Oral & anal personality type Strong relationship b/t oral orientation & obesity Oral personality types more conforming to suggestions of authority figure than anal personality types According to Freud- oral personality are dependent & submissive & should be more conforming than anal personalities; anal types tend to be hostile e& can be expected to resist conformity He believed women were more oral personality type but later research found otherwise Aggression Freud?s belief that aggression is instinctive & universal- anthropologists challenge this view- observed people in some so- called primitive cultures do not exhibit aggressive behavior May be caused by frustration Age & personality development Freud proposed personality was formed about the age of 5 & subject to little change afterward Jerome Kagan noted child developed psychologist concluded that personality appears to depend more on temperament & experiences in later childhood than on early parent- child interactions Personality continue to well- develop after age of 5 The Freudian Slip Freud- what appears to be ordinary forgetting or casual lapse in speech is actually a reflection of unconscious motives/anxieties Experiment- shock or sexily dressed woman--- said ?damn shock? when words on screen says ?sham dock? or ?nude breasts? for ?brood nests? Scored high on sexual anxiety tests made highest number of sex- related Freudian slips Repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse Recalling abuses years after it happened Research showed that abuse can e forgotten for many years before being recalled Note that is also very easy for false memories to be implanted & recollections distorted to the point where something that never occurred can be made conscious and appear genuine & threatening Extensions of Freudian Theory Anna Freud: Ego Psychology Jealous of siblings Was psychoanalyzed by Freud Worked with only children where as father worked with adults Discovered the defense mechanisms discussed earlier Object Relations Theories: Heinz Kohut & Melanie Klein Object relation theories- focus more on interpersonal relationships w/ such objects than they do on instinctual drives Primary emphasis on personal relations over instinctual needs tells us that unlike Freud, object relations theorists accept social & environmental factors as influences on personality Particular emphasis on mother- child relationship suggesting core of personality is formed at infancy, at a younger age than Freud proposed Heinz Kohut- emphasis on formation of nuclear self- foundation for becoming an independent person, capable of taking initiative & integrating ambitions & beliefs Develops from the relationships that form b/t infant & so called self objects in the environment Self objects are people who play a vital role in child?s life?typically mother Melanie Klein Emphasized on 5-6 months of child?s life in contrast to Freud?s first 5 years Assumed babies are born with active fantasy lives that harbor mental representations of Freudian id instincts Experienced in infancy (called inner objects) Real & vivid b/c infants lack ability to distinguish b/t real & fantasy world Part objects- whole objects (begins w/ mothers breast & judge whether good/bad, later relate to whole object?mother as a person than as a breast) Ch 3- Alfred Adler- Individual Psychology Individual Psychology- Adler?s theory of personality Focused on uniqueness of each person & denied universality of biological motives & goals ascribed by Freud Shaped by social environments/interactions, NOT by effort to satisfy biological needs Minimized role of sex Conscious was core of personality, UNLIKE Freud
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