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the 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.
a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp.
a diverse group od drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience.
a systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility
chronic problems in getting adequate sleep.
is related to the theory of wish fulfillment by Sigmund Freud, and refers to the hidden mean of a dream.
When a dreamer realizes that they are dreaming and can exert some control over their dreams
related to Sigmund Freud's theory of wish fulfillment, and refers to the literal content or storyline of the dream.
a family of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control
people's experience of task-unrelated thoughts.
a disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods
the formation of new neurons
Non-REM (NREM) Sleep
sleep that consists of sleep stages 1 through 4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movement, relatively little dreaming and varied EEG activity.
chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning
when a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for the drug
a relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements; high-frequency, low-amplitude brain waves; and vivid dreaming
frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep
Slow-Wave Sleep (SWS)
sleep that consists of sleep stages 3 and 4, during which high amplitude, low-frequency delta waves become prominant in EEG Recordings
the initial stage of learning somrthing
when an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occuring
Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning)
a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
a learned reaction to a conditioned response that occurs because of previous conditioning.
Conditioned or Secondary Reinforcers
events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers
a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
the drawing forth of a conditioned reflex that is relatively automatic or involuntary
the responses that tend to be sent forth because they are normally voluntary
when an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
the reinforcer is given foe the first response that occurs after a specific time interval has elapsed
the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses
a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
When an animal's innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes
Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Learning
a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
learning that is not apparent from behaviour ehen it first occurs
Law of Effect
a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened
any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience
when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus
when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways and not others
when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response
Schedule of Reinforcement
determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer
consists of thr reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a derived response
An Operant Chamber or Skinner Box
a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to tge original stimulus
When an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
a reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed
the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreonforced responses.
responsible for turning psychology from research focusing on subjective accounts of experience, introspection, to more objective scientific approaches.
demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favourable consequences
involves the loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia
focusing awarness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time
Declarative Memory System
memory system that handles factual information
forming a memory code
Episodic Memory System
memory system that is made up of chronological, temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences.
Memory that is involved in intentional recollection of previous experiences
memory that is apparent when retention is exhibited on a task that does not require intentional remembering
theory that proposes that people forget information because of competition from other material
theory that proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes
an unlimited capacity stire that can hold information over lengthy periods of time
The Misinformation Effect
occurs when participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post-event information
Nondeclarative or Procedural Memory System
the memory system that houses memory for actions, skills, operations, and conditioned responses
Connectionist or Parallel Distributed Processing
the assumption that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks
when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information
measure of rention requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues
the measure of retention that requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options
occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information
involves the loss of memories for events that occured prior to the onset of amnesia
Semantic Memory System
memory system that contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned
preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second
is a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds
a limited capacity storage system that temporarily maintains and stores information by providing an interface between perception, memory, and action.
used himself as a subject to test the memorization of nonsense syllables, to better understand memory.
studied and developed the misinformation effect
a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all plssible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem
refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
the tendency to seek information that supports one's decisions and beliefs whike ignoring disconfirming information
involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
refers to how decision issues are posed or how choices are structured
the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
the belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn't occured recently
a guiding principle in solving problems or making decisions
occurs when new solutions surface for a previously unsolved problem after a period of not conciously thinking about the problem
is the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trail and error
consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols l, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages
exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past
are the smallest units of meaning in a language
the smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually
refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable
the area of language concerned with understanding althe meaning of words and word combinations
a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences
Emphasized biological determinism
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