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1. Analyze conscious processes into their basic elements—sensations, images, feelings;
2. Discover how these elements are connected;
3. Specify the laws of connection.
Introspection= self observation
“Expert” = 10,000 before self-reports considered valid data;
I.e., How do people adapt to their environments?
Introspection, questionnaires and mental tests to provide objectivity
A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
- is linked to excess levels of the neurotransmitter DOPAMINEdisorder where the person has delusions and believes to play roles, normally epic ones as in Jesus
- The chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another.
- Makes senses & human action possible
- The executive or decision making division of the nervous system
- Takes info it receives from the peripheral nervous system and attempts to process it so that adaptive reactions can be initiated
- Input output division of nervous system
- Sends messages into the central nervous system so that these messages can be processed
- Research replication is the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated.
- Done to prevent false positives
- The reason a scientist may repeat research is to find faults and disregard inaccurate findings.
- involves observing behavior as it unfolds in its natural setting
§ Behaviors are spontaneous.
§ Doesn’t rely on peoples ability to report on their own experiences.
§ Researcher may interfere with ongoing behavior.
§ Some interesting behaviors are very rare.
§ Observer bias - Researcher may selectively attend to certain events and ignore others.
§ Time consuming.
- involve intensive examination of a single person or group.
§ Rich source of hypotheses.
§ Allows studies of rare behaviors.
§ Observer bias.
§ Difficult to generalize findings from a single case.
§ Impossible to reconstruct causes from complexity of past events.
- public records of social behaviors
§ Easy access to large amounts of pre-recorded data.
§ Many interesting social behaviors are never recorded.
- involves asking people questions about their beliefs and behaviors
§ Allows study of difficult-to-observe behaviors, thoughts and feelings
§ People who respond may not be representative.
§ Subjects may be biased or untruthful in responses.
- involve attempts to assess an individuals abilities, cognitions, motivations, or behaviors.
· Allows measurement of characteristics that are not always easily observable
· Tests may be unreliable (yielding inconsistent scores).
· Tests may be reliable, but not valid (not measuring the actual characteristics they are designed to measure).
Max Wertheimeir, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler, Germany
- Revolt against Wundt
Apparent movement is not reducible to simpler sensations
- Focused on origin, development and treatment of abnormal behavior
- Argument: Unconscious processes direct our everyday behavior
- Method: Free association and dream analysis used to explore the unconscious
- Awareness of the unconscious forces
- Correlation: when two variables are related to each other.
- The correlation coefficient: is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.
- It can be + or - and depends on the nature of the association between the variable measured.
- Strength depends on size of the coefficient.
-Addicts’ bodies stop producing endorphins.
-The endorphins are replaced with the drugs interactions instead of the body's natural opiates. The endorphins create a false opiate that one the drug is no longer consumed the body does not know how to reproduce the natural opiate, which causes sickness, depression, etc.
- Correlation: a relationship between two or more variables in which they change together
- Causation: a correlation where a change in one variable is the direct reason for the change in another like cause and effect
- Correlation is not causality. There is a correlation between ice cream sales and pool drownings but ice cream sales DOES NOT CAUSE drownings.
- is caused by low levels of the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh)
- causes memory loss, mood swings, aggression, confusion, and finally death with the body completely shutting down.
- involve the direct manipulation of (independent) variables and the observation of their effects on the behavior of other (dependent) variables.
§ Allows cause-effect conclusions.
§ Allows control of extraneous variables
§ Artificial situations may not represent relevant events as they naturally unfold (subjects’ responses may not be natural, since they know they are being observed).
- involve the manipulation of independent variables using unknowing participants in natural settings.
§ Allow cause-effect conclusions.
§ Subjects give more natural responses.
§ Although participants don’t know they’re being observed, situation still unusual.
§ Less control of extraneous factors than in laboratory experiments.
- "psyche" meaning soul
- "logos" meaning study
- was formally known as the study of mind, spirit, & soul
The process by which an organism responds to a stimulus
-Food and Drugs Share a Pleasure Circuit
-it's pleasuring to eat food and seeing food raises dopamine levels... Just like drugs they raise chemical levels in the brain and cause pleasure
-we NEED food to survive so it’s harder to classify as an addiction
Where are the 3 tiny ear bones located?
The middle ear (the hammer, anvil, andstirrup)
learn to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulus.
Escape: Response can reduce or eliminate unpleasant stimulus
Avoidance: A response can prevent delivery of aversive stimulus
What is escape-avoidance conditioning?
Why do your eyes quiver?
Called saccade movements, move back andforth quickly to make up for blind spots. Also, eyes quiver in REM.
What is kinesthesis?
Body’s vestibular sense. Detects bodilyposition, weight, or movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.
Consider toxicity (non-toxic àhighlytoxic) as well as addiction (low addictive potentialàhighaddictive potential).
1. Triocomatic; theory,
See colors because of cones. and color combos
2. Opponent process theory,
Black --> White , Blue --> Yellow, Red --> Green Complementary colours
Binocular Cues, 2 eyes.
In an infants first few months, REMaccounts for 50% of their sleep. Newborns will sleep 6-8 times in a 24-hourperiod.
No such thing, it is an illusioncreated by people. We are just a product of stimuli produced by environment.Free will only occurs when person doesn’t know the outcome.
Fog is about 1 foot off the ground and the area in between can’t be seen with normal headlights. Fog lights light up this area and allow you to see further ahead. They add an extra monocular cueto perceive depth and distance!
What is figure-ground perception?
Way of organizing visual perceptions.Figure is thing being looked at and ground is background. Visual depth cues,decide what is picture and what is ground. (vase/2faces picture)
highly specialized cells in visual cortex
detect shape, size, color, movement or combo
Adaptation occurs when sensory receptors are subjected to an unchanging stimulus
- Receptor membranes become less responsive
- Receptor potentials decline in frequency or stop
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system; over time reduces baseline dopamine levels
Symptom of Substance Dependence
Unpleasant effects of reducing or stopping consumption of a drug that users had consumed habitually
occurs as an automatic response to stimulus
behavior learned through classical conditioning
The failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget.
o More resistant to extinction
-Marijuana amplifies sense of taste by varying levels of dopamine based on age (levels decrease as you get older).
-taste buds decrease over time, our habits can shorten our life span.
-Smoking may reduce taste due to damaging the olfactory cilia
Olfactory cilia work with taste buds to provide taste (ex. sinus cold making food bland)
-Alcohol can affect taste by numbing the taste buds, and for heavy drinkers, cause cancer which
damages the taste buds
In what year was the Social Security Act Passed?
In what college was the first School of Social Work?
What is one way of funding reductions that we discussed in class?
Which is not a major section of the NASW Ethical Standards?
Which social work role involves all of these: Long-term relationship, connects patient/client with community resources, found in many types of businesses, looks at the patient's/client's physical well-being as well as their environment, and believes in systems theory?
Who declared a war on poverty and sought to create a "Great Society?"
Ecological Systems Theory says that our worlds are interconnected. T or F
What is not considered a definition of 'values' as discussed in our lecture?
'Impairment' is a social workers ethical responsibility as a professional? T or F
Social work roles
A. Case Management
B. Clinical- Psychotherapy
C. Advocate- Policy
D. Community Organizer
E. Manager/ Administrator
Licensure information for Arizona
Licensure= U.S. the granting of a license, especially to practice a profession
Fundamentals of social policy
Ecological systems theory and value systems
- Females: Menarche- first occurance of menstruation (typically ages 12-13); fully mature at age 16
- Males: Spemarche- First ocurrance of ejaculation (typically ages 13-14); fully mature at approximately age 18
Kholberg – studied moral developments
Erikson – had stages from cradle to grave, you needed to accomplish certain things in order to progress to the next level
Who was Kholberg and who was Erikson and what did they study?
YES, pacifier test: child was able to hold one type of pacifier, and when they were presented both they started at the one that they were able to feel
= Transient/working memory=7 items =/-2
o Represents the present. It continually constructs and updates a working model of the world and your place in it.
o Makes it possible for you to think and solve problems. It is the system that allows you to store organize and integrate facts.
Types of Memory:
mental strategies designed to improve your memory
e.x) Memory Needs Every Method Of Nurturing Its Capacity" is a mnemonic for how to spell mnemonic.
a. Acoustic Codes: represent info as sequences or sounds
b. Visual Codes: represent stimuli as pictures.
c. Semantic Codes: Meaning helps you remember. DOMINATES. Would pass a lying test because you believe you heard a word that might relate to it.
Reliability – how consistent the measurement is..
Validity – whether its measuring the right thing
Content Validity- make sure its measuring the right thing
Predictive Validity- result can predict something ; SAT scores predict first semester at college
NEED RELIABILITY TO HAVE VALIDITY, CANNOT HAVE VALITIDY WITHOUT RELIABILITY
anchor points you can use to access the target information when you want to retrieve it later. The more retrieval cues you have, the more likely you are to remember
e.x Police interviews
·After subtle exposure to misinformation many people misremember
a. Example: Yield at stop, Screw driver as Hammers, Coke can as peanut can
a. As a memory fades with time, it is easier to inject misinformation
Example: Challenger Disaster/ Twin Towers, 9/11- we don’t lie to believe our memories are not perfect. Students would write in journals of when something disastrous would happen like 9/11 and then years later would be asked what they were doing and would say something different then in journal.
o Recall involves 2 steps: Generation of possible targets and identification of genuine ones.
o Therefore recognition is generally easier since the 1st step is already done for you.
-if a child is punished, they thing of themselves. they haven't learned to separate the rules and actions and conquences from themselves
-Self interest dominates.
-Before age 9
moves toward the expectations of society; concerned over legality and the opinion of others.
-laws and rules dominate
based off of doing thing because they are the right thing to do
"you just don't do that"
o Birth to 2 years: How they experience the world
Looking, touching, mouthing, grasping
o 3-5 years of Age
§ Too young to perform mental operations
§ Conservation-Quantity remains the same despite changes in shape.
§ Example: Video
· Give kids two glasses w/ same amount of juice and then poor one glass into a tall skinny glass and the children say the taller one has more.
· Impaired theory of mind
o Others state of mind is no different than their own. Lack of ï” and “Me”
· Kids say glass broke with hammer but not with feather even though given a rule. Concrete experience. Older kid listened to rule and agreed that if the rule said the glass will break with feather then it will.
o 8-12 years
§ From concrete (experience) to Abstract (Imagined realities and symbols)
§ If this, then that
· The seal can understand abstract concepts. Cards with 13 letters or numbers. Keeps getting reinforced. Picked the number symbol and used exclusion because she knew all the letters.Chimps playing hide and seek.
· Dirt Poor
· Didn’t know father, brothers- all different fathers
· Offered two full scholarships: Reed College in Oregon and University of Chicago
· Transferred to Montana State; mind set was like “oh well”
J Robert Oppemheimer
· Harvard educated
· Tried killing is tutor by poisoning
- Six stages of moral thinking (3 levels)
- Preconventional Morality- self interest motivates
- Conventional Morality - laws and rules; social approval motivates
- Postconventional Morality- agreed-upon rights
- motor skills
- ex. riding a bike
thomas szasz, in his book “the myth of mental illness,” disagrees, seeing what passes as mental illness often is neither mental nor illness, but inappropriate coping devices to deal with social stressors.