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Chapter 5 Short-Term and Working Memory Some Questions to Consider Why can we remember a telephone number long enough to place a call, but then we forget it almost immediately? Do we use the same memory system to remember things we have seen and heard? Is there a relationship between memory capacity and intelligence? What Is Memory? Memory: processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present Modal Model of Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Computer as a model for human cognition Memory is an integrated system that processes information Acquire, store, and retrieve information Components of memory do not act in isolation Memory has a limited capacity Limited space Limited resources Limited time Atkinson and Shiffrin?s (1968) model of memory Modal Model Modal Model of Memory Control processes: active processes that can be controlled by the person Rehearsal Strategies used to make a stimulus more memorable Strategies of attention Modal Model of Memory: Sensory Memory Short-lived sensory memory registers all or most information that hits our visual receptors Information decays very quickly Persistence of vision: retention of the perception of light Sparkler?s trail of light Frames in film R Y I H J E U L O W Q S G H K L A M T R U I W N G H K L A M T R U I W N > Modal Model of Memory: Sensory Memory Measuring the capacity and duration of sensory memory (Sperling, 1960) Array of letters flashed quickly on a screen Participants asked to report as many as possible Modal Model of Memory: Sensory Memory Whole report: participants asked to report as many as could be seen Average of 4.5 out of 12 letters (37.5%) Partial report: participants heard tone that told them which row of letters to report Average of 3.3 out of 4 letters (82.5%) Participants could report any of the rows Caption: Results of Sperling?s (1960) partial report experiments. The decrease in performance is due to the rapid decay of iconic memory (sensory memory in the modal model). Next Stage: Short-Term Memory Stores small amounts of information for a brief duration Includes both new information received from the sensory stores and information recalled from long-term memory Get Ready! WDL 539 Relative accuracy of recall in the Brown-Peterson task across a delay interval of 0 to 18 s. Caption: Results of Peterson and Peterson?s (1959) duration of STM experiment. (a) The result originally presented by Peterson and Peterson, showing a large drop in memory for letters with a delay of 18 seconds between presentation and test. These data are based on the average performance over many trials. (b) Analysis of Peterson and Peterson?s results by Keppel and Underwood, showing little decrease in performance if only the first trial is included. Modal Model of Memory: Short-Term Memory Capacity of short-term memory Digit span: how many digits a person can remember Typical result: 5-8 items But what is an item? FNCYSIPOUGSHC COGPSYCHISFUN Modal Model of Memory: Short-Term Memory Ericcson et al. (1989) Trained a college student with average memory ability to use chunking S.F. had an initial digit span of 7 After 230 one-hour training sessions, S.F. could remember up to 79 digits Chase and Simon (1973) - Chess experts vs. novices Caption: Results of Chase and Simon?s (1973a, 1973b) chess memory experiment. (a) The chess master is better at reproducing actual game positions. (b) Master?s performance drops to level of beginner when pieces are arranged randomly. Modal Model of Memory: Short-Term Memory Auditory coding ? Conrad (1964) Participants briefly saw target letters and were asked to write them down Errors most often occurred with letters that sounded alike STM is auditory Modal Model of Memory: Short-Term Memory Visual coding ? Della Sala (1999) Presented visual information that is difficult to verbalize Participants could recreate patterns of up to 9 items STM is also visual Modal Model of Memory: Short-Term Memory Semantic coding ? Wickens et al. (1976) Participants listened to three words, counted backwards for 15 seconds, and attempted to recall the three words Four trials, different words on each trial On trial 4, participants memorized words from a different category Release from PI: memory increased STM is also semantic Modal Model of Memory: Short-Term Memory On trial 4, participants memorized words from a different category Release from PI: memory increased Participants used meaning of the words in their processing STM is also semantic Wickens et al. (1976) Hasher, Chung, May, & Foong (2002) List 1 List 2 List 3 List 4 cherry iron oak dentist copper soccer platinum zebra maple pear blueberry cousin swimming chest table cotton ash pine palm cyclone bookcase tin tennis engineer banana baseball brass horse chair stool peach velvet jogging pineapple rug rain aluminum cedar golf brother www.mills.edu/mcl Hasher, Chung, May, & Foong (2002) Working Memory Similar concept to short-term memory Working memory (WM): limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning Caption: Diagram of the three main components of Baddeley and Hitch?s (1974; Baddeley 2000) model of working memory: the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketch pad, and the central executive. Phonological Loop Phonological similarity effect Letters or words that sound similar are confused Word-length effect Memory for lists of words is better for short words than for long words Takes longer to rehearse long words and to produce them during recall Phonological Loop Articulatory suppression Prevents one from rehearsing items to be remembered Reduces memory span Eliminates word-length effect Reduces phonological similarity effect for reading words Visuospatial Sketch Pad Brooks (1968) Visualize a capital letter F, starting at the top left corner Response is either Phonological: say ?out? if it is an exterior corner and ?in? if it is an interior corner Visuospatial: point to ?out? if it is an exterior corner and ?in? if it is an interior corner Visuospatial Sketch Pad Speaking was easier than pointing Task (visualize a capital letter) involved the visuospatial sketch pad Pointing response involved the visuospatial sketch pad Verbal response involved the phonological loop Conducting two visuospatial tasks overloaded the visuospatial sketch pad Ashcraft & Radvansky, © 2010, Prentice Hall Illustration of mental rotation Ashcraft & Radvansky, © 2010, Prentice Hall Answers X X The visuospatial sketch-pad Brooks Matrix Task (1967)? Subjects told to imagine a 4x4 grid Subjects learn sequence of sentences: Spatial: ?In the next square to the right put a 1? Non-spatial (non-sense): ?In the next square to the quick put a 1? Subjects remembered 8 spatial vs 6 non-spatial. Spatial instructions better when presented auditorily Non-spatial instructions better when presented visually 1 2 3 4 5 6 http://www.psywww.com/intropsych/ch07_cognition/07pursuitrotor.jpg Pursuit Rotor Task The visuospatial sketch-pad Baddeley et al. (1975) - Participants performed Brooks matrix task with and without concurrent distractor - pursuit rotor. Tracking disrupts the spatial task, but not its verbal equivalent: Sketchpad relies on spatial coding Visuospatial Sketch Pad Brooks (1968) Visualize a capital letter F, starting at the top left corner Response is either Phonological: say ?out? if it is an exterior corner and ?in? if it is an interior corner Visuospatial: point to ?out? if it is an exterior corner and ?in? if it is an interior corner Visuospatial Sketch Pad Speaking was easier than pointing Task (visualize a capital letter) involved the visuospatial sketch pad Pointing response involved the visuospatial sketch pad Verbal response involved the phonological loop Conducting two visuospatial tasks overloaded the visuospatial sketch pad Caption: Baddeley?s revised working memory model, which contains the original three components plus the episodic buffer. The Episodic Buffer: The components of working memory where information from different modalities and sources are bound together. Relatively newer aspect of working memory theory. WM and the Brain Prefrontal cortex responsible for processing incoming visual and auditory information Monkeys without a prefrontal cortex have difficulty holding information in WM Funahashi et al. (1989) Single cell recordings from monkey?s prefrontal cortex during a delay-response task Caption: Results of an experiment showing the response of neurons in the monkey?s PF cortex during an attentional task. Neural responding is indicated by an asterisk (*). (a) A cue square is flashed at a particular position, causing the neuron to respond. (b) The square goes off , but the neuron continues to respond during the delay. (c) The fixation X goes off , and the monkey demonstrates its memory for the location of the square by moving its eyes to where the square was Areas involved in Working Memory WM and the Brain: Individual Differences Vogel et al. (2005) Determined participants? WM High-capacity WM group Low-capacity WM group Shown either simple or complex stimuli Measured ERP responses Vogel et al. (2005) Results
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