The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored in memory is known as
When Mitch studies for a psychology test, he tries to remember important terms by relating them to his past experiences and knowledge. He is using the strategy of:
When Gary sleeps over at grandmas house, he needs to remember to pack his pajamas, a blanket for his bed, slippers, ect. After his mom reminds him what to take, he separates the items into things he will need for the night and items he will need during the day. Gary is using what type of encoding to remember what he should pack for grandmas ?
While cramming for a psychology exam, Karen finds that if she thinks about the meaning of terms and tries to use them in examples, she learns them much better. What is the technique Karen is using to improve her memory of the terms ?
Storing information by converting it into mental pictures is known as :
Visual imagery encoding
Jessica Li held up three rows of four letters on a poster board to her class for a few seconds. She asked the class to name the 12 letters they had just been shown. Based on what you know about iconic memory, the Sperling experiment ( and the variation we did in class ) what would you expect to find ?
People will automatically store the entire matrix of letters, but only for a brief moment
Bryn is daydreaming in class when her instructor asks her a question. Bryn finds herself replaying in her "minds ear" the instructors last words, taking advantage of a process called :
You look up a friends address for the envelope of a letter you're writing. Suddenly, the phone rings. You abandon your address research to answer the phone, but it is a wrong number. When you get back to write down the address, you have forgotten it because ............. memory has failed you.
Todd will be most successful in remembering a telephone number until he dials it if he employs the memory technique known as :
Ann Marie is trying to remember 15 random, 2-digit numbers in only 10 seconds. She is very frustrated when she can't do it. Ann Marie is having trouble memorizing the numbers in such a sort period of time because short-term memory:
Can retain only about seven items
Rose visited a dance club where the songs were " oldies but goodies". Although she had not gone dancing in more than 20 years, Rose remembered the moves and even the lyrics to most of the songs. This was possible most likely because :
The information was stored in her long-term memory
Bob, a successful businessman, was driving to work one day when he was in a terrible car accident. He now cannot remember any new pieces of information for more than a few seconds. However, he able to remember everything before the accident perfectly clearly. Bobs condition is an example of :
Information from the outside world that is a associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind is known as a(n) :
While sitting at the kitchen table, Jenna thought of an extremely funny joke. She walked into the living room to call her best friend, Cynthia. Unfortunately, on her way there, she forgot the punch line of the joke. To help herself remember, she went back to the kitchen table and remembered the line. What helped jog Jenna's memory ?
Whenever Andrea goes to the library to study, she always takes a red bull energy drink with her and drinks it while she studies. As the semester progresses, she notices that she does considerably better on an exam when she drinks a red bull during the exam. She does better because of :
After practicing how to tie her shoes for months with her mother, Sara can now easily tie her shoes by herself without purposely thinking about the steps. This capability is an example of :
Someone who is shown a picture of Babe Ruth and then asked to complete the word "-ball" will be more likely to respond "baseball" than "football" or "basketball", illustrating :
Sandra loved her high school days and remembers everything about the building. When she goes back for her 10 year reunion, however, she gets lost trying to find the cafeteria. Saundra is probably experiencing the ............ of memory.
Danielle is playing trivial pursuit and is asked to name the seven castaways on the GILLIGANS ISLAND TV show. She names all but one. She feels sure sheknows the name and thinks the first initial is G, but she cannot come up with the answer. Danielle is experiencing :
Sarah was at work in a gas station when it was robbed. Right before the robbery occurred, she spoke to a tall man with olive skin and a mustache. When being questioned about the suspects in the burglary, she said she was certain that the robber had olive skin and a mustache. In truth, however, he had no facial hair and fair skin. What is the psychological term for this false recollection ?
Which school of psychology is most associated with pioneering research on learning ?
In Pavlovs research, what was the unconditioned stimulus ?
You are conditioning an elephant to startle at the sound of a trombone. Every time you play the trombone, you show the elephant a mouse, which startles the elephant. Eventually the elephant startles at just the sound of the trombone. However, after playing the tromboneb10 more times, without a mouse appearing, the elephant exhibits no response. The result is an example of :
Accutomed to the sound of the old can opener, your cat still rushes to her food dish even when she hears the sound of the new can opener for the first time. Your cat is definitely smart: more than that, she is exhibiting :
Your new blender makes a noise somewhat similar to the can opener, but your smart cat dosen't even get up from the sofa when she hears it. She is exhibiting :
In his experiment with Little Albert, one of John Watsons goals was to show that :
Fear can be learned by means of classical conditioning
Crazy chicken cantina is your favorite restraunt, and lately you've noticed that every time you walk by there on your way to class, your mouth starts to salivate. In this incidence of classical conditioning, the sight of the restraunt is the .......... ; your salivation is the ............
Tammy ate raw oysters for the first time and, four hours later, became extremely sick to her stomach. Now the smell of oysters make her stomach queasy. What is the UR ?
A type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine whether or not it will be repeated is called :
In what way did Thorndikes (hint: cats in a puzzle box) experiments significantly differ from Pavlovs ?
The behavior of the animal determined what happened next
Reinforcers ......... and punishes .......... the future probability of the behavior that led to these respective consequences.
Increase ; decrease
When something undesirable has been removed upon the occurrence of a behavior, and as a result that behavior is strengthened, .......... has happened.
A teenager swears at the dinner table, and as a result, her parents take away her iPhone for one week. The teenager is now much less likely to swear at the dinner table, illustrating :
Brooker has a really bad headache, and so he takes a new painkiller. The drug works wonderfully to relieve his headache. The next time Brooker has a headache, he definitely will take that drug. Brokers behavior of taking the new drug has been :
Secondary reinforcers derive their effectiveness from their associates with primary reinforcers through :
The radio DJ says " sometime this hour, I'll be giving away a pair of tickets to the Jonas Brothers concert to one lucky caller. This is an example of what kind of schedule ?
Sam gets a free pretzel Smorgasbord card with every 10th pretzel he buys. This arrangement is an example of a(n) ........... schedule.
In the classic BoBo doll experiment, after watching adults getting punished for hitting the BoBo doll, children :
Behaved less aggressively toward the BoBo doll
A parrot identified a new fruit that was good to eat. After watching the parrot eat the fruit, the other parrots in the flock also began eating the fruit. What type of learning did the parrots experience ?
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, if you stumble into a snake on a hike in the mountains, you would first ......... and then ............
React physiologically ; experience fear
Alice a freshman in high school, is walking home from school. Jim, one of the "cool" boys in her class approaches her and asks to walk with her. All of a sudden she experiences a feeling of excitement and, at the same time, she notices that her heart is pounding. The ......... theory of emotion would best explain this reaction.
Isaac wants to exploit findings consistent with the Schachter and Singers two-faced theory of emotion to maximize his chances that sparks will fly on his first date with Rebecca. Which of these might Isaac do ?
Take Rebecca on a roller coaster ride
Darwin's universality hypothesis is supported by scientific studies in which :
People a re quite accurate at judging the emotional expressions of members of other cultures
Dr. Fabre explained to her students that holding a pen in their teeth would make them feel happier. What is the main reason for this ?
Holding a pen in your teeth contracts the muscles of the face in the same way as a smile
Display rules are the norm for the :
Control of expression of emotional expression in culture
Emotion and motivation are functionally connected in that :
People are motivated to act because of their emotions
The hedonic principle refers to the view that humans are motivated to :
Seek pleasure and avoid pain
Gilbert and colleagues (1998).......ect.
People estimate they would be significantly less happy compared to those who had actually broken up
Duane is struggling in his relationship......... Ect
Duane probable has a job and a place to live
A problem with using rewards to motivate behavior is that rewards :
May undermine intrinsic motivation
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