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The multidimensional view of sleep disorders makes the assumption that biological and nonbiological factors will be present in most sleep problems and that these factors will be
Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of those who develop anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa?
What appears to be the main cause of anorexia and bulimia?
While cheering for his son, Jim suddenly collapses to the floor and gets up after a few moments. What characteristic of narcolepsy may Jim have experienced?
Which of the following is not necessary for a diagnosis of bulimia?
________ are disturbances in arousal and sleep stage transition, while ________ are disturbances in the amount, timing, or quality of sleep.
________________ type anorexics rely on diets to lose weight; _______________ type anorexics use vomiting or laxatives for this purpose.
A tax on high-fat, high-calorie foods would
have mixed results.
The combination of a “toxic environment,” genetics, physiology, and personality constitutes the cause for
The most common sleep disorder is
________ insomnia indicates the complaint of sleep problems is not related to other medical conditions.
The characteristics of narcolepsy include
Males think that the most attractive body weight for females is ______________ than the weight females think is ideal for their bodies.
Studies of the neurobiological dimensions of eating disorders have determined that
The hormone melatonin
can be effective in resetting circadian rhythms.
____________ has many specific types, including jet lag and shift work types, and possibly delayed sleep phase.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder
The most effective treatment plan for obese children and adolescents is
behavior modification programs.
Biological treatments for dyssomnia include the use of
bright light to "trick" the brain into resetting the biological clock.
Greta demonstrates a pattern consistent with individuals diagnosed as_____________; Latitia demonstrates the pattern associated with individuals diagnosed as __________.
Bulimia, No eating disorders
Research suggests that eating disorders and __________ are related, since the latter often occurs at a high frequency in families of individuals with eating disorders.
Cognitive-behavioral treatment for bulimia involves all but which of the following?
Weight gain to within normal range
Following short-term treatment for bulimia, Phoebe, the woman whose case is discussed in the text,
eventually lost her desire to vomit and ceased bingeing and purging.
When treating anorexia, you should remember that
dysfunctional thoughts must be altered, which can be a difficult process.
Which type of sleep apnea involves a complete stop in breathing for brief periods of time and is often associated with central nervous system disorders?
Central sleep apnea
__________ are a form of parasomnia occurring during REM sleep that involve frightening and anxiety-provoking dreams that are often remembered, while ____________ occur during NREM sleep and are not remembered.
Nightmares; sleep terrors
Which of the following is(are) component(s) of a polysomnographic evaluation?
Electroencephalograph, electrocardiogram, electrooculograph
The incidence of eating disorders
has increased dramatically since the 1950s.
Unlike most other disorders, the strongest contribution to the etiology of eating disorders seems to come from
One major difference between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa is
people with anorexia actually lose too much weight.
Individuals who experience marked distress due to binge eating, but do not engage in extreme compensatory behaviors, would meet the diagnostic criteria for _____.
binge-eating disorder (BED)
______ are sleep problems that involve difficulties in getting enough sleep, problems with sleeping when you want to, and complaints about the quality of sleep such as not feeling refreshed even after a full night’s sleep.
The class of sleep disorders classified as _____ is characterized by abnormal behavioral or physiological events that occur during sleep, such as nightmares and sleepwalking.
To prevent insomnia, one should include all these sleep hygiene approaches
For prevention of eating disorders, it is necessary to identify risk factors. The most significant of these for young girls is
concern about being overweight.
________ are psychoactive substances that are among the most likely to produce physical dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal. These substances include alcohol and anxiolytic drugs.
Two important aspects of a definition of substance dependence are ________ and ________.
People who abuse or are dependent upon alcohol
are likely to go through periods marked by different levels of alcohol use.
may be at an increased risk to behave aggressively.
Which of the following is characteristic of nicotine?
Caffeine is a ________ that affects the brain stem by ________.
stimulant; blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitter adenosine.
A probable psychological cause of substance-related disorders is
________ is a method in which a drug with a similar chemical makeup is given in place of an addictive drug, and ________ are used to block the effects of psychoactive drugs.
Alcohol may influence which of the following systems?
The term opioids refers to ________ substances that have a narcotic effect, while opiates are ________ that have a narcotic effect.
all; substances found in the poppy
Which of the following is NOT considered in the text as a cognitive factor related to causes of substance-related disorders?
Opponent process theory - negative reinforcement
Nicotine is a(n) ________, alcohol is a ________, and morphine is a(n) ________.
Relapse prevention is a treatment method that
looks at the learned aspect of dependence.
sees relapse as a failure of cognitive and behavioral coping skills.
Jim is unable to cut down or control his substance use. He has been experiencing decreased effects when taking the same amount of drugs. Jim's drug use has now begun to disrupt his work and family responsibilities. According to DSM-IV, what would Jim's diagnosis be?
________ refers to the physiological reaction called drunkenness or high.
none of the above
Pulling one’s own hair from anywhere on the body refers to _______________.
Which of the following is true of substance-related disorders?
Drug use has ____ in recent years.
Substance abuse is defined as
The text differentiates two types of substance dependence. The type associated with tolerance and withdrawal is referred to as _______ dependence, whereas the type associated with drug-seeking behaviors is referred to as _______ dependence.
Which of the following is the most routinely used illegal substance in the United States?
A person with a genetic vulnerability to substance dependence
may choose not to use the substance in order to avoid becoming dependent.
Pathological gamblers display which of the following behaviors?
Factors that affect whether alcohol will cause organic damage include
The ALDH2 gene
The DSM uses a categorical approach to personality disorders. This is a problem because
This week's first client shows a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy. You diagnose ___________personality disorder, one of the dramatic, emotional, or erratic cluster of disorders.
A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluations, part of the anxious or fearful disorder cluster, is diagnosed as ____________ personality disorder.
George lives every day on a strict schedule. He must have everything perfect and organized, and is excessively devoted to his work. However, he has difficulty completing projects. Which personality disorder is he likely to be diagnosed?
According to the text, which is NOT true in the treatment of paranoid personality disorder?
Paradoxical intervention is used; i.e. therapists intentionally lie to these clients to create mistrust.
Dependent personality disorder and avoidant personality disorder have the following in common:
Which of the following might be considered in treating an individual with schizotypal personality disorder?
Which is true of avoidant personality disorder?
Behavioral interventions for anxiety and social skills problems have had some success.
Treatments are similar to those used for social phobia.
The relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
is a distant one; those with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder tend not to have the obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors of OCD.
Personality disorders involve enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that
may cause functional impairment.
May cause subjective distress
cut across many times and places
The DSM-IV system of diagnosis is __________, whereas, many theorists propose that personality disorders occur on a continuum, rather than an all-or-none dichotomous fashion. These theorists propose changing to a ______________ system of diagnosis.
In a study described in the text, when a case history of antisocial personality disorder was ascribed to a male client, therapists diagnosed it correctly. When the same behavior was ascribed to a woman,
their different diagnosis probably reflects a belief by therapists, accurate or not, that males are more likely to display antisocial behavior.
When clinicians use subjective impressions of clients based on interpersonal interactions, rather than behavioral observations outlined by DSM criteria, more _______________ is likely to enter into diagnostic decisions.
A diagnosis of more than one personality disorder in the same client
Which of the following statements is NOT true about borderline personality disorder?
People with the disorder usually have a high self-image.
A pervasive pattern of overconcern with orderliness, control, and perfectionism at the expense of openness and flexibility
is the DSM-IV definition of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
Your client displays schizotypal personality disorder. Because you are a well-trained, responsible professional, you know to assess for a likely comorbid disorder, namely,
Deceitful, irresponsible, aggressive, irritable, and lacking remorse are characteristics describing
DSM-IV calls for categorical judgments about the diagnosis for personality disorders. Imagine that the new DSM-V appears just as you earn your professional license in a few years, and it calls for dimensional determinations, as many current psychologists suggest. This change would mean
determining the severity of the personality disorder.
man who also believes himself grandly unique, entitled to special privileges, is arrogant, and expects to be admired and recognized as superior while envying others who are successful
A person identified as exhibiting avoidant personality disorder has just lost a close friend to a rival and is now seeking other friendships as replacements. You know the person
has been misdiagnosed.
Which of the following are symptoms of caffeine intoxication?
As mentioned in class, which of the following is not true?
According to a survey of substance abuse treatment experts the substance viewed as having the highest addiction potential (based on how easy it is to become addicted and how difficult it is to stop using the substance) is
A detailed case example of a young man who died from a heroin overdose was presented in class. The details of this case exemplified
A detailed case example of a young man who died from a heroin overdose was presented in class. Which of the following is a synthetic opioid whose use may have set the stage for the man’s eventual heroin addiction?
A detailed case example of a young man who died from a heroin overdose was presented in class. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the details of this case?
Which of the following is a powerful toxin that kills a variety of insects on contact?
According to your instructor a recent survey indicated the marijuana use is increasing most rapidly in which segment of the American population?
Based on neurotransmitter systems involved in responding to ingestions of these substances, which is most likely to increase anxiety?
According to your instructor, one very common trigger for the onset of eating disorders is
Significant success in managing weight through dieting is a potential risk factor for the development of
Which disorder is associated with the highest risk of death by suicide?
The NEO-PI-R is a self-report psychological assessment of
Anxiety, angry hostility, and vulnerability are facets of the “Big 5” personality dimension of
In the normative population of people taking the NEO-PI-R, scores on the major factors tend to be uncorrelated with each. In other words the factors are
The “Big 5” personality traits are:
Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism*
Which of the following personality disorders is (are) genetically related to schizophrenia?
In Marsha Linehan’s theory of the development of Borderline Personality Disorder, people who prone to emotional reactivity are more likely to develop the disorder when raised in family environment’s described as
Serial killers often have which combination of personality disorders?
In the clip of the film Fatal Instinct, Alex’s wrist-cutting was probably precipitated by which DSM-IV symptom of Borderline personality disorder?
Although not a specific symptom of Borderline personality disorder, the film Fatal Instinct portrayed which associated feature of the disorder?
Sensation-seeking is a personality characteristic that is a facet of the “Big 5” trait of __________ as well as a personality feature sometimes associated with __________ personality disorder.
What explains the apparent stimulation, feeling of well being, and outgoing behavior that occur as the initial effects of alcohol ingestion?
In trying to understand why some individuals become addicted to drugs and others do not, it is important to consider the negative reinforcement that is associated with the anxiolytic effect, i.e., a drug's ability to:
"Crack babies," born to mothers who have used cocaine, often develop problems that are attributed not only to the effects of cocaine but also to:
Borderline Personality Disorder is strongly associated with _____________, and may be an extreme variant of ________________.
There is research evidence to suggest that a gene-environment interaction occurs between _________ and the presence of an MAO transporter gene polymorphism to cause Antisocial Personality Disorder.
Which of the following is true about Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)?
Katrina believes that she is quite a wonderful person and should be admired for this. Katrina also believes that everyone else should know this and if they do not it tends to make her rather upset. It is likely that Katrina suffers from…..
It is often the case that individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder may appear to have ______________ but in reality _________________.
Which of the following disorders do some people believe is the female version of Anti-Social Personality Disorder?
Which of the following is a main characteristic of Anorexia but not Bulimia?
Refusal to maintain a body weight that is 85% or higher than what is considered a healthy body weight for an individual.*
Which of the following is not one of the criteria for assessing whether or not substance qualifies as an addictive agent?
Which of the following is false in regards to Cannabis?
Studies of twins who have been adopted and reared separately are often used when attempting to study the influence of genetic factors on psychological disorders because these studies allow examination of genetic influences of psychopathology:
without the typical confound of siblings raised in the same environment*
All of the following are longitudinal course specifiers for recurrent mania or depression EXCEPT
Recent research suggests that
In general, the same genetic factors contribute to both anxiety and depression.*
In comparing people who have GAD to people who do not, research suggests that when people with GAD worry:
there is less use of imagery that seems to help avoid experiencing the full depth of the anxiety.*
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