Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
"knowing about knowing."
is variously defined as subjective experience, awareness, the ability to experience "feeling", wakefulness, or the executive control system of the mind.
periodic biological fluctuation in an organism that corresponds to, and is in response to, periodic environmental change. ex.Circadian,jet lag
Beta wave, or beta rhythm, is the term used to designate the frequency range of human brain activity between 12 and 30 Hz (12 to 30 transitions or cycles per second).
Alpha waves are electromagnetic oscillations in the frequency range of 8–12 Hz arising from synchronous and coherent (in phase / constructive) electrical activity of thalamic pacemaker cells in humans.
light sleep where you drift in and out of sleep and can be awakened easily. In this stage, the eyes move slowly and muscle activity slows. During this stage, many people experience sudden muscle contractions preceded by a sensation of falling.
eye movement stops and brain waves become slower with only an occasional burst of rapid brain waves.
referred to as deep sleep or delta sleep, and it is very difficult to wake someone from them. In deep sleep, there is no eye movement or muscle activity. This is when some children experience bedwetting, sleepwalking or night terrors. In 2008 the sleep profession in the US eliminated the use of stage 4. Stages 3 and 4 are now considered stage 3.
the REM period, breathing becomes more rapid, irregular and shallow, eyes jerk rapidly and limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed. Brain waves during this stage increase to levels experienced when a person is awake.
most frequently defined by an individual's report of sleeping difficulties.
a dream that can cause a strong negative emotional response from the sleeper, typically fear and/or horror. The dream may contain situations of danger, discomfort, psychological or physical terror.
a chronic sleep disorder, or dyssomnia, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in which a person experiences extreme fatigue and possibly falls asleep at inappropriate times, such as while at work or at school.
a sleep disorder characterized by abnormal pauses in breathing or instances of abnormally low breathing, during sleep. Each pause in breathing, called an apnea, can last from a few seconds to minutes, and may occur 5 to 30 times or more an hou
Activation synthesis theory
suggest that during REM sleep the cortex is highly active and activity in the brain triggers certain neurons at random (activation). The brain then tries to make sense of this by synthesizing the random impulses into what we experience as dreams, ex. thirsty-dream about water.
Hypnosis is a mental state (according to "state theory") or imaginative role-enactment (according to "non-state theory"). It is usually induced by a procedure known as a hypnotic induction, which is commonly composed of a long series of preliminary instructions and suggestions.
the power of enduring or resisting the action of a drug, poison, etc.: a tolerance to antibiotics.
The related concept of drug addiction has many different definitions. Some writers give in fact drug addiction the same meaning as substance dependence, others for example provide drug addiction a narrower meaning which excludes drugs without evidence of tolerance or withdrawal symptoms.
Depressants are psychoactive drugs which temporarily diminish the function or activity of a specific part of the body or mind.[
are psychoactive drugs which induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical function or both.
These classes of psychoactive drugs have in common that they can cause subjective changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness. Unlike other psychoactive drugs, such as stimulants and opioids, the hallucinogens do not merely amplify familiar states of mind, but rather induce experiences that are qualitatively different from those of ordinary consciousness.
Types Levels of Awareness
High, Low, Altered, Subconscious, Unconscious
Benefits of Sleep
-repair your body
-keep your heart healthy
-Sleep reduces stress
-Sleep improves your memory
-Sleeping properly can help you to control your body weight
Sleep Deprivation and Effects
Sleep pattern differences
adolescents stay up later at night and sleep longer in the morning than they did when they were children. adolescents who got inadequate sleep (8hours or less) on school nights were more likely to feel tired,cranky,irritable,depressed,extra caffine.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain.
- the act or process of meditating
the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life.
changes in an individuals biological nature ex. puberty,weight changes, and growth.
changes in an individuals thought,intelligence, and language
changes in an individuals relationships with other people,changes in emotions, and changes in personality.
an organisims biological inheritance
an organisms environmental experiences
3 periods of prenatal development
1) germinal period-
2) embryonic period
3) fetal period
learning in which a connection,or an association, is made between two events.
learning by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.
learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates on others behavior; also called imitation or modeling.
This study is one of the most used studies in classical conditioning. Conditioning is a type of learning. Basically, what this study proved was that the dogs became conditioned by Pavlov to have expectations. When he entered the room, the dogs expected food; therefore, they began salivating in expectation. After he noticed that the meat powder had this effect, he decided to try a different neutral stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus UCS
a stimulus that produces a response without prior learning.
unconditioned response UCR
An unlearned response that is automatically elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus CS
A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits the conditioned response after being associated with the unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response CR
the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the pairing of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
the initial learning of the stimulus-response link, which involves a neutral stimulus being associated with an unconditioned stimulus and becoming the conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response.
the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar the the conditioned response.
the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others.
the weakening of the conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
the process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay without further conditioning.
Law of effect
horndikes principle that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened, whereas behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
rewarding approximations of a desired behavior.
the process by which a stimulus or an event strengthens or increases the probability of a behavior or an event that it follows.
following a behavior with a rewarding stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior
following a behavior with the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus to increase the frequency of the behavior.
he use of reinforcets that are innately satisfying.
the use of reinforcers that are learned or conditioned
Schedules of reinforcement
timetables that determine when a behavior will be reinforced.
A consequence that decreases the likelihood a behavior will occur
*Reinforcement and punishment timing
it is easy to confuse punishment and negative reinforcement. just remember that punishment means adding something that that is unpleasant in response to a behavior, while negative reinforcement means taking away something that is unpleasant
learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates behavior.
the idea that much of the behavior is goal-directed.
Latent learning/implicit learning
unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior
A form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of the problems solution.
the application of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior.
the retention of information over time through the process of encoding,storage,and retrieval.
the process by which information gets into memory storage
theory stating that when something new is learned, a neurochemical “memory trace” is formed, but over time this trace tends to disintegrate.
situation in which material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later
attention(memory encoding step 1)
to begin the process of memory encording, we have to attend to information. Selective attention is a necessary part of encoding. Memory is often negativly influenced by divided attention
levels of processing(memory encoding step 2)
theory that states that information is processed on a continuum form shallow ( sensory or physical features are encoded) to intermediate (labels are attached to stimuli) to deep (the meanings of stimuli and their associations with other stimuli are processed). deeper processing produces better memory.
.elaboration(memory encoding step 3)
elaboration, the extensiveness of processing at any given level of memory, improves memory.
.imagery(memory encoding step 4)
using imagery, or mental pictures, as a context for information can improve memo
theory stating that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember.
specific visual and/or verbal memory aids. (ex. acronyms.)
a type of implicit memory process involving the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster.
A preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people organize and interpret information
A schema for an event.
Serial position effect
the tendency for items at the beginning and at the end of a list to be recalled more readily than those in the middle
Tip-of-the tongue phenomenon
also known as TOT, is a type of “effortful retrieval” that occurs when people are confident that they know something but they cannot quite pull it out of
a test of perception that involves giving an infant a choice of what object to look at and that is used to determine whether infants can distinguish between objects
decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations. habituation is used in infant research to examine if an infant can discriminate between an old and a new one.
children actively construct their cognitive world, using schemas to make sense of what they experience.
an individuals incorporation of new information into existing knowledge
an individuals incorporation of new information into existitng knowledge
the first piagetian stage of cognitive development (birth to about 2 years of age) in which infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with motor (physical) actions.
the second piagetian stage of cognitive development (approx. 2 to 7 years of age) in which thought becomes more symbolic than in the sensorimotor stage but the child cannot yet perform operations.
the third piagetian stage of cognitive development (approx. 7 to 11 years of age) in which thought becomes operational and intuitive reasoning is replaced by logical reasoning in concrete situations.
Formal operational stage
the fourth and final piagetian stage of cognitive development (emerging from about 11 to 15 years of age), in which thining becomes more abstract, idealistic, and logical.
an individuals behavioral style and characteristic way of responding
a restrictive, punitive parenting style in which the parent exhorts the child to follow the parents directions and to value hard work and effort.
a parenting style that encourages childrens independence (but still places limits and controls on their behavior); it includes extensive verbal give-and-take, and warm and nurturing interactions with the child.
a parenting style in which the parents are uninvolved in their childs life
a parenting style in which parents are involved with their children but place few limits on them.
the main class of male sex hormones
the main class of female sex hormones
expectations for how females and males should think,act,and feel
a persons ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times
a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence
Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity-1 identity diffusion
a person has not yet explored meaningful alternatives and has not made a commitment. Many young adolescents have a diffuse (unclear) identity status. They have not yet begun to explore different career options and personal values.
Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity-2 identity foreclosure
a person makes a commitment to an identity before adequately exploring various options. For example an adolescent might sat that she wants to be a doctor because thats wheat her parents want her to be, rather than exploring career options.
Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity-3 identity moratorium
a person is exploring alternative paths but has not made a commitment
Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity-4 identity achievement
a person has explored alternative paths and made a commitment.
the transition from adolescence to adulthood
an individuals accumulated information and verbal skills
Fluid intelligence- an individuals ability to reason abstractly.
the study of how people thinking about, influence, and relate to other people.
The tendancy for observer to overestimate the importance of internal traits and underestimate the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor's behavior
The tendency for observers to overestimate the importance of internal traits and underestimate the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actors behavior.
positive views of oneself that are not necessarily deeply rooted in reality.
the process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feeling, behaviors, and abilities in relation to other people
Bem’s theory about the connection between attitudes and behavior; stresses that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior.
the non-medical process used by mental health professionals to help individuals recognize and overcome their problems.
a neurological disorder characterized by grotesque, involuntary movements of the facial muscles and mouth, as well as extensive twitching of the neck, arms, and legs. (Side effect of neuroleptic drugs)
mainly used to treat severely depressed individuals that causes a seizure to occur in the brain
A biological therapy that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve an individual’s adjustment.
therapies that stress the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of experiences in the early childhood years. The goal of the psychodynamic therapies is to help individuals recognize their maladaptive ways of coping and the sources of their unconscious conflicts.
Therapies that encourage clients to understand themselves and to grow personality. The humanistic therapies are unique in their emphasis on self-healing capacities.
therapies that use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior.
group therapy with married or unmarried couples whose major problem lies within their relationship.
aims to reduce the number of new cases of psychological disorders.
screening for early detection of problems and early intervention may take place.
a combination of techniques from different therapies based on the therapists judgment of which particular techniques will provide the greatest benefit for the client.
a short-term, problem-focused, directive therapy that encourages clients to accentuate the positive.
improvements individuals can see in themselves as a result of a struggle with negative life events.
Model suggesting that effective change requires individuals to have specific intentions about their behaviors, as well as positive attitudes about new behavior, and to perceive that their social group looks on the new behavior positively.
· The stages of change model
individuals acknowledge that they have a problem but may not yet be ready to change
individuals are preparing to take action.
individuals commit to making a behavioral change and enact a plan.
individuals are successful in continuing their behavior change over time.
selye’s term for the common effects on the body when demands are placed on it. The GAS consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
Programs that teach individuals to appraise stressful events, to develop skills for coping with stress, and to put these skills into use in everyday life.
structured activities whose goal is to improve health.
infections that are contracted primarily thought sex-vaginal intercourse as well as oral-genital and anal-genital sex.
the tendency to see oneself primarily as an object in the eyes of others.
a concept developed by Festinger; an individual’s psychological discomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts.
the action or power of evoking interest, pleasure, or liking for someone or something
a theory based on the notion of social relationships as involving an exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits.
A model emphasizing the ways that commitment, investment, and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satisfaction and stability in relationships.
The managerial philosophy that emphasizes the worker as a well-oiled machine and the determination of the most efficient methods for performing any work related task.
(human factors) A field that combines engineering and psychology and that focuses on understanding and enhancing the safety and efficiency of the human-machine interaction
The tendency of individuals to perform better simply because of being singled out and made to feel important
a management approach emphasizing the psychological characteristics of workers and managers, stressing the importance of such factors as morale, attitudes, values, and humane treatment of workers.
scientific determination of the monetary value of a particular occupation, which relies on experts decisions as to the standing of an occupation in terms of compensable factors.
- a management style emphasizing that maximizing a employees’ existing strengths is much easier than trying to build such attributes from the ground up.
employees feelings of oneness with the organization and its goals.
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!