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A change in a person’s behavior in response to the intentional or unintentional influence of others.
Conformity: Change in response to social norms
Compliance: Change in response to a direct request
Obedience: Change in response to a command
A change in one’s behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people.
• Eventhoughthelightdidnotmove,the autokinetic effect caused the illusion of motion. The light seem to move, usually about 2-4 inches but as much as 10 inches. Dayslater,theparticipantsdiditagainbutnot alone, this time with other people who reached a common estimate. Participants’ estimates tended to conform to these, as shown in the next slide.
Conforming to other people’s behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right.
Conforming to other people’s behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what we are doing or saying
The influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior.
We conform because we believe that others’ interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action.
When the situation is ambiguous.
When the situation is a crisis.
When other people are experts.
The influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them.
This type of conformity results in public compliance with the group’s beliefs and behaviors but not necessarily private acceptance of those beliefs and behaviors.
People’s perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved of by others.
People’s perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations, regardless of whether the behavior is approved or disapproved of by others.
*Foot-in-the-door - asking for small commitment, after compliance, asking for a larger commitment
*Door-in-the-face - asking for a large commitment, after refusal, asking for smaller commitment
*Lowball - getting commitment, then raising the cost of commitment
*Thats-not-all - sales technique, makes offer then adds something extra to make the offer look better, before decision is made
*Legitimizing Small Favors the excuse for not donating money is taken away: “Even a penny will help”
*Mindful Compliance: The Pique Technique
In this technique, an unusual request is asked, designed to disrupt an automatic denial.
o High status of authority figure
o Belief among subordinate that the source of authority will be responsible for their actions
o Absence of a clear cut point for switching to disobedience (milgram)- The gradual nature of many obedience situation. At first, following orders has only mild consequence (milgram
Persuasion is a form of social influence. It is the process of guiding people toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and symbolic (though not always logical) means.
The message is personally relevant and involving People are high in the need for cognition
People are in a neutral or mildly negative mood
Involves the use of simple rules or mental shortcuts.
Most likely to occur when:
The message is personally irrelevant or noninvolving People are low in the need for cognition
People are in a positive mood
People are distracted
Who says? The communicator
What is said? The message content
How is it said? Central vs. peripheral route
To whom is it said? The audience
The Sleeper Effect: when a highly persuasive message, paired with a discounting cue, causes an individual to be more persuaded by the message (rather than less persuaded) over time.
communicator: Credibility, Believability, Expertise, Trustworthiness, Rapid speech.
argument: Message repetition(too much repition can be harmful) Subliminal exposure. Reason versus emotion (well educated ppl= reason, less educated people=emotion) fear can persuade• One-sided or two-sided arguments (one sided works for people who agree with appeal, twi sided for people who disagree w appeal)First or last (Primacy effect: Other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence v recency less common.
-Rule of reciprocation: we should repay in kind what another person has provided for us
-Scarcity: opportunities seem more valuable to us when they are less available.Putting the scarcity principle to work:
Limited numbers paradigm: only have a few items left
Time limit paradigm: offer is only available for a limited time
4. Awareness (product placement, etc.)
The tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated.
-less likely to occur when:
•Individuals work in small groups •Tasks are intrinsically interesting •Individuals work with others they like or respect
•Contributions are perceived as unique or important
•Individuals expect co-workers to perform poorly
The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can’t be identified (such as when
they are in a crowd), leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts.
why does it occur?
1. Deindividuation Makes People Feel Less Accountable
2. Deindividuation Increases Obedience to Group Norms
The tendency of decision-making groups to suppress dissent in the interests of group harmony.
groupthink is most likely to occur when certain preconditions are met, such as when the group is:
Isolated from contrary opinions
Ruled by a directive leader who makes his or her wishes known.
The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members.
The idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation.
Prejudice is ubiquitous: In one form or another, it affects us all.
For one thing, prejudice is a two‐way street; it often flows from the minority group to the majority group as well as in the other direction.
And any group can be a target of prejudice.
DEFINED: Attitude directed toward people because they are members of a specific social group
When other people can see how you are doing, you feel like they are evaluating you.
• Evaluation apprehension can cause mild arousal.
– affective (emotional) usually negative, ie. dislike, disgust, hate;
– cognitive= stereotype
– behavioral tendency= discrimination, avoidance, violence
Us versus Them
The first step in prejudice is the creation of groups
This kind of categorization is the underlying theme of human social cognition.
Thus social categorization is both useful and necessary; however, this simple cognitive process has profound implications.
Social‐Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1979)
All people prefer to see themselves positively (we need positive self‐ regard/high self‐esteem)
Part of self‐image is defined by our group memberships
Can lead to ingroup bias or favoritism
Positive feelings and special treatment for people we have defined as being part of our in‐group and negative feelings and unfair treatment for others simply because we have defined them as being in the out‐group.
An automatic process is one over which we have no control.
Stereotypes are automatically triggered under certain conditions—they just pop into one’s mind.
Since the process is automatic, you can’t control it or stop it from occurring.
However, for people who are not deeply prejudiced, their control processes can suppress or override these stereotypes
most people struggle between their urge to express prejudice and their need to maintain positive self‐concept (as a non‐bigot).Because it requires high expenditure of energy, we seek information that can convince us there is a valid.justification for holding a negative attitude toward a particular outgroup.Once we find a valid justification for disliking this group, we can act against them and still feel as though we are not bigots—thus avoiding cognitive dissonance.
Ultimate Attribution Error
Our tendency to make dispositional attributions about an individual’s negative behavior to an entire group of people.
The Way We Think: Social Cognition
The persistence of stereotypes
How We Assign Meaning: Attributional
5. The way we conform: Normative rules
Realistic Conflict Theory (Campbell, 1965)
– When groups compete for scarce resources
Prejudice and hostility (between the groups) will result
Two groups of 12‐year‐old boys at camp. Eagles and Rattlers. Verbal insults and name‐calling (“ladies first”; “sissies”, “stinkers”, “pigs”, “bums”, “cheaters”, “communists”).Escalation of conflict: property destruction, theft, fistfights, food and garbage fights
reduced prejudice through noncompetitive contact, superordinate goals.
---intergroup contact theory.
The strong tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group’s expectations and gain acceptance.
Believeininnatesuperiority of White race
Accepttraditionalracist beliefs (scientific racism)
Strongnegativeemotions, e.g., fear, hatred
Seekstoexcludeordominate and control minority groups
As the norm swings toward tolerance, many people simply become more careful—outwardly acting unprejudiced yet inwardly maintaining stereotyped views.
People have learned to hide prejudice in order to avoid being labeled as racist, but when the situation becomes “safe,” their prejudice will be revealed.
Sense of ambivalence towards minorities
Conflict (dissonance) between anti‐minority feelings and belief (value) that racism and discrimination are wrong
Belief that discrimination is a thing of the past
Minorities too pushy, trying to get in where they don’t belong
Many minority gains are
undeserved and unfair
Subtle form of prejudice;
expressed when person thinks it’s safe, acceptable, or easily rationalizable
-Hostile sexists hold stereotypical views of women that suggest that women are inferior to men (e.g., that they are less intelligent, less competent, and so on).
- Benevolent sexists hold stereotypically positive views of women.
-Instrumental aggression is rational and calculated. Aggression is used by the individual in order to maximize personal gains.
-Hostile aggression is reactive and impulsive. Aggression is driven by feelings (e.g., anger), often in the absence of a rational cost-benefit analysis.
-associated with an area in the core of the brain called the amygdala.
-Serotonin, a chemical substance that occurs naturally in the midbrain, seems to inhibit impulsive aggression
-Too little serotonin can lead to increases in aggression, but so can too much testosterone, a male sex hormone.
A modern theory suggesting people learn the nuances of aggression through direct experience or by observing others
• Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory argues that any social behavior can be learned via:
– Direct experience
– Indirect experience
A modern theory suggesting that aggression is triggered by a wide range of input variables which influence arousal, affective stages, and cognitions
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