PSY 2012 Textbook Questions Pool Chapter 6: Development Over the Lifespan 1. In regard to the nature-nurture controversy, most researchers a. feel that nature is clearly more important. b. feel that nurture is clearly more important. c. are more interested in the interaction of nature and nurture. d. believe that changes are gradual over time. e. accept that development occurs in stages. 2. Newborns have __________ for finding nourishment, avoiding harmful situations, and interacting with others. a. an innate ability b. a special ability c. a fraternal ability d. a maternal ability e. a distinctive ability 3. The cells that eventually form the organ systems of the infant start development during the __________ phase. a. zygotic b. menarche c. infancy d. fetal e. embryonic 4. Alzheimer’s disease is estimated to occur in about _____ of the population over the age of 65 with the incidence increasing with age to over 50% in people beyond age 85. a. 1% b. 2% c. 3% d. 4% e. 5% 5. Which of the following is NOT a reflective or sensory capacity that would be present in a newborn? a. Choosing between different colors b. Clinging to a caregiver c. Responding to stimulation d. Discriminating between “good” and “bad” odors e. Distinguishing between tastes with differing amounts of sweetness 6. Which of the following is TRUE of infant vision? a. Infants can see at 20 feet what most people can see at 50 feet. b. At one week, a child can detect the contours of a head at a close distance. c. Infants prefer human faces to most other stimuli. d. Babies typically can distinguish color at about three weeks. e. At birth, a baby can scan the features of a caregiver’s face. 7. Which of the following situations is an example of synchronicity? a. Karen and her son, P.J., are on the floor playing with rattles. b. Sherral laughs when she sees her daughter, Zoe, laugh. c. Patti is upset because her son, Danny, won’t stop sucking his thumb. d. Rob punishes his son, Michael, for pulling the dog’s tail. e. Chris is teaching his son, Cameron, to hit a golf ball. 8. The intense, enduring, social-emotional relationship that develops between a child and a caretaker is termed a. imprinting. b. intimacy. c. attachment. d. menarche. e. temperament. 9. The innate predisposition of some species to form attachment to a figure observed at birth is termed a. menarche. b. imprinting. c. assimilation. d. centration. e. discontinuity. 10. __________ is the idea that we form attachments to those who provide reassurance through physical touch, as opposed to feeding us. a. Proximity b. Generativity c. Contact comfort d. Imprinting e. Identity 11. The emotional attachment of a human infant for its caregiver a. starts just after birth. b. depends on signals generated by the infant. c. may carry over into and determine adult behavior. d. may involve more than the caregiver providing food to the infant. e. All of the above are correct. 12. Jane displayed no distress toward her mother when she left nor any happiness when she returned. This is best explained by which form of attachment? a. anxious-secure b. ambivalent c. secure d. avoidant e. anxious-ambivalent 13. Twin studies indicate that heredity makes a substantial contribution to a. schizophrenia. b. gender identity. c. obsessive-compulsive disorder. d. mate selection. e. hobbies. 14. From the age of two to six, a child’s vocabulary increases from _____ to _____ words. a. 2,000; 4,000 b. 9,000; 24,000 c. 1,000; 10,000 d. 9,000; 20,000 e. 10,000; 40,000 15. Speech that consists of short, simple sequences of nouns and verbs without plurals or tenses or function words is known as a. a two-word stage. b. a one-word stage. c. telegraphic. d. overregulated words. e. babbling. 16. A child that says, “We eated pizza for dinner” has made the error of a. overregularization. b. overgeneralization. c. discrimination. d. scaffolding. e. underregulation 17. Cognitive development refers to the study of the changing processes a. for thinking, perceiving, and remembering. b. of the human body. c. of a person’s behaviors. d. of the family unit. e. of our culture. 18. The two dynamic processes at work in cognitive growth, according to Piaget, are a. overregularization and object permanence. b. schemes and motor skills. c. assimilation and accommodation. d. egocentrism and centration. e. competence and inferiority. 19. In the process of ___________ new information fits our earlier scheme, whereas in _________ our scheme changes to fit new information. a. assimilation; accommodation b. assimilation; homeostasis c. centration; differentiation d. reversibility; centration e. differentiation; centration 20. __________ is a term used by Piaget to refer to a child who is unable to take another’s perspective and who sees the world only in terms of themselves. a. Egocentrism b. Conservation c. Abstract thinking d. Centration e. Imprinting 21. In order to establish successful social interactions and relationships it is important that a child a. master conservation. b. develop postconventional morality. c. master centration. d. develop a theory of mind. e. A and C are correct. 22. The gradual “wave metaphor” for psychological development was proposed by a. Siegler. b. Piaget. c. Kohlberg. d. Kagan. e. Erikson. 23. __________ is defined as a person’s characteristic manner of behavior or reaction. a. Attachment b. Integrity c. Contact comfort d. Generativity e. Temperament 24. In a study of activity and leisure time in children from various countries, research has shown that a. a typical U.S. child works more than four hours per day. b. U.S. children spend little discretionary time with friends. c. a typical U.S. child works about half an hour per day. d. U.S. children spend more time on homework than do children from any other culture. e. free time for U.S. children has decreased over the last 20 years. 25. Erikson would explain a child’s interest in achieving goals on the sporting field or in the classroom as being due to a. a reinforcement of stereotypes. b. a way to channel nervous energy. c. the need to feel a sense of competence. d. a rebellion against authority figures. e. a way to establish trust with teammates. 26. ADHD is a psychological disorder found in __________ of school-age children in America. a. 2 – 3% b. 3 – 4% c. 3 – 5% d. 4 – 5% e. 5 – 6% 27. People with ADHD seem to receive fewer and/or weaker __________ bursts, which correlates with less engagement and long-term interest in a task. a. dopamine b. serotonin c. GABA d. norepinephrine e. acetylcholine 28. Psychologists argue that __________ is the first concrete indicator of the end of childhood. a. the development of an integrated identity b. attachment c. puberty d. the pubescent growth spurt e. graduating from elementary school 29. Which of the following is true of adolescence? a. Adolescents are preoccupied with body image. b. Friendships among girls are based on emotional closeness. c. Adolescents spend more time with peers than with adults. d. Surges in testosterone contribute to sexual awakening in boys. e. All of the above are correct. 30. Approximately _____ of American adolescent girls and _____ of boys claimed that they have “frequently felt ugly and unattractive.” a. 44%, 32% b. 23%, 43% c. 23%, 44% d. 44%, 23% e. 44%, 25% 31. Which is a serious flaw in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development? a. The lower stages have not been found in all cultures. b. Moral reasoning does not predict actual behavior. c. The higher stages are not associated with education. d. The stages as a whole do not parallel Piaget’s stages. e. All cultures attain the stages in the same order. 32. The despair of a person who is in Erikson’s final psychosocial crisis is most likely caused by a. their fear of dying. b. their decrease in mental ability and physical stamina. c. their incomplete resolution of earlier developmental crises. d. societal discrimination against the elderly. e. lack of social support from friends and family members.