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If two or more candidates are elected to represent a single district, the term is
Which third party was one of the most influential in the adoption of direct democracy in the 1890s?
In his landmark dissent in New State Ice Co. v. Liebmann (1932), Louis Brandeis, an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, coined the phrase
Which electoral practice did the 1997 U.S. Supreme Court case, Timmons v. Twin Cities Area New Party, specifically allow states to prohibit?
As part of the Republican devolution effort known as the Contract with America, which of the following acts was passed?
Between 1996 and 2012, citizens in 15 states and the District of Columbia adopted ballot initiatives
Which of the following is NOT true regarding interparty competition?
Interparty competition recently has decreased across the country.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the effects of direct democracy on citizens?
People in initiative states are more likely to think that public officials do not care about what citizens think.
As an alternative method to at-large elections, the cumulative voting system
is a semi-proportional system, allowing voters to give their votes to more than one candidate.
At root, every government policy is intended to provide some
Which two states lead the nation in the percentage of adults over 18 who voted in the 2012 presidential election?
The proportion of citizens who may vote and who are not disenfranchised by a state’s prohibition due to a felony conviction is called
Which of the following about the American federalist system is NOT true?
It is sometimes pictured as a “marble cake” but is more aptly described as a “birthday cake.”
When party members informally meet, deliberate, and then cast votes for their preferred candidates, it is called
Who was the party boss of Tammany Hall, often seen as unprincipled, self-serving, and corrupt?
As of 2014, roughly what percentage of state legislators are women?
Which of the following is NOT true regarding direct democracy and minorities?
Most initiatives pit the interests of racial/ethnic minorities against the majority.
Which president referred to the practice of citizen lawmaking as the “gun behind the door?”
In the 1990s, the use of direct democracy
reached a historic peak.
The Bill of Rights
One significant way state constitutions differ from the U.S. Constitution is how they deal with
Which segment of the population tends to be overrepresented in political participation?
Which 2013 United States Supreme Court ruling struck down Section 4 of the of the 1965 Voting Rights Act?
Which form of political participation is probably more representative of the general citizenry?
An institution by which a geographically defined group of people organize themselves to achieve their common goal is a(n) _____.
In Tashjian v. Republican Party of Connecticut (1986), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
the state’s law requiring registered voters wishing to vote in the Republican Party’s primary had to be registered with the party was unconstitutional.
What is a requirement created by the Federal government that is not backed with any federal money?
Which of the following is NOT true regarding voter decisions on ballot measures?
As ballot measures are mainly put forth by citizens and not politicians, partisanship is not a reliable predictor of how people will vote.
In 2011, what did the Humane Society do to place pressure on Congress to modify regulations on raising chickens?
It circulated ballot initiatives in two states, only to withdraw them after brokering a deal with the United Egg Producers.
Which state can boast of having the lengthiest constitution?
To qualify a measure for the statewide ballot in large states like California, proponents
often resort to hiring firms that are paid to collect signatures.
Which of the following was NOT one of the high points of federal governmental power in the twentieth century?
Under Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts, it appears that the Court’s effort to bolster states’ rights has
One influential theory predicts that in single-member districts
all candidates seeking that office will have to take policy positions near the “center” of the political spectrum.
What was the “Big Swap” proposition?
A proposal that the federal government would turn over to the states the responsibilities to provide for education, social services, transportation, and cash public assistance programs in exchange for taking over the provision of health services for the poor
The President that pronounced “government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem” is
As _____, the governor represents the state to people, organizations, and other governments, both within and outside of its borders.
In 2010, which political party made historical gains in terms of its share of legislative seats?
Which of the following is NOT a type of lobbyist?
In the 1960s, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution required that districts in the same legislative chamber must be
“substantially equal” in population.
Generating genuine, ground-level support on an issue in order to apply pressure on legislators and other elected officials is known as
State courts are a central part of government, not only enforcing the law and settling conflicts, but sometimes
even making public policy.
Most trials are known as “bench trials,” which means that
a single judge runs the trial and makes the final decision.
The neutral entity that makes an authoritative decision and is comprised of a cross-section of the community is known as the
The governor of which state has the strongest veto power in the country?
Which of the following courts tends to be the only one seen fit for television drama series?
Unlike political parties, interest groups
do not take over the reins of government.
Unlike with state legislative races, in gubernatorial races, the opposing major party will almost
find someone to run, even against a popular incumbent.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding courts and their policy-making role in state
The judicial branch has a lot of policy-making legitimacy in popular American culture because their decisions are backed by precedent and law.
Which type of lobbyist works for a lobbying firm, often takes on multiple clients, and charges clients an hourly fee?
In contrast to the two major political parties, interest groups
attempt to aggregate public preferences and concentrate them as specific demands.
Which of the following is NOT true of the targeting electoral strategy utilized by legislative party leaders?
Leaders ensure that the minority party does not nominate qualified candidates.
The different types of judicial selection in the states reflects the persistent debate regarding the a. proper way to run a judicial system.
extent to which a judge uses the law versus public opinion to make legal decisions.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the appeals process?
All state court systems have one level of appellate courts, deciding both questions of fairness and constitutionality.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the State of the State address given by
It binds the legislature to the governor’s agenda.
Which of the following is a form of outsider activity used in the practice of political speech by interest groups?
Which of the following is NOT a critique of the elite appointment system or of judicial
Judicial elections are criticized for being high-turnout, high-information affairs.
Which political theory suggests that a system of interest group competition, whether or not intended so, advantages economic interests, placing their narrow interests over those of the collective good?
Interest groups do all of the following EXCEPT
nominate group members to run for office under the group’s ticket.
In Iowa in 2010, three Supreme Court Justices
lost their merit retention elections.
the minimum number of legislative members needed to conduct official business.
What is the name of the 100-year-old nonpartisan institution that provides a vehicle for governors to consult one another about their common problems?
National Governors Association
In 2012, in which state did Republicans win control of both chambers of the state’s General
In New York, lobbyists outnumber state lawmakers by a ratio of
Which of the following is NOT a step in the Merit Plan selection process?
The judge, after serving a probationary term, faces the voters in a retention election.
Despite the notable activities by interest groups in several states, which of the following interest group techniques tends to be used the LEAST?
Which state court is also known as the court of last resort?
Which of the following is NOT one of the four primary jobs a governor has?
What political philosophy led to the unrepentant use of political appointees at all levels, with the justification being that more representative government would result?
Which of the following is NOT true regarding state court organizational structures?
Typically, the more recently a court system has been overhauled, the more complex it is.
Most states give their governors a variety of special institutional powers with respect to
How do high-level administrators formally implement state law?
They write administrative rules.
States have regulated judicial elections much more heavily than they have legislative or gubernatorial races in order to
prevent conflicts of interest developing between judges and campaign donors.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the jurisdiction of state supreme courts in states that use a three-tiered legal system?
The Supreme Court’s docket is comprised largely of routine, mandatory appeals.
Today, roughly three percent of all state lawmakers are
A police officer deciding whether to give you a warning or a ticket for speeding is an example of
Every state holds its gubernatorial election every four years EXCEPT
Formal proposals to change state law are called
Which of the following is NOT a basic duty of the state legislature?
Oversee the activities of the federal judiciary.
Between December 2007 and December 2011, several states, including Oregon, Colorado,
Illinois, Wisconsin, and Delaware
experienced at least a 30 percent increase in TANF recipients.
Which of the following is NOT a function of most state Boards of Education?
All of the following statements regarding the power of American cities are true EXCEPT
American cities are far less dependent on locally generated revenues than much of the developed world.
America’s urban poor, which has long been a focus of social welfare reformers, has been termed by some as America’s
Which statement is TRUE regarding the mix of local revenues?
Local governments rely more heavily on revenue transfers than states do.
Many newer cities, as well as some very old cities, have been formed primarily for
As the opening vignette suggests, except for which of the following, communities can use local land use powers
Which of the following is a typical characteristic of morality policy interest groups?
Most morality-based interest groups are driven by a single issue.
Which term describes the type of tax that places the greatest burden to pay by the poor?
Traditionally, counties are
administrative and recordkeeping jurisdictions for their states.
One problematic characteristic of morality policy politics is that
What percentage of incorporated American cities are relatively small places with populations of less than 100,000?
Citizens in which state became the first in the nation to reject constitutional amendment on the ballot that would have banned same-sex marriage?
All of the following describe special districts EXCEPT
they tend to have hotly contested candidate elections.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding America’s urban poor?
America’s urban poor is mostly isolated in the cities, with few rural areas having high rates of unemployment.
At the end of the 1890s, what reform was seen as a cure for municipal corruptions?
When metropolitan governments were first being created, there was an assumption that they would
be cheaper and more efficient to provide services from a large, centralized bureaucracy than from several competing jurisdictions.
The main source of revenue for local governments is the
Currently, which of the following sources provides the most K-12 education funding, on
During which period did the federal government’s role in health care and social welfare programs dramatically change?
Which of the following is a prominent way that most American politicians invoke morality policy today?
Regularly appealing to religious morality
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the Democraticsponsored “Goals 2000: Educate America Act,” passed in the 1990s?
It was signed into law by President George W. Bush.
Awarding public sector jobs
Offer industrial development revenue bonds.
Many early settlers in what would become the United States believed that public policy in the states ought to outlaw
The major source of revenue for public schools in the 1920s was
from local school districts.
n a political machine, who provides information about the needs of residents and their voting habits to people higher up the political machine hierarchy?
Why might an unincorporated area want to become incorporated as its own city?
To maintain control of its taxation
In 2009, Westchester County, New York, one of the wealthiest counties in the country, was found by a federal judge to have
Slow growth forces had their earliest influence in
One possible consequence of municipal electoral reforms such as off-year, nonpartisan elections is that they contribute to
Which of the following is NOT true regarding Social Security?
Critics of Social Security argue that the program is unnecessary, as most workers have dedicated retirement savings.
Most potential morality policy issues are
Groups working to ban abortion, same-sex marriage, pornography, or teaching evolution in schools typically
have no economic interest at stake.
What act allowed an exception to the Full Faith and Credit Clause and provided a definition of marriage according to federal law?
One way to think about the political environment of American local governments is to think of cities and counties as
businesses in a competitive marketplace.
The largest and fastest growing component of state budgets centers on
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the food stamps program?
Legal immigrants may not participate in the program.
What did George W. Bush highlight when he focused on the poor achievement of many children attending public schools?
The achievement gap between rich and poor and white and minority students
Which of the following events regarding abortion regulation thrust the question of abortion-ondemand squarely into public debate?
The U.S. Supreme Court’s 1973 ruling, Roe v. Wade, striking down state abortion bans.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding voter registration and its reforms?
As voter registration laws were adopted in the 1900s, statewide voter turnout increased.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding trends in state and local revenues?
States have not been as reliant on fees and charges to fill out their revenue portfolios since the 1980s.
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