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-Too philosophical and unscientific
1. bodily me (year 1:sensations) seperate from environment.
2. self identity (year 2: self-continuity over time-language development) seperate from others.
3. self esteme (year 3: pride) I can manipulate and master my environment.
4. self-extention (year 4: possessions) I can exist beyond my physical self.
5. Self image (years 4-6: conscience- how others view me) I see myself as being like this.
6. self as rational coper (years 6-12: problem solving) solve problem using my "brain"
7. propriate striving (adolescence:need induction) long-range goals and plans.
8. self as knower (adulthood:synthesis)
In a token economy, certain behaviors are deemed desirable and otherbehaviors are deemed undesirable. When the participants in the economy act indesirable ways, they are given tokens. The tokens can be exchanged for itemssuch as candy.
What is a primary drive?
Social-cognitive theoryviews the interaction between the person and the environment as highly complexand individualistic. Each individual brings to each situation the remnants ofpreviously experience, which are used to deal with the present situation.
Behavior outcome expectancy
belief that on environmental event will befollowed by another specific event that has been consistently associated withthe first event in the past.
What is worth having or doing, not worth theeffort.
What we are capable of doing.
Reprehensiblebehavior becomes a means to a higher purpose and is therefore, justifiable.
Example: I committed a crime so I could provide food for my family.
By calling an otherwise reprehensible thing other than it really is, one can engage in an act without self-contempt.
Example: Nonaggressive individuals are far more likely to aggress toward another person when doing so is called a game.
Synthesis of human learning theory and psychoanalysis,scientifically respectable approach to the study of personality, cleardescription of therapeutic process.
The Coolidge effect refers to the:
Xenophobia is the fear of:
Skinner accepted the view of radical behaviorism. Herejected the term personality because it suggests inner causation of behavior.He also considered theories to be “time-consuming and wasteful,” and believedthat theory was important for the generation of research.
What are theshortcomings of punishment?
It causes the punishedperson to become fearful; it indicates what the person should not do, insteadof what they should do; it justifies inflicting pain on others; it often causesaggression, and it tends to replace one undesirable response with another, aswhen a child is spanked for a wrongdoing now cries instead.
Accordingto operant theory, the best way to teach a complex skill is to divide it intoits basic components and gradually shape it into existence one small step at atime. According to this viewpoint, the shaping process is extremely importantto education and childrearing.
Daly and Wilson's research has found that children are between ______ times more likely to be killed by a stepparent than by a genetic parent:
What is our biggestproblem?
the interval between reinforcements is randomlyvaried around a certain average of time
One solution to make the future immediate is throughcontingency contacting. Contingency contracting is an agreement between twopeople that when one acts in an appropriate way, the other one gives him or hersomething of value.
Involves clearlyspecifying the undesirable behaviors that are to be extinguished, clearlyspecifying the desirable behaviors to be reinforced and arranging reinforcementcontingencies so they are responsive to the desirable behavior.
This concept is simiar toFreud’s position that many of the everyday behaviors we observe in people areindirect manifestations of basic instincts such as sex or aggression. Drive isthe motivational concept in Miller and Dollard’s theory; it is the energizer ofthe personality. The stronger the stimulus, the stronger the drive and thegreater the motivation.
Drive is any strongstimulus that impels an organism to action and whose elimination or reductionis reinforcing. Drives may be internal, such as hunger or thirst, or external,such as loud noise or intense heat or cold. Drives energize behavior.
A cue is a stimulus thatindicates the appropriate direction an activity should take. Cues guidebehavior.
What is the current conclusion regarding the frustration-aggression hypothesis?
Through the years, the relationship between aggression and frustration has been found to be less direct than originally thought. For example, Miller and Dollard concluded that aggression is only one result of frustration. Other possible reactions include withdrawal or apathy, depression, regression, sublimation, creative problem solving, and fixation (stereotyped behavior).
1. Experiences we never verbally labeled
2. Experiencesthat have been repressed.
Situation exists when a person must choosebetween two equally attractive goals.
Situation that exists when a person is bothattracted and repelled by the same goal.
Example: A job may be attractive because of themoney it generates, but unattractive because it is boring.
the strength of the approach tendency increases as the goal is approached, the strength of the avoidance tendency increases as the goal is approached, the avoidance tendency is stronger nearer the goal than the approach tendency
Situation that exists when a person mustchoose between two equally aversive goals.
Example: A child must eat their spinach or bespanked, or the student must do homework or get low grades.
Reciprocal determinismwhich means person variables, situation variables, and behavior continuouslyinteracts with one another. Situation variables provide a setting in which aperson behaves, person variables determine how a situation is analyzed, andbehavior both provides information concerning the person’s analysis of thesituation and modifies the environment.
what a person believes he or she is capable ofdoing.
What are self-regulatorysystems?
Behavior governed byintrinsic reinforcement and punishment. Often directed at some major futuregoal that is approached through a series of subgoals. Once goals are set, anindividual organizes his or her life so as to increase the probability of theirattainment.
Disregardor distortion of consequences
Change the clientsperceived self-efficacy. The assumption is if a person’s perceived selfefficacy becomes more realistic, behavior will become better adapted.
What does research show is the most effectivemethod to address dysfunctional problems such as phobias?
Postponement of a small,immediate reinforce in order to obtain a larger, more distant reinforce.
Because without it, humansare as impulsive as nonhuman animals, and the goal orientated behaviornecessary for civilized living is possible.
The __________ of a stimulus determines its drive properties, whereas its __________ determines its cue properties
they are fortuitous, they can have a major impact on one's life, they exemplify another way that the environment can influence behavior
Which of the following is not emphasized by social cognitive theory:
self-regulation of behavior
incentive for translating learning into performance
information necessary for the development of effective behavior-outcome expectancies
an incentive for action
something of value to the person under existing circumstances
shorter intervals of delay
What does social cognitive theory emphasize
placing rewards out of sight during the delay period, employing self-distraction strategies, thinking of desirable rewards in undesirable ways
one of the three primary modes of relating to people, in which one accepts his or her own helplessness and becomes compliant in order to depend on others. (SELF-EFFACEMENT)
***need for affection and approval, need for a partner who will run one's life, need to live one's life within narrow limits. ***COMPLIANT TYPE
in Allport's theory, a determining tendency to respond that represents the ultimate reality of psychological organization. A trait is a neuropsychic structure that influences behavior. It is not a habit (a specific mode of responding), nor an attitude (e.g., one's likes and dislikes)
Original ideas: explaining neurosis Self-analysis: self-help books
Extraversion- sociable, lively, active, assertive, and sensation-seeking.
Neuroticism- anxious, depressed, tense and low self-esteme.
Psychoticism- aggressive, impulsive, cold and egocentric.
people as scientists; contructs are like mini-theories
our main goal is to reduce uncertainty by making predictions about reality
1. Contributions- emphasis on cognitionApplied value
differentiation with I, my, mine and me;
a person can reflect on himself as a distinct object of which he or she is aware