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What are the five goals of Psychology?
1) To describe behavior
2) To understand behavior
3) To predict behavior
4) To influence behavior
5) To apply research findings to real world behaviors
What are the three principles of science?
What is basic research?
Conducting studies to obtain knowledge for its own sake
Conducting studies to solve specific problems
What are the intellectual roots on Psychology (Cognigitive perspective)?
Dualism, monism, structuralism, functionalism
Mind-body dualism--mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body Monoism-body and mind are one and the mind is not a spiritual entity.
--Set the stage for psychology: implied that the mind could be studies by measuring physical processes within the brain.
What is structuralism and what is functionalism?
Structuralism—Wundt and Titchener
-study the mind by breaking it down into components=thoughts-
-influenced by Darwin’s evolutionary theory—adaptation
-emphasis on how components work together
What are the steps of the scientific process?
-test hypothesis: collect data
-build: ask more questions/ create theories
What is a theory and what is a hypothesis?
Theory- a set of formal statements about relations among events.-a broad statement-
Hypothesis-a narrower statement focused on specific variables or factors
What is the biological perspective(neuroscience perspective) on behavior (focus, buzzwords, philosophies)?
Focus- brain, genes- the physiology of behavior
Buzz words- anything to do with biology and bodily processes
Philosophies used- dualism and monism
What is evolutionary psychology (focus, basic premise)?
Based on principles of Darwin’s theory on evolution
Natural selection- characteristics that allow one to survive and reproduce will be maintained and passed along
Basic premise- evolution is important in the development of human behavior
What is sociobiology(proposes)?
Based on evolutionary psych.
Proposes- complex soc. Behaviors are ‘hard-wired’ as further products of evolution
What is the behavior genetics view/ how is it studied?
Behaviors are products of genetic predispositions
-identical and fraternal
Strongest evidence—similarities in identical twins reared apart
What is the psychodynamic theory’s view (focus, buzz word) also what are defense mechanisms and free association?
Focus-unconscious mental processes that direct behavior; importance of early childhood experiences
Buzz word- unconscious-behaviors reflective of earlier conflicts
Defense mechanism- behaviors used to decrease anxiety when basic instincts begin to surface
Free association- a technique to probe unconscious mind
What is the behavioral perspective’s focal points, buzz words, and premise?
Focal points- the environment; observable behavior learning
Buzz words- learning and conditioning
Basic premise- the environment shapes your behavior-you are a product of your conditioning experience
What is the humanistic perspective’s focus points, buzz words, premise?
Focus points- freewill, the self, choices- you choose your behaviors
Self-actualization- living up to your full potential
Buzz word- self
Basic premise- people are inherently good, striving toward growth, seek to find meaning in their existence
What is the cognitive perspective’s buzz words, focus, and premise?
Buzz words-thoughts, beliefs, information processing
Focus- thoughts (thought processes), beliefs, memory, problem solving
Premise- behavior is a product of your thoughts/ ideas and not directly observable
What is sociocultural perspective and what are its focus points, buzzwords?
Focus points-how culture is transmitted and how cultures are similar and differ from each other
Buzz word- culture-shared traditions, values, beliefs, behavioral norms
Explain the views of love and marriage research (Would you marry someone you didn’t love?).
Asked ‘would you marry someone you didn’t love?’
-individualistic cultures are more likely to review romantic love as a requirement for marriage.
-In collectivistic cultures, concern for the extended family plays a larger role in marriage decisions.
-students from collectivistic and economically poor countries were less likely to view love as a prerequisite to marriage
Nature- biological predispositions; hard wired parts
Nurture- environmental; early learning experiences
Explain “originating vs. present causes of behavior”.
One way to conceptualize the differences between nature/nurture.
-Originating- evolutionary- behaviors you come hardwired with that have survival value—“nature”
-Present- learned factors-determine whether or not behaviors will occur
-nature-biology-provides a range of possible behaviors-
e.g. IQ- range 90 to 120
-nurture-environment- determines where you will fall within the range.
What are the characteristics of a good theory?
-organizes info on topic
-predictions made by theory are supported by research
-conform to laws of parsimony:-if two theories explain and predict the dame phenomenon well, then the simpler theory wins.
What is a hypothesis?
A statement focused on specific variables or factor (ex. If this then this will happen because of this)
-e.g. taking Ach will improve memory
What is an independent variable?
-variable which is manipulated by the experimenter to see its effect on something else
-e.g. Ach pill dose
What is the dependent variable?
-variable measured (not manipulated) by the experiment; outcome variablee.g. memory or ability to learn
What are operational definitions?
-quantify and make variables more specific
e.g. measure the GPA of students and end of year
When is a correlation positive? When is it negative?
Positive- as value of one variable increases so does the value of second
Negative- as value of one variable increase, the second decreases
What determines correlations strength?
Absolute size of the correlation coefficient irrespective of direction- The closer the value is to 1 or -1 the better the relationship.
What are the issues with assuming correlation equals causation?
Bidirectional problem -does A lead to B/ or does B lead to A
3rd variable problem- is variable c responsible for the relationship between A and B
What is descriptive research and what is it made up of?
Research which describes how organisms behave in natural (non-lab) settings
-case studies, naturalistic observation, surveys
Can obtain rich, detailed info
Can study rare phenomena
Can challenge widely held beliefs
Cannot determine cause/effect
Cannot control conditions
Directly observe behavior in a natural setting
What are some pros and cons of naturalistic observation?
Pros: can provide nice, detailed info, can access natural behavior
Cons: cannot establish causality, can be biased in interpretations, observer may influence behaviors.
What are surveys and what are the pros and cons of surveys?
Info gathered via questionnaires or interviews
Pros-can collect large amounts of data, efficient and convenient
Cons- cannot establish causality, rely on self-reports, biased samples can lead to faulty conclusions
Confounding of variable-two variables are intertwined and we can’t determine which has influences a dependent variable
Placebo effect- show a change in behavior b/c of expectations of treatment, not because treatment
Experimenter expectancy effects- ways a researcher influences participants to respond in a manner that is consistent with researcher’s hypothesis
What is internal validity?
-degree to which you have measured exactly what you set out to measure. Requires strict control over your variables
What is external validity?
-extent to which your findings can be generalized outside of your study conditions
What is the relationship between external and internal validity?
Responsibility- conduct research with great care and a strong sense or responsibility
Integrity- be accurate, precise, and truthful when conducting research
Justice- enabling all to equally benefit from psychological research
Respect- maintain the dignity and privacy of those being studied
--informed consent(necessary)- before they agree to participate they should know the study’s purposes procedures, study’s potential benefits/risks to participants, the right to decline participation and decline at any time, whether responses will be confidential, how privacy will be safeguarded.
-deception-need to prove this is necessary to get accurate results
What are the ethics in animal research?
Animals must be treated humanely and that the potential importance of the research clearly justifies the risks to which they are exposed
-before research is approved must be told to panels which may include nonscientists
Question- ‘what characteristics distinguish very happy people from others?’
Measures- personal characteristics and degree of happiness
Results- happy students had the most satisfying social relations, were more outgoing and worried less
-happiness did NOT have to do with GPA, money, or attractiveness
-brain development determined by complex commands from our gene--how genes express themselves can be affected by environment in which we develop
What is behavioral genetics focus?
The relative influence of genetics and environmental variables on psychological characteristics
Family studies (pedigree studies)- genealogical analysis. Looks across at least 2 generations
Adoption studies- assess adoptees and see if more similar to biological or adopted parents
Twin studies- identical vs. fraternal twins
Concordance- rate @ which twins share a trait
Discordance- rate @ which they do not share a trait
Heritability coefficient- extent to which variations are attributed to genetic factors
What does “all or nothing law” mean in the neuron process?
Action potentials occur at a uniform and maximum intensity, or they do not occur at all
-either reaches threshold or doesn’t
What is the structure of a neuron?
Soma- cell body
Dendrite-receive incoming (branch like structures)
Axon- conducts information away
Axon terminals- end of the axon; where communication between neurons takes place
What are the functions of neurons(two)?
1)to generate electricity
2) to release chemicals (neurotransmitters)
Neurons produce neurotransmitters which travel across the synaptic space (gap between the axon terminal and next neuron)
What are the steps in neuron communication?
1)neuron is stimulated-usually by nt
-changed from the ‘resting potential’ which is negative
2)if stimulated sufficiently-reached “action potential threshold”
3) generates an “action potential”
-firing of neuron
4) refractory period- (brief period during which not likely to fire)
What are the steps of chemical communication?
Synthesis of neurotransmitter
storage in synaptic vessicles
release into synaptic space
binding to receptor sites
deactivation through reuptake or breakdown
What is excitatory reaction?
-cause stimulation of an adjacent neuron-can result in the firing of a neuron
Causes the postsynaptic neuron’s sodium channels to open-sodium ions flood into the cell and depolarize it and create an action potential
Increase the neuron’s negative potential and makes it harder to fire
What are some neurotransmitters studied in psychology?
Ach-memory and learning
Dopamine-pleausre transmitter-depression(lack of)/ psychotic behaviors(excess)
Norepirephrine-arousal states/ depression(lack of)
Serotonin-depression(lack of)/ pain perception (lack of)
Endorphines- stop pain/ make it go away (temporary)
gaba- inhibitory transmitter in motor skills
Agonist- is a drug that increases the activity of a neurotransmitter
Antagonist- is a drug that inhibits or decreases the action of a neurotransmitter
-alcohol is both a agonist and antagonist, nicotine is an agonist
What are the three basic types of neurons?
Sensory, motor, interneurons
What do sensory neurons do?
What do motor neurons do?
What two systems is the nervous system made up of?
The Central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
What is the central nervous system made up of?
Contains the brain and spinal cord, which connects most parts of the peripheral nervous system with the brain
Spinal reflexes do not directly….? This is because of..?
Directly involve the brain
What does the peripheral nervous system do/ control?
Contains all the neural structures that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord
-enables us to sense what is going on inside and outside our bodies and enables us to respond with our muscles and glands
What is the peripheral nervous system made up of?
Somatic nervous system (voluntary muscle activation) and autonomic system (controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; ‘involuntary’)
What are the subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system?
-increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, dilates pupils, etc.
Returns to base line/ normal functioning
Effects opposite of the sympathetic NS
The somatic nervous system
sensory neurons-transmit messages from the eyes, ears, and other sensory receptors
motor neurons-send messages from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles that control voluntary movements
What are the ways to measure neuronal activity?
Electroencephalogram (EEG)-measures the activity of thousands of neurons-“brainwaves”
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)- visualizes the brain in 3 dimensions- measures structure
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-atoms in body respond to magnetic pulse-measures both structure and function
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI)-measures structure+ blood flow-primarily measures function
What is the brain made of?
3 lbs –right and left hemisphere
What is the corpus callosum?
-Connects the brain hemispheres-
-allows communication between hemispheres
What are the three main brain sections?
Hind brain- top of spinal cord-primitive functions (breathing, heat rate, balance, etc.)
Mid brain-above the hindbrain-relays and integrates information
-associated with arousal//e.g. attention, consciousness, sleep
Forebrain-sits above all (cerebrum)-largest most complex
What are the two parts of the forebrain?
Hypothalamus- motivation, sexual behavior, eating, sleeping etc
Limbic system- set of structures- associated with emotions
What is hemispheric lateralization, and how are functions distributed?
the relatively greater localization of a function in one hemisphere or the other.
Left hemisphere-speech, verbal abilities, mathematical and logical abilities. More active with positive emotions.
Right hemisphere- imagery, musical and artistic abilities, and the ability to perceive and understand spatial relations. More active with negative emotions
The ability of neurons to change in structure and function-brains ability to modify itself
What is neural reorganization?
When lose function, extends dendrites to cover damaged areas
-facilitated by stimulation and experience
What is neurogenesis?
Generation of new neurons
-two areas where this has been seen-hippocampus and olfactory bulb
What did the text box “do we really use only 10 % of our brain capacity” discuss?
In PET and fMRI imaging we see that the brain has widespread activity
-if 90% of our brain was removed you would have devastating disabilities.
-the process of brain development involves ‘pruning’ unused synapsesàif we were really using 10% then the other 90% would atrophy over time
Why is the idea of only needing 10% of our brains kept alive?
-Lashley study on rats-removing large sections of their brains and having them live and re-learn
What is psychoneuroimmunology?
Interaction of psychological processes, the brain, and the immune system
1) Immune system cells have NT receptor sits- it reflects info from brain
2) Immune cells can produce NT’s & hormones-it can sent info to brain (both afferent + efferent)
What are the findings on stress and the immune system?
-stress hormones affect one’s immune system
hypothesis- homocidal violence is associatted with decreases activity in the prefrotnal cortex
findings- murders with no history of deprivation showed lower activity in the pre-frontal cortex
-murderers with history of childhood abuse showed similar brain activity to non-murderers.
What are the differences between experimental vs. correlational research (definitions)?
Experimental- looking at cause and effect
Manipulate one variable to see effect on another, need operational definitions
Correlational- measure relations among variables, when you cannot ethically or realistically manipulate variables
MEASURES rather than MANIPULATE
What are extraneous variables? What is the control?
Variables that affect your outcome but were NOT manipulated by the experimenter
Control- hold my conditions constant except for the manipulation
What is the control for individual differences?
Random selection of subjects
What did we see in the human neuronal activity?
Latent learningàwhen you witness then you retain a little of how to do it-can perform faster than previous group.
controls glands and the smooth muscles that from heart, lining of stomach & intestines
-respiration, circulation, digestion, etc.
"reciever" listen to white noise
"sender" focuses on image
--reciever is shown 4 images and picks one (correct 32% of time)
-no one really finds this date replicable in lab evidence
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