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Which of the following is most accurate regarding the human need for affiliation?
a. People tend to prefer as much social contact with others as possible.
b. There is little variation between individuals when it comes to desired level of
c. People are motivated to maintain an optimum balance of time alone and social
d. On average, men in individualistic cultures desire more social contact than do
women, but in collectivist cultures, women prefer more than men.
Though they had all been together on the transcontinental flight for three hours, the passengers didn’t start to talk to one another until the plane ran into some serious turbulence. This behavior is best explained by the
a. tendency for external threat to increase affiliation.
b. matching hypothesis.
c. proximity effect.
d. evolutionary perspective on the sociostat.
According to the relevant research, who of the following is likely to be the loneliest?
a. José, who is an adolescent
b. Hector, who is 40 years old and has never been married
c. Selena, who is 60 years old and is married
d. Marble, who is 60 years old and has never been married
According to your textbook, the single best predictor of whether two people will get together is
b. matching levels of physical attractiveness.
c. physical proximity.
Mita et al. (1977) found that female college students preferred their own mirror image to their actual appearance. This finding is consistent with
a. the matching hypothesis.
b. mere exposure effects.
c. social exchange theory.
d. excitation transfer.
Lee (2008) and colleagues ran a study in which they examined people’s ratings of photos on the website HOTorNOT.com. They found that participants’ own level of attractiveness
a. were positive predictors of how attractive they rated the photos.
b. were negative predictors of how attractive they rated the photos.
c. did not predict their ratings of the photos.
d. predicted their ratings of male but not female photos.
Which of the following is not a reason why we seem to be attracted to averaged faces?
a. They are prototypically face-like.
b. They are symmetrical.
c. They look unusual.
d. They seem more familiar to us.
Snyder and colleagues (1977) ran a study in which mixed-gender pairs had a phone conversation. Male participants were given either an attractive or unattractive photo of their conversation partner. Which of the following statements about the study findings is false?
a. Men were friendlier toward the partners who they believed to be attractive.
b. The outcome of the conversation was more influenced by the women’s actual level
of attractiveness than by how attractive the men believed the women to be.
c. Men formed more positive impressions of the personality of women who they
believed to be attractive.
d. Women talking with men who believed they were attractive were actually warmer
and more confident during the conversation
Which of the following best reflects the benefits and cost of being attractive?
While attractiveness often brings a social advantage to attractive individuals, it can
cause them to doubt the sincerity of others’ praise for their work.
While attractiveness often brings heightened self-esteem to attractive individuals,
it can lead them to doubt others’ praise of their attractiveness.
While attractiveness often brings greater popularity to attractive individuals, it can
increase mental health difficulties.
While attractiveness often brings lifetime happiness to attractive individuals, it can
put pressure on them to maintain their appearance.
Popular wisdom is often contradictory, as with the following two sayings: 1) “opposites attract” and 2) “birds of a feather flock together.” Research on the relationship between similarity and liking suggests that
#1 is more accurate; people tend to be more attracted to those who are dissimilar
#2 is more accurate; people tend to be more attracted to those who are similar to
both are right for different people; heterosexual men tend to be attracted to similar
others whereas gay men tend to be attracted to dissimilar others.
both are right in different conditions; people are attracted to similar others when
they are interested in long-term relationships, but they prefer dissimilar others for less serious relationships without commitment.
Walster et al. (1966) randomly matched students for a dance. At the end of the evening, students indicated how satisfied they were with their dates. The strongest predictor of satisfaction was
a. physical attractiveness.
b. attitudinal similarity.
c. proximity of dorm rooms.
d. complementary personalities
Pinel and colleagues (2006) refer to “I-sharing” as an important form of similarity whereby individuals share
a. a subjective experience.
b. a level of physical attractiveness.
c. political ideologies.
d. technological expertise.
Wegner and colleagues (1994) conducted a study in which mixed-gender foursomes played a card game. Some couples were instructed to play “footsie” secretly under the table, some were instructed to do so out in the open, and others were not told to do anything at all. Findings indicated that participants reported being most attracted to their partner when
a. they had not been asked to play “footsie.”
b. they played “footsie” in secret.
c. they played “footsie” so that the other pair knew they were doing it.
d. they played either type of “footsie.”
Eastwick and Finkel (2008) examined men’s and women’s preferences during a speed dating event. They found significant gender differences in what men and women reported as important mate characteristics before the event began—differences that _________ once they actually started interacting with the potential mates at the event.
b. stayed constant
d. became more subtle
Who is more likely to value physical attractiveness in a potential male partner?
a. A woman who is in poverty
b. A woman who makes a moderate income
c. A woman who is fantastically wealthy
d. All of these will value physical attractiveness similarly in a potential mate
Bruce and Pam have just started dating. According to social exchange theory, their relationship is likely to last longer and be more satisfying if they each feel that
a. the rewards gained from the relationship are shared equally between them.
b. the costs of maintaining the relationship are shared equally between them.
c. the rewards gained from the relationship are equal to the costs of maintaining the
d. the rewards gained from the relationship are greater than the costs of maintaining
Zachary is unhappy in his relationship and is trying to decide whether to break up with his girlfriend. Which of the following factors might encourage him to stay?
a. If his comparison level for alternatives is high
b. If his comparison level is high
c. If his investment is high
d. If his costs for staying are high
In their relationship, Clyde is concerned with maintaining an equal ratio of rewards and costs, whereas Bonnie is concerned with being responsive to Clyde’s needs. Clyde views their relationship as a(n) ______ relationship, whereas Bonnie views it as a(n) ______ relationship.
a. reciprocal; exchange
b. exchange; communal
c. communal; passionate
d. passionate; companionate
According to Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, the basic components of love are
a. intimacy, passion, and commitment.
b. rewards, costs, and investments.
c. romance, companionship, and reciprocity.
d. ludus, eros, and storge.
Bruno just finished working out at the gym. On his way to the locker room, he passes Charmaigne, a very pretty woman. Bruno feels his heart pounding and is convinced that he must be in love with Charmaigne. Bruno’s feelings are best explained by
a. negative affect reciprocity.
b. excitation transfer.
c. psychological reactance.
d. social penetration.
When they first started dating, Norma and Nathan didn’t share much about themselves with one another, but as their relationship developed, they began to talk more about personal issues and reveal more about themselves. Their behavior is most consistent with the predictions of
a. the matching hypothesis.
b. equity theory.
c. the triangular theory of love.
d. social penetration theory.
In India and China, love is
a. essential for marriage.
b. emphasized more among females than males.
c. not a sufficient basis for marriage.
d. viewed in more dispositional terms than it is in America.
Which of the following conclusions is not supported by data?
a. Men often tend to see the world in “sexualized” terms.
b. Men are more likely to fantasize about sex with multiple partners.
c. Men tend to be more sexually permissive than women.
d. Women do not engage in casual sex without emotional commitment.
Survey research regarding adults’ life histories reveals that homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been
a. overattached to their same-sex parents as children.
b. sexually abused as children.
c. relatively late in the development of puberty.
d. None of these
Gay couples tend to _____ than straight couples.
a. divide household chores more evenly
b. retain relationships with former sex partners more
c. divide household chores more evenly and retain relationships with former sex
d. divide household chores more evenly and retain relationships with former sex
Carly hurls an insult right back at James when James expresses his negative feelings toward her. Such a pattern illustrates
a. social penetration.
b. a demand/withdraw interaction pattern.
c. negative affect reciprocity.
d. distress-maintaining attributions.
The evolutionary principle of kin selection dictates that we are more likely to help someone who is
a. a potential mate.
b. likely to return the favor.
c. physically attractive.
d. genetically similar to us.
Kelli always tries to be very helpful because she believes it increases her chances of receiving help at a future time. Kelli’s thinking most closely reflects the concept of
a. reciprocal altruism.
d. audience exhibition.
When Jo witnessed a serious plane crash, she felt compassion, sympathy, and tenderness for the victims. Her feelings are indicative of
a. anxious introspection.
b. perspective taking.
c. personal distress.
d. empathic concern.
Which hormone has been implicated by neuroscientists in empathy and prosocial behaviors?
The negative state relief model of helping behavior
a. supports the existence of altruism in the real world.
b. applies more to emergencies than to non-emergency situations.
c. identifies yet another way in which helping can be egoistic.
d. All of these
Research by Rilling et al. (2002) suggests that ________ behavior is linked to activation of the brain in areas associated with processing rewards.
c. evolutionarily adaptive
d. mutually cooperative
“Good Samaritan” laws
a. encourage bystanders to intervene in emergencies.
b. increase the cost of failing to help.
c. are fairly rare in the United States.
d. All of these
According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, altruistic behavior is primarily the result of
a. taking another’s perspective.
b. rewards and costs.
c. personal distress.
The empathy-altruism model suggests that when escape from a situation is easy, people will
a. offer help only when they have empathic concern.
b. offer help only when they are in a good mood.
c. almost always exhibit altruism.
d. be likely to experience empathic concern.
Research by Omoto and Snyder (1995) found that volunteers who decided to help AIDS victims had _____ service if their motives were _____.
a. longer; self-oriented
b. longer; other-oriented
c. shorter; religious
d. shorter; egoistic
Which of the following is not one of the five steps to helping proposed by Latané and Darley (1970)?
a. Interpret the event as an emergency
b. Invoke the norm of reciprocity
c. Take responsibility for providing help
d. Notice that something is happening
Dewanto hears what sounds like gunshots coming from the school parking lot. None of his classmates appears concerned, so Dewanto assumes that they know the sound was only a car backfiring or someone playing with firecrackers. Dewanto’s beliefs illustrate
a. diffusion of responsibility.
b. empathic concern.
c. audience inhibition.
d. pluralistic ignorance.
The belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need is called
a. the bystander effect.
b. diffusion of responsibility.
c. pluralistic ignorance.
d. audience inhibition.
According to Latané and Darley’s (1970) five-step model of helping, analysis of costs and rewards occurs at what step?
a. Noticing the event
b. Interpreting the event as an emergency
c. Taking responsibility to help
d. Providing help
Darley and Batson (1973) found that the helping behavior of seminary students was best predicted by
a. how religious they were.
b. the type of speech they were about to give.
c. how much time they had.
d. the sex of the person being helped
As she is about to walk into the grocery store, Melissa sees a woman struggling with her groceries. Melissa is most likely to help this woman if
a. the woman is obviously drunk.
b. the store is located in an urban environment.
c. Melissa only has five minutes to purchase her donuts and beer, and get to work on time.
d. Melissa feels guilty about having parked in the handicapped space.
Which social norm suggests that people who are fairly well-off in life should use their position to help those who are in need?
a. Norm of social responsibility
b. Norm of reciprocity
c. Norm of equity
d. Norm of justice
Kevin asks Winnie to drive him to the airport. Though Winnie doesn’t really want to, she agrees because Kevin loaned her money last week. Winnie agreed to help because of the norm of
Which of the following combinations of traits has been shown to be essential to helping?
a. Extroversion and conscientiousness
b. Empathy and advanced moral reasoning
c. Empathy and introversion
d. Independence and conscientiousness
Manny needs help, and Pedro is capable of giving it. Pedro is more likely to help if he
a. perceives Manny as responsible for his predicament.
b. is low on agreeability.
c. endorses the norm of justice more than the norm of social responsibility.
d. has a shared identity with Manny.
Some cross-racial helping is not truly altruistic because it can be a sign of
a. kin selection.
d. feelings of superiority over the person being helped.
Whether or not someone seems responsible for her own predicament is more influential on helping behavior
a. in individualistic cultures.
b. when the target in need of help is male.
c. when the person in need of help is a family member.
d. in collectivist cultures.
The defining characteristic of aggression is that the aggressor
a. intends to injure another living being.
b. actually causes physical or psychological harm.
c. is angry or otherwise emotionally aroused during the aggressive act.
d. derives enjoyment from the aggressive act.
Proactive is the same as _____ aggression, while reactive is the same as _____ aggression.
a. relational; impersonal
b. emotional; instrumental
c. instrumental; emotional
d. impersonal; relational
When Katie found out that her brother Matt had pulled the heads off all of her Barbie dolls, she threw her Easy Bake oven at him. Katie’s behavior illustrates
a. instrumental aggression.
b. proactive aggression.
c. incompatible responses.
d. reactive aggression.
One form of violence that seems to be fairly consistent across cultures is
a. violence against young girls.
b. gun violence.
c. domestic violence.
Based on Bonta’s (1997) research on nonviolent societies, a powerful way to reduce violence within a society would be to
a. emphasize a strict division of labor by gender.
b. promote cooperation.
c. harshly punish all acts of aggression.
d. separate subcultures within the society.
The relatively greater violence rates in the southern United States has been attributed to
a. greater variability of temperature in the South than in the North.
b. the manner in which residents of the South respond to status threats.
c. the ratio of males to females living in the South.
d. the age demographics of the South.
Though women are more likely than men to aggress in an intimate relationship, men’s aggression in such relationships differs in that it typically
a. emerges in the face of provocation.
b. has more severe consequences.
c. results from alcohol abuse.
d. is sexual in nature.
Regarding self-esteem and aggression, which of the following is false?
a. Narcissism is a good predictor of aggression.
b. Low self-esteem is a good predictor of aggression.
c. Narcissism is correlated with aggression in response to provocation.
d. High self-esteem is predictive of aggression when combined with narcissism and
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