Studies the same individuals at different points in their lives.
What is a cross-sectional design? Give an example.
Investigates development by comparing different groups of individuals varying in age. Saves time and money.
What is the cohort effect and how can it be harmful?
A cohort is a group of people that are born at the same time. This may effect the patterns we observe because they may not be only related to age. Example would be children effected by the Vietnam war.
What is a longitudinal-sequential design? Give an example.
Combines the longitudinal and cross-sectional methods by studying two or more age groups over time.
What is naturalistic observations? Give an example of a location.
Consists of going into the natural environment to observe a particular behavior.
What is a structured observation? Give an example of a location.
Used in a laboratory setting when a researcher sets up a situation that cues a particular behavior to be observed.
Correlation design facts are?
Reveals relationships between varibles, but does NOT reveal cause-and-effect.
Experimental design facts are?
Allows cause-and-effect statements Lab experiments may not apply in the real world.
What is an correlation design?
When researchers gather information on already existing groups of individuals without changing their experiences in any way.
What is the range of "r"?
-1.0 to 1.0
What is an experimental design?
Method refers to a research approach in which the investigator manipulates one variable and then measures the resulting changes in another variable.
Two main theorists for the psychodynamic perspective.
1.) Freud 2.) Erikson
Freuds main research?
Psychosexual stages of development
Eriksons main research?
Pyshosocial stages of development.
What are the four principles of development?
1.)Nature- Nurture controversy 2.)Interrelatedness of physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development. 3.) Variations of developmental outcomes over time and contexts. 4.) Continuity vs. discontinuity issue.
What is the Transactional Model?
Development occurs as a result of interplay of biology and experience over time.
What does a model of continuity represent?
See development as continuous with no stages. That is, development is cumulative and "more of the same".
What does a model of discontinuity represent?
Sees humans progressing through stages in development which are marked by qualitative changes in the structure and properties of behavior.
Freud was the father of what?
Freud had three components of personality, what were they?
Id, Ego, and Superego
Id is what?
Instinctual drives (aggressive sexually)
Ego is what?
Self trying to get needs met. Sexual drive.
Superego is what?
Rules of family and society. Learn from mom and dad.
Erikson identified _ psychosocial stages in development.
What is habituation?
Learning not to respond to a frequently repeated stimulus. This is the simplest way of learning.
What is classical conditioning?
Learning by paring or respondent learning.
What is operant conditioning?
The consequences of an action influence the persons tendency to repeat the same action in the future.
What did Bandura emphasize?
Piaget believed what?
That cognitive development occurs in accordance with principles of adaption (assimilation and accommodation) and organization.
The human body has how many pairs of chromosomes?
What is an autosome?
Chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic function. (first 22 pairs of human chromosomes)
Genes that are the same position or locus on the other chromosome of the pair govern the same what?
Phenomenon (eye color)
Phenotype is an interaction between what?
Genotype with the environment.
What is codominance?
When a heterozygosity results in both alleles being express with equal force. Such as AB blood.
Most genetically-based conditions occur because the child receives the *****, ***** gene fro the condition for each parent.
What is Fragile X?
The leading cause of familial mental retardation. The severity seems to increase as abnormal gene is passes from mother to child (with more generations)
The phenomenon that a disability increase its severity as its passed between generations called what?
What is canalization?
The tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes.
What is Niche-picking?
Tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity. (Mothers buying a piano, to please their childrens likes)
What is the period called for the first two weeks after conception?
What is formed from the fusion of the egg and sperm?
What is the period called at the end of the two weeks to the end of the 18th week?
What is one big characteristic of the embryonic period?
Rudimentary anatomy. Development is very rapid.
What is one big characteristic of the germinal period?
During this phase there is the establishment of a linkage between the zygote and the support system of the mother.
What is the period called at the end of the 8th week after conception until birth?
What are some teratogens?
Caffeine Drugs Alcohol Cat litter
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