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Elicited---- providing an ex of each, & explaining the basis for categorizing it differently.
-elicited (ClassCond): involuntary—unconditioned & conditioned reflexes—ex. Salivating(these behaviors cant be controlled, they happen more naturally, & the organism cant stop to think about partaking/not partaking in the behavior)
-what happens before the behavior is what helps predict the future behavior of occurring again in the future
Emitted responses---- providing an example of each, & explaining the basis for categorizing it differently.
-emitted (operant conditioning): voluntary- doesnt occur automatically in response to any stimulus – can choose to engage in these behaviors
--ex. Walking, talking, eating
- there is a choice by the organism
-what happens after behavior (consequence) helps predict if behavior will occur again in the future
-how animals nonreflexive behavior can be modified, used hungry animal in puzzle box- if it performed right responses,puzzle door opened & could exit/eat food -looked for= simple/complex responses (pulling rope, pushing lever)
-1st time animal=took a long, would accidently discover how to get free-- once returned many times & measure performance=escape latency (amount of time it took to escape)-over time=shorter improvement was due to progressive strengthening of an S-R connection: stimulus= inside of box & response=w/e behavior opened door
Thorndike’s version of the principle of reinforcement
-states that responses that are followed by pleasant or satisfying stimuli will be strengthened & will occur more often in the future.
What did Guthrie & Horton find when they photographed cats in the puzzle box?
what does this tell us about the principle of reinforcement?
-photo revealed after a few trials, each cat settled on particular method of manipulating pole= consistent from trial to trial (cat developed stereotyped method of pole tipping)
-after cats mastered task, there was relatively lil variability from trial to trial for given cat, but considerable variability from 1 cat to another
-s-r association= strengthened even more, that is so much stronger than another that this particular response pattern will occur w/ high probability, trial after trial
-made strong case for power of accidental reinforce
-pigeons separated in experimental chambers in which grain presented every 15 secs
-observed pigeons after awhile, & saw 6-8 pigs. developed clearly defined behaviors they did repeatedly b/t food presentations
-despite that no behavior was required for reinforcement, pigs. still developed repeated behaviors
-developed bc w/e behavior occurring when reinforcer was delivered= strengthnd
-behaviors produced grouped: 1. interim behaviors: those that were frequent in early part of interval when next reinforcer was still some time away
2.Terminal behaviors: behaviors that seldom occurred early in interval but increase in frequency as time of food delivery approached
-proposed that some behaviors called suprstitus= actually interim behaviors- not accidental reinforcement that causes interim behaviors to increase in frequency, instead interim behaviors= behaviors that animal has innate predisposition to perform when likelihood of reinforcement is low
Give exampleof individual superstitions, & of a superstition held by many people. Under what conditions are these two types of superstitions likely to develop? How could you test whether or not the behaviors are superstitious?
- wearing a lucky pair of socks
-superstition held by many: lighting three cigarettes= bad luck OR blowing on dice before you roll them
-if it was associated w/ a winning once before, it might happen again
-do so many trials with wearing your socks and the same amount without and see the results
-Shaping (or successive approximations): a procedure in which 2 neutral stimuli are repeatedly paired before either is paired w/ an US
-pair primary reinforcer (food) w/ Cond. Reinforce. (clicking noise that emits from pellet dispenser) THEN pair lever pressing w/ sound so it strengthens & then food pellet-providing too much reinforcement for 1 approximation might hinder final target response by: subject might never reach next thing (it could overshadow)—satiation
-cocaine: methadone treatment given to users, & a shaping procedure to decrease their use--users were reinforced w/ goodies if their urine samples showed reduction in cocaine metabolites, eventually could earn goods only if no sign of cocaine—this was more effective in reducing cocaine use than complete abstinence
-school attendance, phobias, etc.
-pole vaulter= with blinker and laser to train the athlete to extend their arms
-patients were reinforced w/ gum by using shaping
-1 case= small steps, by 1st eye movements, lip movements, nosies, then asking, & then verbal asking others & occurred in group/private places
-other case=only group settings, but patient was reinforced when partook in activity & was given gum w/ participation-- patient verbally reinforced by other patients in the group
Describe the basic logic behind percentile schedules – both in terms of the motivation for using percentile schedules and how these would be implemented.
-can make shaping procedure more precise/effectiv
-response reinforced if better than certain % of last responses-nothing left 2 trainers discretion w/ percentile scheds--treatments tailored to individs goals & lil decreases, can provide improvements
-motivates subjects bc= lil improvements daily to reach final goal & lil improvements=reinforced w/ lil pay offs
-criterion for reinforcemnt begins at low level that reflects learners current behavior, it is set so that the required behavior is well w/i learners ability level,but only better performances are reinforced
Discuss the differences b/t a discrete trial procedure & a free operant procedure. What are the advantages of the latter?
+-lever pressing/key pecking= require lil effort that a subject can make tons of responses in single session
+-observer can record moment to moment variations in response rate that occur as a subject learns about experiment or as some external stimulus is changed
Discrete: trial began each time subject could make 1 & only 1 response each trial—primary dependent variable= response latency, & after each trial experimenter had to intervene, physically returning subject to puzzle box for next trial
-freeOp: make use of key pecking, & lever pressing, or similar responses; 1) operant response can occur at any time 2) operant response can occur repeatedly as long as subject remains in experimental chamber
Define the terms in the Three-Term Contingency.
-contingency involving a discriminative stimulus, a response, & a reinforcer or punisher
--contingency states in the presence of a specific discriminative stimulus, a specific response will lead to specific consequences
a. context/situation in which a response occurs
(ex stimuli that precedes the response)
b. response itself
c. stimuli that follows response (ex reinforcer)
antecedent, behavior, consequence
How does extinction work in operant conditioning?
In what way is this similar to extinction in classical conditioning? How about spontaneous recovery?
Extinct. works in OpCond: involves no longer following operant response w/ reinforcer, & like CC, response will weaken & eventually disappear
-similar to extinct. in CC bc response weakens & disappears just like it would in CC
-Spontaenous recovery can occur in OpCond if subject is returned to experimental chamber at some later time, & will typically be observed just as it is observed in CC
Last semester ur game playing behavior was extinguished & received lots of reinforcers for studying. This semester u take a course that u just have not been able to access the same reinforcers but u are workin just as hard. Itd be reasonable to predict that ur studying behavior would decrease for course, since there no reinforcers for studying. If ur studying were to be extinguished we might also be able to predict resurgence. What is resurgence? what behavior in ex might we expect to see evidence of resurgence?
-resurgence: reappearance of a previously reinforced response that occurs when a more recently reinforced response is extinguished
-evidence of resurgence in this ex= student partaking in game playing again bc the studying habits aren’t being reinforced, & subject is likely to go back to previous behaviors
What is the difference b/t a primary reinforcer & conditioned reinforcer?
Identify some conditioned reinforcers that u have access to
-strongest conditioned reinforcers are the onces the provide the best info about the delivery of primary reinforcers
-primary R: counterpart to US; initially neutral stimulus that becomes a conditioned reinforcer thru repeated pairings w/ PrimReinf
-conditioned R: aka secondary reinforcement; like 2nd order condition from CC; acts as a surrogate to primary R, increasin strength of any response it follows if a conditioned R is no longer paired w/ a primary reinforcer, eventually loses capacity to act as a reinforcer, just as 1st order CS loses ability to a 2nd-order CS if its repeatedly presented w/o US -ex.$=ppl work to buy things(generalized reinforcr
-sequence of learned behaviors that must occur in a specific order, w/ a primary reinforer delivered only after final response.
-Each stimulus in the middle of a response chain is assumed to serve as a conditioned reinforcer for previous response & a discriminative stimulus for next response of chain
-climb ladder to platform & rope= conditioned reinforcers (brings animal closer to primary reinforcer)--platform & rope serve as discriminative stimuli for next responses of pulling rope
-conditioned reinforcer is response to seeing door opening- brings rat closer(discriminativ stimulus)
-steps b/t serve as conditionedRs & discrim stim for next responses
-discrim stim: whats goin to happen next
-Cond reinforcer:each step=bc it helps u no what happened last & helps move to final/primary Reinf
*a strategy used to teach a response chain in which teacher starts by reinforcing the first response of the chain, then gradually adds the second response and third and so on
*a strategy used for teaching response chains, in which the teachers starts w/ last response in the chain and works backward
ex. After teaching rat to get food reinforcement, establish sound of food dispenser as conditioned reinforcer, and etc.
-innate behaviors related to type of reinforcer being used that cause animals performance to drift away from reinforced behavior to instinctive behaviors
ex. pig taught 2 pick up coins, place in bank, after 4xs reinforced w/ food BUT as time progressed pigs got slower at task& started to drop food/root it over (droppn/rootin:Ps naturaly do w/food &did w/ coins)
-Instances differ by pigs didnt have a prob learnin task, only later that new unreinforced behaviors appeared & increased in frequency
Present a piece of evidence that autoshaping is simply an instance of stimulus substitution in classical conditioning and one piece of evidence that poses problems for this interpretation.
-Autoshaping= instance of stimulus substution: lighted key for food & response for food were directed at key—key lighting up substituted stimuls of food, so it got to the point that when a light was shown, pigeons response=pecking, even if food didn’t appear
-Problems for this interpretation: chicks behavior when warm light turned on were snuggling & wing extension, but there was no similarity w/ responses of chicks to keylight & responses to heat
How does Timberlake’s behavior systems analysis help to predict what type of behaviors are likely to be seen in many different learning situations?
-helps to reflect the idea that diff reinforcers evoke diff systems or collections of behaviors
-help to predict type of behaviors that are likely to be seen by their ambiguity
-behavior is associated w/ a certain behavior group (food seeking behavior or water seeking behavior) & they can distinguish that if a certain signal comes then the behavior will fall w/i that behavior group
Explain the view that, despite numerous exs of preparedness, instinctive drift, autoshaping, & related phenomena, the general-principle approach to learning is still viable. How would u respond to someone who said that exs of biological constraints on learning show that the principle of reinforcement is flawed?
Principle= not completely flawed--- a theoretical concept cant conclude everything
-Autoshaping=instance of CC (widely used to study basic principles CC)
-Instinctive drift hereditary & learned influences on behavior are operating simultaneously
-Reinforcement= not sole determinant of behavior
-animals hereditary endowment plays an important part in many learning situations, & influence of heredity cannot be ignored
-shows that all behaviors are both learned/innate, both interplay & to say its 1 or other= false premise
What is autoshaping?
-method for training pigeons to peck a key that was easier & less time consuming than manual shaping; naïve pigeons= food derived were taught to eat from grain dispenser, then pigeon was exposed to irregular intervals averaging 60 secs, response key was illuminated w/ white light for 8 secs; then key was darkened & food was presented—no response necessary for food, after several trials, all began to peck at lighted key—typical operant response-response controlled by its consequences
-key pecking by pigeons isnt superstitious: photos of pigeons on each trial at moment of reinforcment was delivered, reveled birds showed no tendency to get progressively closer to key & finally peck it (no hint of gradual shaping process at work)
-no food followed key peck, pigeons still acquired key peck response & persisted in pecking at lighted key on about 1/3 of the trials
-It can be explained as CC by -pigeond pecking= UR
-food= US -lighted key=CS -pecking (diff for diff things given food, water)= CR
-reinforcement schedule that delivers a reinforcer after a fixed # of responses—reinforcer is delivered after every n responses (n=size of the ratio)
-ex. FR 20 schedule= every 20 responses will be followed by a reinforcer
-ex. factory worker makes $10/100 door hinges he makes, usually after a 100 are made, worker will take break, then get back at it
-reinforcement schedule in which the 1st response after a fixed amount of time has elapsed is reinforced
-ex. FI 60-sec schedule, immediately after 1 reinforcer has been delivered, a clock starts to time next 60-sec interval, any responses made during those 60 secs have no effect whatsoever but at the 60-sec mark, a reinforcer is “stored” & next response will produce the reinforcer
-reinforcement sched that delivers a reinforcer after a variable & unpredictable# of responses—# of required responses is not constant from reinforcer to reinforcer
-VR n schedule= on ave, subject will receive 1 reinforcer for every n responses, but exact # of responses required at any moment vary widely
-Type of VR=Random ratio schedule= each response has equal probability of reinforcement (ex. RR 20 sched= every response has 1 chance in 20 of being reinforced regardless of how many responses have occurred since last reinforcer -Slot machines
-reinforcement sched in which reinforcers become available after a variable & unpredictable time intervals. Once reinforcer becomes available, a single response is required to collect it—like FI scheds except amount of time that must pass before a reinforcer is stored varies unpredict from reinforcer to reinforcer
-ex. VI 60-sec sched, time b/t delivery of 1 reinforcer & storage of another= 6 secs for 1 reinforcer, 300 secs for next, then 40 secs,& so on (1st response to occur after a reinforcer is stored collects that reinforcer & clock doesnt start again until reinforcer is collected)
-a stop & go pattern is seen. After each reinforcement theres a pause in responding (posreinforcement pause) -after pause,continuation in responding happens again which is rapid/constant until next reinforcmnt
-ave size of postireinforcmnt pause increases as size of ratio increases--responding rate after pause remains constant as size of the ratio increases
-Ratio strain: weakenin of respondin thats found when large ratios are used (larger pauses at other times than right after reinforcement)
-rapid & fairly steady
-postreinforcement pauses=typically brief- several times smaller than on FR scheds w/ equal response: reinforcement ratios BC after each reinforcer theres always possibility that another reinforcer will be delivered after only a few additionally responses
-EX. Gambling (1) a persons chances of winning= directly proportional to# of times persons plays (2) # of responses required for next reinforcer=uncertain
-postreinforcement pause, but after pause, subject starts responding slowly & slowly picks up response rate more rapidly & before reinforcement, rate is very rapid (fixed-interval scallop)
-Ex. Waiting for bus- u see bus pass & just miss it, next bus comes every 20 mins, so u take out ur bookto read, after 10 mins go by u look down st for bus, a min or 2 later, u look again, & so on until u shut ur book & are continuously watching for bus
-a steady, moderate response rate, BC a reinforcer might be stored at any moment, a long pause after reinforcement wouldnt be advantageous—maintaining steady pace, subject will collect each reinforcer soon after its stored, thus keeping VI clock moving most of the time
-Ex. Checking for mail: its unpredictable, if a reinforcer is stored, only 1 response is required to collect it, if the reinforcer has not yet been stored, no amount of responding will bring it forth
reinforcer isnt delivered until time has elapsed- nothing organism can do to make reinforcer come (doesn’t matter what organism does b/t time) only response that matters is 1rst response
Same for variable interval (it just varies in length= on average its 10 secs, could be more/less though- but depends on the 1st response)
VI: checking the mail
FR: having to go to 3 performances through a semester to get A
VR: hunting for prey, you hunt more times than you catch a prey, but u still continue to hunt
FI: getting paid every two weeks
-response is reinforced only if a certain amount of time elapsed since previous response
*ex. DRL 10 sec sched every response that occurs after a pause of at least 10 secs=reinforced. If response occurs after 9.5 secs this fails to produce reinforcement & resets 10 sec clock to 0, so now 10 more secs must elapse before response can be reinforced --produce low rates of responding
-still want the behavior, just not as often
-EX. Hand raisers-attend to more than 30secs before hand raise, but if the hand raises before 30 secs, then teacher ignores student=make student stop raising hand as often as)
-certain # of responses must occur w/i fixed amount of time
-ex. reinforcer might occur each time subject makes 10 responses in 3 secs or less—can be used to produce higher rates of responding than those obtained w/ any other reinforcement sched
-we want high rates of that behavior!
-EX. Typing class: correct words/min--teacher would reinforce by increasing words/min each day—systematically increasing across semester== higher behavior of typing faster systematically
Discuss some potential applications of DRL and DRH schedules outside of the laboratory.
DRL: scheduling for classes- if respond & try to add a class earlier than time allowed, u have to wait even longer as u reboot page & try again…
-writing paper too early u could miss something& if u go past deadline, u get points off that way too
DRH: water shooting game at carnivals= u have to hit bullseye for so long in an allotted amount of time to get prize
-scoring sports, fixed amount of time, who ever scores more in that time wins
subject is presented with 2 or more response alternatives, each associated with its own reinforcement schedule.
-subject must complete requirement for 2 or more simple scheds in a fixed sequence & each schedule is signaled by a diff stimulus
Ex.chain FI 1-min FR 10, pigeon might be presented w/ Y key until FI requirements is met, then B key until 10 more responses made & then reinforcer would be presented
-strength of responding weakens as sched further removed from primary reinforcer— FI sched will produce less responding if instead of leading to reinforcement it leads to an FR sched w/ more than 1 reinforcement sched,psyc can see which subject prefers in looking at their responses/ behaviors
For each of the four basic reinforcement schedules discuss the rate of extinction.
-extinct=more rapid after CRF than after a sched of intermittent reinforcement (partial reinforcement effect: an effect that seemed paradoxical, violates Thomas Brown’s frequency principle
-explanation of partial reinforcement effect= discrimination hypoth: in order for a subjects behavior to change once extinct begins, subject must be able to discriminate changein reinforcement contingencies
-CRF (every response reinforced= change to extinct is easy to discriminate,doesnt take long 2disappear
-decreased responding 1 observes in a generalization test when test stimuli become less & less similar to training stimulus—responding during extinct will be weak if stimuli during extinct are diff from those that were present during reinforcement, but strong if these stimuli are similar to those encountered during reinforcement*** better hypoth
-extension is more rapid after CRF then after sched of intermittment reinforcement= partial reinforcement effect--- violates Browns
-quality of the reinforcers (which is preferred), Rate of reinforcement, delay of reinforcement.
-higher quality, faster rate of reinforcement & shorter delay of reinforcement=more likely subjects will work on task at hand
-Also, response effort (difficulty of task & length of task) <subjects like less effort
-Amount of reinforcement
-individuals level of motivation
an ongoing operant behavior- behaviors resistant to change depending on the association b/t discriminative stimulus & the reinforcer <how frequently the behavior has been reinforced in the presence of a certain discriminative stimulus
characteristic pattern of behavior—behavior is gradually shaped into its final form as it gains more & more experience w/ a particular reinforcement schedule
-Rule-governed behavior: verbal instructions or cues to follow & these rules may/may not have anything to do w/ prevailing reinforcement contingencies
R.H.: having a long & complex history of exposure to various reinforcement schedules outside of lab setting
-this affects learning bc prior experience w/ 1 reinforcement schedule can alter how subjects will later perform on another schedule—this also can affect how subjects will respond overall, to treatments, tasks, how well they learn, etc.
-impact effectiveness bc 2 subjects receiving the same treatments may show completely diff results bc they had diff reinforcement histories that affect to how they respond to the behavior treatments
: result of fatigue: subject has made many responses and has collected a reinforcer; now it rests to alleviate its fatigue
consumption of the food reinforcer causes a slight decrease in the animals level of hunger, which results in a brief interruption of responding
on a FR schedule, the subject is farthest from delivery of the next reinforcer immediately after the occurrence of the previous reinforcer (subjects behavior is similar to a response chain- those farthest removed from primary reinforcer are the weakest)
-pauses become larger as the size of the FR increases= contradicts satiation, BUT consistent w/ fatigue & remaining response
-cannot predict size of pause by knowing how many responses the subject has produced in the past preceding ratio= rejects FATIGUE
-size of the pause is determined by upcoming FR requirements= Remaining-response
-pauses have to be shorter rather than longer
*Remaining Response Hypothesis= Correct
A theory of behaviors that focus on the long-term relationships between behaviors and their consequences—deals with large scale measures of behaviors and reinforcers
-discuss relationships measured over at least several minutes and often over entire length of experimental sessions
-molar contingencies favor rapid responding
theory of behavior that focuses on the moment-by-moment relationships between behaviors and their consequences--- focuses on small scale events—the moment-by-moment relationship between responses and reinforcers
-have time spans of less than 1 min
molecular contingencies favor slow responding
time b/t 2 consecutive responses—response rates are slower on VI schedules than on VR schedules because long IRTs (long pauses b/t response) are more frequently reinforced on VI schedules
-no selective strengthening of long pauses on VR schedules ( responses occurs in burst- could lead to selective strengthening of short IRTS- which are reinforced more frequently)
theory emphasizes relationship between responses and reinforcement of a much more global nature
-relationship between a subjects average response rate and overall reinforcement rate for a typical VR schedule and a typical VI schedules <VR= linear b/t response rate and reinforcement rate—BUT with VI no matter how quickly subject responds, it cannot exceed more than the allotted scheduled reinforcers
an area of applied behavior analysis that is devoted to using the principles of behavioral psychology to improve human performance in the work place
1. antecedent-based interventions: focus on events that occur before the work is done & they focus on such matters as providing appropriate worker training, clarifying tasks, and setting goals
2.consequence-based interventions: focus on events that occur after the work is done,& they can include the use of praise, $ rewards, & feedback
Briefly describe the basic features of a token economy. What can be done to try to minimize reversals in behavior when the token system is no longer used?
-token: an object or symbol is exchanged 4 goods (can act as conditioned reinforcers- their delivery can strengthen operant responses)
*produce similar responses to primary reinforcers
*each individ can earn tokens by doing any # of diff desired behaviors & tokens can be exchanged for a variety “backup” or primary reinforcers
-experiementers use token for schizo, 1 group given tokens regardless of behaviors, & other group got tokens only for certain behaviors, no change in control, rarely used, patients don’t stay in hospitals as long, used in class
-minimize reversals=1 could still monitor behavior & also 1 could still give perks to the client who was once on token system & is no longer on it—just give primary reinforce
Explain how reinforcement techniques have been used to teach language to children with autism
-therapist uses treat= primary reinforcer& starts by reinforcing child simply for sitting quietly & looking at the experimenter
-using shaping, therapist rewards child for making audible sounds, then as procedure continues, therapists only rewards sounds as they get closer to what therapist is actually saying
*ex. Childs name= billy, if therapist says Billy (discriminative stimulus), after which any verbal response that approximates this word will be reinforced--therapists will begin to develop other stimuli into conditioned reinforcers, such ashug (bc food would lose effectiveness bc of satiation
*prompt: any stimulus that makes a desired response more likely, such a a physical guidance as moving childs lips with therapists hands
*fading: a prompt is gradually withdrawn, by a therapist may do less and less of the work of moving the childs lips, to nothing at all
-Training stage= child only imitating words he hears
-then learns meaning of the words, and then prepositions and so on
Discuss some of the features of behavioral marriage therapy and the logic behind them.
1.encourage a reciprocal exchange of reinforcers b/t spouses, a contingency contract is developed
Contingency contract: a written agreement that lists (behaviors) required of each party & privileges (reinforcers)itll result in
2. Behavior therap- training in communication & prob solving skills: read prob & then solve prob as therapists watches—therapists interrupts when couple approaches communication part of prob solving until they finally solve prob together
-Its not a fixed/ unchanging system; it continues to evolve as therapists experiment w/ new techniques & measure their effectiveness
Discuss the general conclusions from the Friman & Poling article. I would like for you to be able to talk about the implications beyond the article.
-rate & accuracy of responding, rather than response force, defined effort
-increasing response force produces rapid & enduring decreases in behavior. Important tasks for future research include determination of the range of procedures that can be meaningfully considered to involve response-effort manipulations in basic & applied settings & delineation of similarities/differences in effects of those procedures.
Putting wrist weights to not make disordered patients to not make them do as often
-make it more difficult to push the accelerator pedal if they are already going over the speed limit
IV: response effort
Increasing the effort is an effective procedure
a schedule in which reinforcement is contingent on the first response after a fixed, predictable period of time
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