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Edward Bradford Titchner It tried to understand the structure of the mind got data from introspection
William James. Sought to understand the function of mental and behavioral processes influenced by evolutionary theories
John B. Watson B.F. Skinner the scientific study of observable behavior found you could condition behavior
tudies how we perceive process and remember info tries to understand brain activity and underlying mental processes
memory is boosted by testing
Sigmund Freud- looked at unconscious motivators pioneered psychoanalysis
Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow sought to understand the conditions where people thrive
Behavioral Genetics- how genes and environment affect the difference in people
Neuroscience- how the body and brain control emotions senses and memories
Cognitive-how we encode process store and retrieve info
Behavioral- how we develop observable behaviors
Social-Cultural- how behavior and thinking vary by culture
How do we design research experiments in psychology?
Propose a theory → Form testable hypothesis → design research project → Collect data → Analyze data → if it fails to support then revise theory → If it supports then replicate
Describe the process of neurotransmission.
Action potential reaches terminal button → neuro transmitter is released in to e synapse → neurotransmitters stimulate receptors → Message transmission → Reuptake
affects movement learning attention and emotion
oversupply leads to schizophrenia undersupply → parkinson's and ADHD
alertness and arousal
underspply → depression and ADHD like symptoms
enables muscle action learning and memory
neurons die off as Alzheimer’s
ncreases neuron activity and memory
oversupply → overstimulates the brain causes seizures and migraines
brain’s natural painkiller gives sensation of pleasure
oversupply → slows the heart respiration and metabolism
ittle brain coordinates and smooths voluntary muscle movements has muscle memory
controls heartbeat and breathing
coordinates gross movement
controls wakefulness and sleep
sensory hub processes signals and responses for all senses except smell
regulate processes to maintain homeostasis
processes emotions especially fear and aggression
processes new memories
allows the two hemispheres of the brain to communicate
controls voluntary movement
contains the most dopamine sensitive neurons
processes the senses
Describe two ways that the brain copes with physical trauma and natural degeneration.
Assigning new functions to areas of the brain and neurogenesis
Authoritarian parenting style
Too hard, has way too many rules without explanation, the child will rebel and have identity issues.
Permissive parenting style
Too soft, the parent tries to be the child's friend and has no rules, the child doesn't have very concrete understanding of rules and consequences.
Authoritative parenting style
ust right, has rules and explanations for the rules, the child has knowledge of rules and has self-discipline to follow them.
Child has mild distress when mother leaves. Goes to mother for comfort upon return.
Insecure Avoidant attachment
Child doesn't explore, clings to mother and very upset when mother leaves, still upset upon mother's return.
Insecure Anxious attachment
Child is indifferent to whether mother is there or not.
Pros: allows researchers to look at change over time. Cons: Expensive and takes a very long time.
Pros: Allows researchers to look at many variables at once in a population.
Cons: Difficult to find population.
We see the object most likely to be the cause of sensory information
Opponent Process Theory
ome colors can be seen together while others can't
Certain events occur together
What is operant conditioning
Operant conditioning is changing the consequences of behaviors. Reinforced behaviors are more likely to happen while punished behaviors are less likely. Positive reinforcement is rewarding desired behavior, negative is taking something bad away for the desired behavior. Positive punishment is adding an adverse stimulus while negative is taking something pleasant away. If punishment is used purposefully it can work.
Fixed Ratio Scheduling
Reinforcement after set number of responses.
Response Pattern- rapid response rate, brief pause after reinforcement
Withdrawal response- little persistence after expectation of reinforcement fails
Variable Ratio scheduling
Reinforcement after varied number of responses
Response Pattern- Very high response rate
Withdrawal Response- Response rate gradually declines
Reinforcement after a set period of time
Response Pattern- Response rate increase as time for reinforcement approaches, drops after reinforcement
Withdrawal Response- Little persistence after expectation of reinforcement fails
Reinforcement after varying lengths of time
Response Pattern- slow steady rate of responding little pause after reinforcement
Withdrawal Response- Greater persistence slow decline in response rate
Classical processes of acquisition
Acquisition- Neutral Stimulus associated with unconditioned stimulus after repeated pairing
Extinction- Conditioned response decreases when conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone
Spontaneous Recovery- Extinguished conditioned response reappears after a rest period
Generalization- Conditioned Response triggered by stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
Discrimination- Distinguishing between a conditioned stimuli and other stimuli not linked to the unconditioned stimuli
Operant processes of acquisition
Acquisition- Behavior is associated with punishment or reinforcement
Extinction- Behavior decreases when reinforcement stops
Spontaneous Recovery- Extinguished response reappears after a rest
Generalization-Response behavior similar to the reinforced behavior
Discrimination- Distinguishing what will get reinforced and what will not
• What is observational learning and how does it effect behavior? Describe the impact of prosocial
& antisocial modeling.
How we think learn and communicate
Learning over time by constantly by storing and retrieving information.
What is sensory memory?
brief recording of sensory information
sensory info of visual stimuli
organizing items into manageable sections. It's good because it allows us to learn large amounts of information into easier to learn parts. It would be difficult to learn if the chunks are too big.
Memory aides using images and organizational themes. Using acronyms like HOMES for great lakes to help remember lists. While peg words associating new words with established number visual connections. It can be difficult to use if acronyms are hard to remember or peg words are difficult to associate
organizing items into manageable and/or familiarities
-use vivid imagery and/or organization schemes
-info from around brain is sent here for processing.
-right hemi processes visual scenes.
-left hemi processes language.
-Emotions trigger a rise in the stress hormones
-Hormones trigger activity in the amygdala
-emotionally intense event memories stored w/ vivid sensory.
-you remember something vividly that happened.
-found that it was easier to memorize nonsense syllables the 2nd time.
-the more the strings of words were rehearsed on the 1st day, the faster he learned on the 2nd day.
Serial position effect
We remember the first and last parts of a sequence the best
-what we fail to encode, we can ever remember (you fail to encode a lot of info in your day-today life. )
-related phenomena: change in attentional blindness)
-Memory never formed in first place
-prior learning disrupts recall of new info.
(trying to remember new dance, keeps remembering old ones)
-memory self-censors info that we aren't prepared to handle.
-We repress painful memories to protect our self concept.
-exposed to misleading info, we tend to misremember upon retrieval
-children are particularly susceptible to misinformation and implantations of false memories.
When shown misleading info it becomes difficult to remember correctly
Your imagination can implant false memories
forgetting where or how you learned something.
-the "aha!" moment
-sudden realization leading to a solution.
making a decision without logic
-we fear what our ancestral history has prepared us for.
-we fear what we cant control
-we fear what is immediate
-we fear what is most readily available in memory.
-our tendency to be more confident than we are correct.
-Affects accuracy of our estimates, predictions and knowledge.
-holding onto your idea over time, and actively rejecting info that contradicts your ideas.
-Incubation and unconscious mind
Producing ideas that are novel and valuable. Being creatively intelligent involves using creative ideas to adapt to situations
taking in info then using it.
-they can control their energy
-are playful, yet disciplined.
-both introverted and extroverted
-passionate yet objective
the ability to learn and solve problems and put what we learned to use in solving problems
-Linguistic~ poets, teachers
-Logical~ mathematicians, scientists.
-Musical~ composers, musicians
-Bodily-Kinesthetic~ athletes, surgeons
-Spacial~ sculptors, architects
-Interpersonal~ politicians, salespeople, religious leaders
-Intrapersonal~ therapists, social workers
-Naturalist~ botanist, farmers, ranchers
-Analytic~ book smart (Alice Analyst)
-Creative~ great ideas (Creative Celia)
-Practical~ street smart (Practical Persephone)
-Perceiving~ can tell if someone is happy/sad/upset/etc.
-Understanding~ blends of emotion; how emotions relates
-Managing~ recognize and managing how to make yourself not be upset
-Using~ turn your anger into motivation
-tests involving reasoning
-attempted to measure mental age~ how far the child had come along on the "normal" development pathway
develop the test to find the mental age of children
-Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
- IQ= Mental Age/Chronological x100
-original formula worked for children but was inaccurate for adults
~WAIS- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
~WISC- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
~Yields separate intelligence scores for:
-thoughts to actions
compares the mean score to the scores of previous participants. It’s important to have a standard test so scores can valid. If everyone takes a different test the test loses validity because the test would measure different things.
Need -- Drive -- Drive Reducing Behavior
-If tasks is very difficult, arousal is bad.
-If ask is easy, arousal is good.
-Taking a test is a moderate arousal.
To belong and be loved
-Belongingness to Love
What did Ancel Keys do?
-demonstrating the effects of hunger
-semi-starved men are quickly consumed by their hunger.
~Insulin: controls blood glucose
~Ghrelin: increases hunger
~Leptin: increases metabolisms and decreases hunger
~Orexin: increases hunger
~PPY: decreases hunger (digestive)
the presence of others accentuates our typical eating habits
*when others are eating in front of you, it makes you hungry.
social bonds facilitate survival
ex. hunting groups
- used as punishment word wide
-threatens need to belong
-leads to same kind of immediate action (+/-)
-Describing physical and emotional pain.
-physical effects of ostracism (muscle pain, etc.)
The need to achieve something grand or do things very well. We tend to do better because the motivation gives us the self-discipline to work harder and more consistently.
-body before thought
-emotion is our conscious awareness of our physiological responses to stimuli.
-ex. "We feel sad because we are crying.."
-simultaneous body response and emotional experience
-human body responses run parallel to the cognitive response rather than causing them.
-Research using arousal by adrenaline
-When an individual has no explanation for their arousal they will label feelings based on available emotions.
-emotional reactions can take place apart from our interpretations.
-simple emotions and bottom-up processing
>stimuli message from sensory organ
~amygdala (emotional response)
Zajonce and LeDoux
stated that because some emotions are so simple our sensory organs will send the message to the brain about how we are feeling
-emotions arise when an event is appraised as harmless or dangerous...but we aren't always aware of our appraisals.
>complex emotions top-down processing
<stimulus processed through thalamus
~Amygdala (emotional response)
states that our brain labels something as safe or dangerous then sends down a response through the sensory organs.
-short term memory
-long term memory
relating info to ourselves helps in remembering
shallow - structural (visual)
intermediate - phonemic (auditory)
deep- relationg it to self (semantic)
Levels of processing
shallow: basic processing of a word's letters and sounds. Deep: encoding of semantic info
practice over time distributed: over time Massed: all at once
info with context is easier to remember
We forget what we want to forget
step by step problem solving strategy
sudden realization to get a solution
improved on the system while Stern created an IQ test that was later found to be ineffective for adults
He developed the ---- Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for school-aged children.
developed his own scale to test intelligence by measuring verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed
Describe the information-processing model, Atkinson-Shiffrin
External Events → Sensory memory → Working/short term memory → Long term memory storage. The problem with the model is that it is too simple. There were gaps that had to be filled in as the model was studied further.
Describe the information-processing model, Baddeley Working Memory
Working memory s active information processing. The model is the focus of attention is processed through auditory rehearsal, long-term memory and visual spatial information. The drawback is it doesn't take into account the processes of strengthening memory.
What kind of information is processed as implicitly?
We implicitly processes memory for skills, classically conditioned associates, and recollection of space, time, and frequency of information.
How does long-term potentiation effect the formation of explicit memories?
The more potentiation the more vivid the memory.
What did we learn from George Sperling’s memory
That humans can best hold between 5 and 9 pieces of information well
How is sensory memory different from working memory?
Working memory is moving short term memory to long term memory. Sensory is quick memory before even short term memory.
Dividing concepts that are broad into smaller concepts. It can help streamline learning of broad topics. It can be difficult to use if the concepts are too broad.
Constantly retrieving information
How do emotions & stress hormones affect implicit & explicit memory formation?
Stress and hormone trigger activity in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia
Why are flashbulb memories
susceptible to misinformation?
Flashbulb memories are so susceptible because with those we remember more about how we felt than the event itself.
Context & state dependent proactive & retroactive interference
We remember better in the same context and state we learned
What we don't encode we don't remember
Proactive & Retroactive interference
Proactive: prior learning disrupts new learning Retroactive: new learning disrupts remembering old info.
It can be difficult to remember what is real and what isn't
Describe Sternberg’s 5 components of creativity.
Expertise, imaginative thinking, venturesome personality, Intrinisic motivation and a creative environment.
What steps can you take steps to foster creativity
Pick a passion, develop expertise, allow for incubation, have mental wandering time, and broaden your horizons
Intelligence underlies all mental activity strength: It explains why intelligent people excel in mentally demanding fields. Weaknesses intelligence doesn't accurately forecast how well someone thinks
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg- To be intelligent you must be analytical, creative, or practical. Strengths- Can help categorize the different types of people. Weakness- Correlation does not equal causation.
Perceiving, understanding, managing and using emotion. How you feel affects how well you are able to communicate with people.
Describe research that demonstrates why factors other than intelligence test scores may be better predictors of
performance & life success.
Duckworth and Seligman found that self-discipline is a better predictor than intelligence.
How does stereotype threat affect a person’s ability to perform on tests?
They may not test as well because they could be so worried about enforcing the stereotype put on them they do worse.
generating consistent results. You don’t want to have measurements from a tool that measures in a variety of ways it needs to be uniform for accuracy.
accurately measures what is supposed to be measured. It ruins the point of the experiment if you don’t measure what is supposed to be measure because you don’t actually do the experiment.
What do we know about the heritability of intelligence?
We know that children’s intelligence will be similar to their parents. Even if they are adopted they will be similar to their birth parents. Twins will be very similar to each other especially if they are reared together. If they are separated the similarity wanes but they are still similar.
How do males and females IQ scores differ?
They differ at the extremes. There tend to be more boys than girls at the low end and high end of scores on the intelligence curve.
rigidly patterned unlearned behavior: I eat when I’m hungry.
Emotional feelings follows physiological response
When we can’t explain arousal we label emotions based off the closest cue.
Does cognition always precede emotion?
For complex emotions cognition will precede emotion while for simple emotions will precede cognition
When our muscle states match up with our emotional states. If we smile will feel happier, if we frown we will feel angrier.
People assume that members of an outgroup are all alike
People favor or privilege members of their ingroup
- Depressed actions, passivity, and withdrawal follow experiencing uncontrollable painful events.
– All-or-Nothing Thinking
– Emotional Reasoning