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What are attributes of a good theory?
A theory that can be scientifically experimented and requires measure that contains:
Validity- The extend to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related
Reliability- The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing
Power- The ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition
Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell by following the bell with food. How could Pavlov use extinction to eliminate salivating to bells?
By removing the CS, the presentation of food
You watch a horror movie, and you are scared. Running through the background music is a sustained, high-pitched note on a violin. The next day, you are watching a drama that has a similar high-pitched violin in the background music, and you feel scared. Which process explains this effect?
Second-Order Conditioning- Conditioning where the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure learning from in which it was used as a CS
In his experiment with Little Albert, one of John Watson's goals was to show what?
A stimulus such as seeing a white rabbit can be conditioned to become a CS after being paired with a US, the loud bell
The “positive” in positive reinforcement and positive punishment means what?
Something is being added
A parent spanked a child for misbehaving, and the misbehavior stopped. By definition, the spanking served as a ________ for the misbehavior.
The three-term contingency states that in the presence of a ________, a ________ produces a(n) ________.
Discriminative Stimulus, Response, Reinforcer
A toddler has learned that the jack-in-the-box won't operate unless she turns the hand crank around exactly 10 times. The toddler's behavior is being reinforced under a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
In one of his experiments, Skinner put several pigeons in Skinner boxes, set the food dispenser to deliver food every 15 seconds, and left the birds to their own devices. Later, he returned and found the birds engaging in odd, idiosyncratic behaviors, such as pecking aimlessly in a corner or turning in circles. Skinner referred to these behaviors as
When visiting his parents over Christmas, the sound of an old heater kept Joe up most of the first night. On the second night, the heater kept him up less, and on the third night he didn't even notice the sound, illustrating what?
Reinforcers ________ and punishers ________ the future probability of the behavior that led to these respective consequences.
What are the two specialized extensions of the neuron that allow it to communicate?
Dendrites & Axons
The electrochemical action of neurons proceeds in two stages, ________ followed by ________.
Action Potential, Resting Potential
________ channels are open while a neuron is at rest; most ________ channels are closed.
Which is the correct order of the firing of a neuron?
Action Potential, Refractory Period, Resting Potential
A(n) ________ is a drug that increases the action of a neurotransmitter.
________ is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain; ________ is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
Glutamate, GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric Acid)
When walking home alone late one night, you are startled by a moving shadow that you glimpse out of the corner of your eye. The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system mobilizes your body's defenses. When you see that the shadow is just the neighbor's cat, the ________ division lessens your physiological arousal.
After a trauma to the head, Tim began making poor decisions on a regular basis and had trouble planning ahead. In what area of the cerebral cortex do you suspect damage?
What is the amygdala responsible for?
Amygdala- Plays a role in the formation of emotional memories; attaches significance to previously neutral events
The split-brain procedure involves severing the ________, usually to stop the spread of debilitating seizures.
Allison has been feeling very sad for a month. Her sadness is so pronounced that she has not showered for days on end, sometimes has forgotten to eat, and has not been interested in doing anything. Allison probably has which mood disorder?
Major Depressive Disorder
Which two neurotransmitters have been found to be implicated in depression?
Serotonin & Norepinephrine
A person in an episode of mania can believe that she is destined for greatness or is exceptionally gifted, beliefs that are artifacts of increased mood. These types of beliefs are known as what?
________ schizophrenia is considered to be the most serious of the subtypes of schizophrenia.
Which personality disorders are among the dramatic/erratic cluster?
Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Prognosis is defined as what?
Prognosis- A typical course of over time and susceptibility to treatment and cure
Jose is terrified that someone is going to break into his house; he checks his locks dozens of times each day and sets up traps to detect the presence of intruders when he is away. It is likely that Jose has what anxiety disorder?
Specific Phobia or OCD
Mike lives in Alaska and experiences a period of depression each winter. Mike probably has which mood disorder?
Seasonal Affective Disorder
John cannot go to the bathroom in a public restroom. He fears that someone will hear him or see him going to the bathroom, which he would find embarrassing. John could be diagnosed with which disorder?
Bonnie is a good student, organized, self-disciplined, and very careful about turning her work in on time. According to the Big Five factor model of personality, Bonnie would likely score high on which factor?
Susan loved her new baby brother, but sometimes she secretly wished she were still the only child in the family. Which defense mechanism would she be using if she snuggled him a little too roughly?
Regression or Reaction Formation
Which theoretical approach states that people occasionally ask themselves profound questions such as “Why am I here?” and “What is the meaning of my life?”
The order of the psychosexual stages described by Sigmund Freud is ___________.
Which perspective views personality in terms of how we think about the situations encountered in daily life and how we behave in response to them?
Social Cognitive Approach
A person's tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the environment is called what?
Locus of Control
What are the three stages in order of the general adaptation syndrome?
Alarm Phase- Body rapidly mobilizes its resources to respond to threat
Resistance Phase- Body adapts to its high state of arousal as it tries to cope with the stressor
Exhaustion Phase- The body’s resistance collapses
________ appraisal refers to the process by which people decide whether they can handle a stressful event.
A stressful event that you believe you can handle is termed a ________, whereas a stressor that would overwhelm you is termed a ________.
Finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor to reduce its threat is called what?
Bea was under a great deal of stress at work, and her health had started to suffer. Her doctor treated her using ________; Bea had sensors attached to various parts of her body and watched her vital signs on a computer screen until she learned to relax.
When aspects of a setting cause participants to behave the way they think an observer wants them to behave, the problem of ________ is present.
The less children watch violent television programming, the less aggressive children will tend to be. This is an example of a(n) ___________________ correlation.
What does the term manipulation mean in the context of performing an experiment?
Manipulation- The creation of an artificial pattern of variation in a variable in order to determine its causal powers
What is the most difficult aspect of random sampling?
The chair of the psychology department wants to determine the average GPA of all the psychology majors in the United States. She randomly selects 50 colleges and universities and compiles a list of the GPAs of all the psychology majors at those institutions. The chairperson is working with data from a(n) what?
When we manipulate an independent variable, we create at least how many groups?
Two: Control & Experiment
Five extremely tall members of the college basketball team are among 30 students in an introductory psychology class. If a frequency distribution was taken of height, the distribution probably would be
Internally Valid or Skewed
Even though Carrie was only 5 years old when her grandmother died, she still clearly remembers exactly where she was and what she was doing when her parents told her the devastating news, an example of ________ memory.
The tendency to reconstruct the past according to what is believed or known today is called what?
In the 1990s, the large increase in the number of adults reporting recovered decades-old memories of childhood sexual abuse probably was the result of what?
Sarah was at work in a gas station when it was robbed. Right before the robbery occurred, she spoke to a tall man with olive skin and a mustache. When being questioned about the suspects in the burglary, she said she was certain that the robber had olive skin and a mustache. In truth, however, he had no facial hair and fair skin. What is the psychological term for this false recollection?
If you correctly recall that William James founded the functionalist school of psychology, you are using your ________ memory.
The enhanced ability to think about a word or object due to a recent exposure to that same word or object is called what?
Jerry is asked to think of a word that rhymes with “motor.” Jimmy is asked to think about how a motor works. The next day, both men are asked, “Hey, what was the word that you heard yesterday that rhymes with 'voter'?” ________ will be more likely to recall “motor” because ________.
Jerry, Retrieval Cues
The strengthening of synaptic connections that result in more efficient processing of information in the brain is known as what?
At the last minute, Dave was cramming for a history test. He was having trouble remembering the names of several historical figures. Then he realized that if he combined figures into groups based on the time period they were from, he would be able to remember much more. He quickly learned the names of 20 people by separating them into 4 groups of 5. This strategy is known as
Michelle has a warm relationship with her psychoanalyst. Over the last few years, her depression has lessened considerably. Both Michelle and her analyst attribute her improvement to the insight she has gained into her unconscious as a result of therapy. In actuality, however, her improvement is due to having an understanding person with whom to talk. Michelle's improvement illustrates what?
What is the main side effect of ECT?
Mild short-term memory loss
Atypical antipsychotics work on both the dopamine and the ________ systems.
Humanistic and existential therapies share the assumption that psychological problems stem from what?
The tendency for humans to strive towards personal improvement
Which therapy focuses on understanding and changing the client's meaning, assumptions, and beliefs about events?
Exposure therapy is based on what principles?
Confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly, ultimately leading to a decrease in emotional response
In the prisoner's dilemma, what strategy will produce the greatest benefit?
When we evaluate other people positively or negatively based on their group membership, we are showing
When we act negatively or positively toward others based on their group membership, we are showing
Anthony asked his roommate if he could borrow $50; his roommate refused. Then Anthony asked if he could borrow just $10 instead, and his roommate lent him the money. This is an example of what technique?
The tendency to do what authorities tell us to do simply because they tell us to do it is known as what?
When Jimmy was growing up, his parents frequently told him he was “no good” and wouldn't amount to anything. Jimmy grew up to be a bitter, angry, destructive adult. His parents said, “We always knew this would happen.” This result is an example of what phenomenon?
The tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others is called what?
People in a mob situation are more likely to stray from their own moral values, illustrating the phenomenon of what?
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