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sequence of hormones production originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary then to the adrenal glands
Experimental set up, one subject (college student) among 6 confederates.
test on obedience, 2/3 of participants obeyed experimenter and provided lethal schocks
pattern can be changed IF: help applied electrodes, experimenter doesn't take responsibility, experimenter lacks status/authority, experimenter isn't present
When the car salesperson
offers a low price, only to
tack unexpected “add-on” prices
when you actually go to sign.
-a prejudice person had prejudged a group prior to fully and objectively attempting to understand the others as they really are
-can be positive or negative (like stereotypes)
-people are prejudice not only about ethnic or racial groups
-prejudice is an attitude, not behavior
Postive symptoms Most evidents: thinking/thought diorder, delusions, halluications
Negtive symptoms: flat or blunted affect apthy and social with drawl
Cognitive symptoms: less over/poor ability to understand infor: executive function
Followed people with schizophrenia for a day
Compulsions are things OCD patients due to “fix” their obsessions, like repeatedly washing their hands because they are “dirty.”
checking locks, windows, and ovens. Performing tasks in set ways, repeatedly arranging and rearranging objects, washing and cleaning incessantly, counting dots on a wall, hoards books or letters.
therapy to reordermetnal processes and medications, normally antidepressants to raise serotonin levels.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder involves two components:
condition in which personality traits, appearing first in adolescence, are inflexible, stable, expressed in a wide variety of situations, and lead to distress or impairment.
- Three major forms of odd-eccentric personality disorder: schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, and paranoid personality disorder
Attempts to avoid confrontation and anxiety associated with uncovering previously repressed thoughts, emotions, and impulses.
In institutional settings, therapists may create a token economy in which patients exchange a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats.
One of the first cognitive behavioral therapists, who advocated rational emotive therapy which tried to change how clients thought and acted.
A is an unpleasant activating event, B is our beliefs of that event, and C is a consequence of the event based on our beliefs. Ex. A C could mean “wow, I thought I bombed it” or “wow, I bombed it!” depending on differing beliefs.
Dirty Dozen: Ellis’s 12 irrational ideas that are widespread in our culture.
The 4 Different Ways of Knowing
Rationalism, Tradition, Intuition, and Empiricism
Characteristics that can't be directly observed or manipulated. Often something "inside" a person, like happiness.
working definition of what researcher is measuring
SYSTEM of interrelated ideas that is used to EXPLAIN a set of OBSERVATIONS
testable prediction derived from scientific theory
how do people differ/how do we measure those differences/why are these meaningful? Methodology: correlation, not experiments.
Assumes people are different and these differences can be defined and measured and predict meaningful outcomes. Such as: intelligence, personality, interests, values, and emotion.
what can help individuals improve their mental health and social processes? Methodology: Case studies and observations.
Psychoanalysis assumes that behavior results from unconscious desires.
Humanistic psychology assumes that all humans strive for personal growth and self-esteem.
Analyzing conscious experience into basic elements (Wundt)
investigate purposes/meaning behind consciousness. (James)
set of skills for evaluating in an open minded and careful way
A process that questions assumptions.
seek evidence that supports; deny ones that contradict
The tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them.
We naturally focus (and seek) evidence that supports a bias.
stick to initial beliefs even when the evidence contradicts
Nature vs. Nurture
are our behaviors attributable mostly to our genes or our environments?
Free Will vs. Determinism
to what extent are our behaviors freely selected rather than caused by factors outside our control?
study of neural substrates of behavior and mental processes
Key Assumption: Human brains and brains of other animals are homologous, have similarities in behavioral patterns
Same type of arrangement and parts
Similarity between human and animal brains
Parts and location
Cerebellum carries out same function
Differences between human and animal brains
humans can think and adapt to environments
branchlike extensions for receiving info from other neurons
carries messages quickly through
magnitude is all or nothing
intensity = frequency
Long tail-like extensions protruding from the cell body.
They're specialized for sending messages to other neurons.
end of axon where synaptic vessel bursts and neurotransmitters are released
Insulating wrapper around axons with nodes that help conduct electricity more efficiently
signal sent by nerve cells which PROMOTE action potential
Signal sent by nerve cells which INHIBIT action potential
Similarities between Neurons and other Cells
Cell membranes, nucleus, organelles
Differences between neurons and other cells
long processes, conduct electrical signals, communicate through synapses
Nervous system's ability to change
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Command Center, brain and spinal cord
Simple Reflex Pathway
automatic motor response to sensory stimulus
Sense organ to a sensory neuron which send the signal through interneurons which tell the motor neuron to move the muscle.
Skips out on the brain to make things speedy.
Neuron that sends messages regarding sensory functions
Neurons that send messages regarding motor functions
Neurons that send messages to other neurons nearby
Spatial attention, somatosensory cortex, sense of body
controls and coordinates voluntary movement
representation of body is arranged in a topogrphaical map- conservation of constituent parts but change relative to size and position, acute sense of touch=more area dedicated to it in the somatosenory cortex (ie: tongue, face); in parietal lobe
Object recognition, long term memory, primary auditory cortex, language
language (lower parietal lobe); understanding speech
Visual cortex, optic chasm
huge band of fibers that allow communication between the two hemispheres of the brain
deals with thinking, planning, language, mood, personality, and self-awareness
Deals with language (prefrontal); speech production
Had iron pole pierce through his head, destroyed most of his prefrontal cortex.
"Where" things are. travelling from occipital lobe to parietal lobe
"What" things are. travelling from occipital lobe to temporal lobe
Primary Visual Cortex
First destination in cortex for visual information
part of cerebral cortex where nerve impulses originate initial voluntary muscle activity
tissue located on top of kidneys that release adrenaline and cortisol during emotional stages
emotional center of brain, plays roles in smell, motivation, memory
sensory relay system.
from sense organs to primary sensory cortex
Responsible for maintaining a constant internal state
below thalamus, floor of brain
regulates and maintains constant internal bodily states
deals with memory, spatial memory
controls movement and motor planning
Neglect half of space following injury to parietal cortex on one side of brain.
Deficit in ability to recognize objects
Unconscious processing of visual infoin peripheral visual field and attracts our attention
Rapid, unconscious processing of visual information
This is unconscious processing of visual info in peripheral visual field and attracts our attention
between spinal cord and cerebral cortex
consists of midbrain, pons, medulla
It is housed inside the cortex and located at the very back of our brains.
It performs some of the basic bodily functions that keep us alive.
It also is a relay station between the cortex and the rest of the nervous system.
Contains the midbrain, pons, and the medulla.
back of brain inside cortex, it contains the midbrain, pons and medulla. It performs functions to keep us alive and is a relay between cortex and nervous system.
below the midbrain
consists of cerebellum, pons, and medulla
deals with balance, motor skills, coordination
deals with dreams
deals with nasuea and vomitting
deals with movement, tracking of visual stimuli, and reflexes triggered by sound
Plays an important role in movement.
Controls the tracking of visual stimuli and reflexes triggered by sound.
Network of glands that release hormones into the blood stream
It is separate, but interferes with, the nervous system.
It consists of glands that release hormones.
increases in response to physical and psychological stressors; anxiety.
regulates blood pressure, cardiovascular function, body's use of proteins, carbs, fats, perhaps body weight
· The axon gains a negative charge
· Which releases a neurotransmitter at the synapse
· Which then crosses the synaptic cleft to anotherdendrite
· And the message is sent to the other neuron
· The neurotransmitter is either then destroyed toreputaken by the neuron it came from
increase receptor site activity
A chemical that binds to a receptor of a cell and triggers a response by that cell.
Agonists often mimic the action of a naturally occurring substance.
decrease receptor site activity
Drug that relieves pain and induces sleep - heroin, morphine and codeine