Approach to the study of psychopathology that holds psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting casual factors.
Long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, the basic physical unit of heredity that appears as a location on a chromosome.
That both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder.
Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder.
Reciprocal gene-environment model
Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder.
Study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions.
Individual nerve cell responsible for transmitting information.
Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next.
Chemical that crosses the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulse from one neuron to the next. Relative excess or deficiency of neurotransmitters is involved in several psychological disorders.
Chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands.
Neurotransmitter current or neural pathway to the brain.
Action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharge neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft.
In neuroscience, a chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects.
In neuroscience, a chemical substance that decreases or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter.
In neuroscience, a chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter.
Amino acid neurotransmitter that excites many different neuron, leading to action.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synaptic cleft and thus inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions, especially generalized anxiety.
Neurotransmitter involved in processing of information and coordination of movement, inhibition, restraint, regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors.
Neurotransmitter active in the central and peripheral nervous system, controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, among other functions.
Neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitter and to aid in exploratory and pleasure-seeking behaviors (thus balancing serotonin).
Field of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, posses, store, and retrieve information.
Martin Seligman’s theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether or not they actually have control).
Learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and consequences of that behavior.
Ability adaptive for evolution, allowing certain associations to be learned more readily than others.
Condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events despite acting in response to them.
Pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response.
Fight or flight response
Biological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body’s resources (for example, blood flow and respiration) to resist or flee a threat.
Enduring period of emotionality.
Conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time.
Developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several causes.
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