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behaviorist/object relations; babies are securely attached, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-ambivalent; insecurely attached kids don;t deal with new experiences well and might have problems with relationships later in life.
First most important relat
1896-1980Known for his epistemology studiesStressed evaluating the developmental stages of children - created a theory of cognitive developmentCognitive Development - children go through a natural process as they learn to develop reason. 4 stages
Development is a sequence of central life crises- possible favorable and unfavorable outcomesEmphasizes emotional development & interactions w/social environmentEAch stage of life has its own psychosocial conflict to resolve
James Marcia; four stages of identity or identity crisis:
foreclosure (commitment without exploring alternatives)
identity diffusion (neither commitment nor exploration)moratorium (vague commitments and active exploration)identity achievement (experienced a crisis, explored, and made commitments)
the kubler ross theory identifies 5 ways that people deal with death: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. These are not experienced in a particular order and Kubler-Ross believed that if you discussed your feelings with others that
Studied development of moral thought & action3 phases of moral thought, each has 2 stages (each stage builds to another and associated w/changes in cognitive structure):
preconventional morality, conventional, postconventional
The Heinz Dilemma
Stage 1: Germinal/zygote (conception-2 weeks) wall,placenta and umbilical cord formed
Stage 2: Embryonic (2-8 weeks)heartbeat, toes/fingers,in 4th week tstosterone secretion if genetically male
Stage 3: Fetal (8 week-birth)complex organs and syte
Importance of touch/contact
Harlow's monkeys: proved that the touch bond between mother and infant is more important than the connection between mother and infantPremature Babies: double survival rate
Infant attachment style development
Secure - plays but checks on caretaker, easily comforted, trusts caretaker
Avoidant - don't care when caretaker leaves, don't acknowledge caretaker, self-reliant
Anxious-Ambivalent - cling to caretaker, cry when caretaker leaves, don't play with toys
Infant attachment style development
baby and mom come into lab. after the baby starts playing the mom would leave
secure- hug mom and go back to toys
axious amblivant- run to mom, clingy, overly dependent
avoidant- baby doesnt even hug mom, completely ignores/mad at mom for leaving
US vs. Germany vs. Japan infant attachments
Secure attachment is the most common pattern in all three societies, as it is around the world. However, there are some modest cultural differences in the prevalence of each pattern of attachment, wish are probably attributable to cultural variations
Piaget's stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor- Birth to 2 years- Object permanence
Preoperational- 2 years to 5 years- Overcome egotistic thought
Concrete Operational- 5 years to 9 years- Logical thought
Formal Operational- 9 years to 11 years- Abstract thought
ages (0-2) schemata revolve around babies SENSORY MOTOR ABILITIES.
lack object permanence: fail to realize that objects still exist when out of sight. interact with the world through a collection of survival reflexes such as the sucking or rooting
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) (Behavior Methods for Performance Appraisal)
§ A performance appraisal that consists of a series of vertical scales (usually 5-10), one for each dimension of job performance.
§ More information on the rating scale than simply “excellent, average, poor ratings”
The second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, from about age 2 to 7, during which children acquire a mental storehouse of images and symbols, especially spoken and written words; ability to represent the world symbolically, cannot dis
a characteristics of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone . A thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occurred.
A preoperational thought pattern involving the inability to take into account more than one factor at a time; narrowly focused thought or focus on one aspect of a problem
Piaget's term for children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their perspective.
ex: girl might know she has a sister but does not know that sister has a sister
concrete operations period
7 to 11 years
achievements -can take any persons perspective
What is meant by the law of conservation in developmental psychology?
Preoperational Children can only see one aspect at a time. They don't understant the law of conservation. One-dimensional thinking makes it impossible to understand that weight, volume, and number stay the same even if their shape or arrangement are
Organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences.
Piagets famous class inclusion
Period of Formal Operations
The fourth period in Piaget's theory of cognitive development, form age 11 onward, during which individuals first become capable of more formal kinds of abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning.
the approach that encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another, as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society
Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
1) Trust vs. mistrust (0-1)
2) Autonomy vs. shame/doubt (1-3)
3) Initiative vs. guilt (3-6)
4) Industry vs. inferiority (6-12)
5) Identity vs. role confusion (12-20)
6) Intimacy vs. isolation (20-30)
7) Generativity vs. stagnation (30-65)
coherent sense of self in terms of sexual identity, vocational direction, ideological world views, set of internal standards to evaluate self worth
research on identity development
-identity generally not established before age 18
-during college, vocational plans solidify but not religious and political beliefs
-college may prolong psychosocial moratorium, especially for political and religious beliefs
-individuals may mo
4 types of identity development
Marcia's identity diffusion
lack firm commitments-not actively in crisis. May not have had crisis or resolved the crisis by making a decision. lacking sense of identity, may exhibit pessimism, boredom, unfocused anger, personal confusion, and feelings of helplessness and hopele
premature establishment of a sense of identity before sufficient role experimentation has occurred
denied psychosocial moratorium
don't know they're full range of potential
an identity status in which the person decides on a definite adult life path after searching out various options
the identity status in which individuals are in the midst of exploring alternatives but have not yet made a commitment
Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development
focused on women in contrast to Kohlberg's research on men
found that moral devel proceeds through 3 levels and 2 transitions, with each level representing a more complex understanding of the relationship of self and others
3 levels of Moral Development by Kohlberg
1. preconventional - moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishment
2. conventional - moral reasoning is based on the standards of others (external) such as parents or the laws of society (those in authority) focus is on social rol
Piaget (moral development) 2 stages.
1) Heteronomous Morality- justice and rules are unchangeable properties.
2) Autonomous Morality- aware that rules and laws are created by people so they may be changed.
physical cognitive emotional and social transition from childhood to adulthood
Highlights of Early Adulthood
New trend of marriage: late 20s and early 30sIncrease in alternative lifestyles4 New parenting styles:Authoritarian (excessive control; not responsive); Indulgent-permissive (low control; high responsive; Indifferent-uninvolved (NO control; NO respon
Highlights of Middle Adulthood
Marital happiness: Peaks at honeymoon and takes a “dive” after first kid
Midlife crisis vs reflection: Changes made (usually positive)
Empty nest syndrome vs adjustmen: When the last kid leaves home, more free time together means marital happiness pe
Highlights of Later Adulthood
Active neurons: Gradual decline
Sensory sensitivity: Gradual Decline
Fluid intelligence(problem solving speed): Decreased
Crystallized intelligence(Accumulated knowledge): Increased
Life satisfaction: New activities/identities associated –No job, A
Stages of Grieving and Dying
Denial – Trying to avoid the inevitable
Anger – Can be physical, verbal, or held-in
Bargaining – Trying to find a way out, GOD
Depression – Realization of inevitable
Acceptance – Embracing the Inevitable
Two (later added) Stages of Grieving and Dying
Shock (before denial) – Initial Paralysis
Testing (Before Acceptance) – symptom management/coping strategies
freud, personality psychology
Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, which is both a form of treatment and a very comprehensive personality theory. According to Freud’s theory, inborn drives (mainly sexual) help form the personality. Alfred Adler and Carl Jung who origina
Carl Jung; Analytical Theory; psyche is directed towards life and awareness (not just sexually)
Identified the ego as the conscious mind and divided unconscious into 2 parts: personal (like Freud's unconscious- material from individual's own experiences and can become conscious) and collective; Archetypes
Alfred Adler: Individual Psychology
Disagreed with Freud's emphasis on sexuality, the id, and the unconscious
Emphasized the ego & conscious functioningBelieved social environment was an important & ongoing influence on behaviorPeople have a "social interest"-fundamental concern for ot
all behavior is explained by looking outside the individual. People tend to repeat behaviors which have positive reinforcement decrease behaviors which have negative consequences.Conditioning
gender affects personality, as boys and girls ..... (BANDURA & SELF-EFFICACY)
are reinforced for different gender-types behaviorsobserve adult models being rewarded for gender-typed behaviorsobserve stereotypical models in family, schools, and media
Rogers model of personality (humanistic)
1) organism: innate genetic blueprint
2)self: self concept + belief about self
3)conditions of worth: expectations put on self for behav (stem from society and parents)
-incongruence results: personality inconsistent with innate dispositions (not
Theories of personality : Humanist-Maslow
Positive aspect, can be, and do anything
Emphasis on self determination and one's destiny Maslow's Hierarchy of needsLower needs must be meet before higher ones(Basic needs - love belonging/affilliative - Esteem, power needs - self actualization
his biological view believed in a hierarchy of traits and that personality is determined to a large extent by a person’s genes; ENP theory
MMPI; Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes
16 PF questionnaire
Answer w/ agree or disagree
Used as a vocational indicator; covers a wide variety of traits, part. temperament and attitudes. , mulit-choice personality questionnaire researched by Raymond B. Cattell
Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R)
consists of 30 scales with 8 items each where participants are asked to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 how much descriptions apply to them
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of ten inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Thematic Appreception Test
look for certain themes
"What do you see?"
Psychoanalysis, Freud, projection
Whatever you see, whatever made up your story, somehow reflects your inner feelings/interests. By saying what you see, you are projecting you
What are differences in Self-report tests and Projective-Tests?
Self-report= Expectations are well defined
Pt- expectations are minimally defined
SR= Stimuli are familiar
PT- Stimuli are novel
SR= Response Range is narrow
PT= Response range is wide
Psychodynamic perspectives ; – Freud, Erikson
include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental force; do not view libido as a primary determinant of behavior; behavior results from psychological forces that interact within the individua
grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior
Freud and Erikson
Freud's 3 components of personality
1. id (pleasure principle, present at birth
2. ego (acts according to reality principle, mediates between id and reality
3. superego (represents the moral standards of the individual, develops with resolution at the oedipal complex)
Levels of awareness (3)
a. conscious = one’s awareness in thepresent moment
b.preconscious = material just beneath one’s awareness, easily retrievable
c.unconscious = thoughts, desires urges tied to
The Iceberg Metaphor; use to explain complexity of culture; only a part of iceberg and culture is easily viable
–Atthe top is the Ego (above water) (executive mediator) it is in the consciousmind
–Superegois just under the water (internalized ideals) it is in the preconscious mind(outside awareness but accessible)
–Id(unconscious psychic energy) is way under
6 defense mechanisms
regression- thumb sucking
Reaction to formation- repressing angry feelings, exaggerated friendliness
projection- the thief thinks everyone else is the thief
rationalization- self justifying I drink because everyone else does
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Oral - 0-18 mos - pleasure centers on mouth sucking, biting, chewing
Anal - 18-36 mos - Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
Phallic - 3-6 yrs - pleasure zone is in genitals; coping with incestuous sexu
Childhood: the formative years
Oral Stage0-1Anal Stage2-3Phallic Stage4-5Latency Stage6-12Genital Stagepuberty onward
What are the oedipus and electra complexes?
A child's sexual attachment to the parent of the opposite sex andd jealousy toward the parent of the same sex
What are the stages of the psychosexual theorie's sexual fixations?
1. Oral: 1 yr, pleasure comes from oral cavity
2. Anal: 1-3 yr, pleasure comes from pooping
3. Phallic: 3-6 yr, pleasure focuses on genitals
4. Latency: 6-12 yr, sexual energy is channeled into social activities
5. Genital: 12 + yr, sexual intercours
Freud related every object in a dream to a sexual object. He thought the basis of all dreams was sexual
ex: if you had a cave in your dream he would associate that with a vagina
when you say one thing and mean another. when saying election you say erection instead; mistakes related thinking about sex
Jung (Analytic Psychology)
Man (his psyche) strives for a sense of fulfillment;
individuation unfolding through our dreams and fantasies.
"I" - ego has 4 functions:
Thinking, Feeling, Sensation, Intuition
Adler (Individual Psychology)
Man is basically good; much of behavior is determined by birth order.
Superiority - master challenges (inferiority complex). Compensation.
The Will to Power motivates us.
Conditioningand response tendencies
Bandura’ssocial cognitive theory; observational theory, models, self-efficacy
(or instrumental learning) involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior. Is a method used to teach kids, sometimes improperly used
Social Learning Theory
That learning of any new behavior is the result of three main factors: the Person, the Environment, and the Behavior. (learning through observations of others, like violent video games etc.)
bobo doll experiment
Humanistic Perspectives; stressing a person's capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities
Focus: Positive side of human nature and free-will
Rogers Person-Centered TheoryMaslow's Self-Actualization Theory
A form of humanistic therapy in which the therapist provides a warm, supportive atmosphere to improve the clients self-concept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problems.
Maslow's self actualization theory
-Life Essentials: food, water, air
-Safety and Security: safety, freedom of fear, stability
-Belonging and Love: love, acceptance, affection
-Achievement and Prestige: approval, recognition, self esteem
-Aesthetic Needs: beauty, order, symmetry
People are biological animals and neurochemical processess determine behavior; Genetic influences, neurotransmitter irregularities, and brain abnormalities
•Traits largely inherited: One of the firstpeople to propose this. He gave a hierarchicalstructure that showed how personality traits predict different behaviors.
The idea that government has evolved from family order
This theory isn't necessarily Darwin's controversial one.
view abnormal behaviors and characteristics as variations on the normal personality characteristics seen in healthy populations. the five-factor model summarizes the broad dimensions of personality characteristics ... neuroticism, extroversion, openn
"Big Five" Personality Traits
Conscientiousness: tendency to be careful, precise & perservere.
Agreeableness: tendency to get along w/others
Emotional stability-cam, self-confident
Openness to experience: tendency to be curious, have high interest
Extraversion: tendency to e
*Contributions of the psychodynamic perspective (really, Freud’s perspective) to understanding personality development:o Freud was first to propose a comprehensive theory of personality development o “unconscious” o Internal conflict = distress o Past experiences influences adulthood o Defense mechanisms
Crisis refers to an active period seeking to resolve questions arising in career, a partner, values/principles.
Commitment involves making firm decisions in these areas and then pursuing goals consistent with those decisions.
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