in international security affairs. Prevent nuclear proliferation.
WHO—World Health Organization, provides technical assistance to improve conditions and conduct major immunization campaigns in poor countries.
FAO—Food and Agriculture Organization
WIPO—The World Intellectual Property Organization, seeks world compliance with copyrights and patents and promotes development and technology transfer within a legal framework hat protects such intellectual property.
Four sources of international law
Treaties, custom, general principles of law (such as equity), and legal scholarship (including past judicial decisions).
World Court (ICJ)
International Court of Justice.
The judicial arm of the UN; located in The Hague, it hears only cases between states.
Just war doctrine (and aggression)
Laws of war (when war is permissible) and laws in war (how wars are fought). Legal wars (just) vs illegal wars (aggression).
Just wars—A category in international law and political theory that defines when wars can be justly started and how they can be justly fought.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The core UN document on human rights; although it lacks the force of international law, it sets forth international norms regarding behavior by governments toward their own citizens and foreigners alike.
Responsibility to protect
Principle adopted by world leaders in 2005 holding governments responsible for protecting civilians from genocide and crimes against humanity perpetrated within a sovereign state.
War crimes, crimes against humanity
War Crimes—Violation of the law governing the conduct of warfare, such as by mistreating prisoners of war or unnecessarily targeting civilians.
Crimes against humanity—A category of legal offenses created at the nuremberg trials after WWII to encompass genocide and other acts committed by the political and military leaders of the Third Reich (Nazi Germany).
Prisoners of war, soldiers who have surrendered (and who thereby receive special status under the laws of war).
International Committee of the Red Cross, A nongovernmental organization (NGO) that provides practical support, such as medical care, food, and letters from home, to civilians caught in wars and to prisoners of war (POWs). Exchanges of POWs are usually negotiated through the ICRC.
Participants can be held accountable for crimes they commit. The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany.
ASEAN, Mercosur, African Union
Regional economic coordination. Examples of integration.
Schuman Plan and the ECSC
Merging of French and German steel and coal industries. Coal and steel were key to european recovery and growth. France and Germany were joined by Italy. ECSC worked to reduce trade barriers in coal and steel and to coordinate their coal and steel policies.
IOs, IGOs, and NGOs
International Organizations which include
IGO’s (Intergovernmental organizations
UN) and NGO’s (Nongovernmental
UN Charter (principles)
The founding document of the United Nations; based on the principles that states are equal, have sovereignty over their own affairs, enjoy independence and territorial integrity, and must fulfill international obligations. The Charter also lays out the structure and methods of the UN.
UN Security Council (and 5 permanent members)
A body of five great powers (which can veto resolutions) and ten rotating member states hat makes decisions about international peace and security including the dispatch of UN peacekeeping forces.
The three pillars
Security, economic development, and human rights.
World economic organizations: WTO, IMF and the World Bank
WTO—World Trade Organization, sets rules for international trade.
IMF and the World Bank—International Monetary Fund, gives loans, grants, and technical assistance for economic development and manages international balance of payments accounting.
Agreements among other states to stop trading with the violator, or to stop some particular commodity of trade (most often military goods) as punishment for its violation.
Some states Agree to give the court jurisdiction in certain cases.
Alien Tort Claims Act
Gives federal court jurisdiction over civil lawsuits against foreigners for “violation of the law of nations.”
Universalism vs. relativism
Approaches to human rights.
Universalism—No matter where a person resides, no matter his or her ethnic nationality, and no matter his or her local religious, ethnic, or clan traditions, that person has certain rights that must be respected.
Relativism—Local traditions and histories should be given due respect, even if this means limiting rights that others outside that local context find important.
An influential nongovernmental organization that operates globally to monitor and try to rectify glaring abuses of political (not economic or social) human rights.
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