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Theta, few minutes
Brief transitional stage of light sleep that last 10-12 minutes.
Theta waves: prominent Hypnic jerks, those brief muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep (occur in stage 1 drowsiness)
Sleep spindles, mixed waves, 10-25 minutes
Brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves, called sleep spindles, appear against a background of mixed EEG activity.
Gradually, brain waves become higher in amplitude and slower in frequency, as the body moves into a deeper form of sleep, called slow-wave sleep.
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) consists of sleep during which high-amplitude, low-frequency delta waves become prominent in EEF recordings. Delta (hi v, lo f), ~30 minutes
Involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep.
Persistent problems falling/staying asleep that lasts 2 weeks or more
Recommended treatment – do a relaxing activity, keep dimming lights, avoid caffeine, keep regular schedule, exercise
§ A disorder involving sudden overpowering urge to sleep. One could fall asleep talking or standing up.
§ They immediately enter REM.
The theory that dreaming helps to organize information you learn during the day so that you are better able to remember it later, and consolidate new memories.
This is a theory of why our dreams take a story-like format.
Interestingly, researchers used to assume that those who suffer from nightmares have something wrong with them this is incorrect. Now the predominant theory is that they help us try, figure out, and practice dealing with negative things that we anticipate may be coming our way.
o a natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of consciousness
the rise and fall of hormones and accelerated and decelerated cycles of brain activity that can influence behavior.
o Retina detects light
o Sends messages to Hypothalamus
o SCN sends message to Pineal gland
o Pineal gland releases Melatonin
o Melatonin adjusts clock
o Instrument that measures brainwaves (most commonly used)
(Sleep Cycles) AWAKE
Beta (lo voltage lo amplitude, hi frequency) reflect concentration and alertness. Go up and down a lot but never reach a high or low peak, do not form consistent pattern.
Alpha waves: when relaxed but still awake, brain slows down. (Increase amplitude, lo frequency, become more synchronous, or regular) probably dominate EEG activity just before falling asleep give a way to lower-frequency EEG activity
REM sleep is a relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high-frequency, low-amplitude brain waves, and vivid dreaming.
§ Sleepwalking; occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep. Occurs during the deepest stages of sleep; stages 3 & 4. More likely when sleep deprived or drinking alcohol.
Star? Co-stars? Me. People you know. Sometimes.
People fulfill unconscious urges and ungratified needs through wishful thinking in dreams.
Wish-fulfilling quality of many dreams may not be readily apparent because the unconscious attempts to censor and disguise the true meaning of the dream.
Dreams provide an opportunity to work through everyday problems and emotional issues in one’s life. Problem solving.
Dreams are side effects of the neural activation that produces the beta brain waves during REM sleep that are associated with wakefulness.
A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
The initial stage of learning something; form a new CR
-chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer
-contains devices to record responses
consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desire response.
Schedule of reinforcement: determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforce.
Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus.
Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.
Encoding-getting information into memory
Storage-maintaining information in memory
Retrieval-getting information out of memory
o Phonetic: Sound simple form
o Structural: The look
o Sematic: The meaning superior form
Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second
STM is a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 10-20 seconds.
Is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.
We tend to have better memory for the first things because have more time to rehearse them.
We tend to have better memory for the last things because they are still echoing in our minds.
Inability to remember feelings and experiences of early childhood
Peak at age 25
Repeated assertions, Heavy marijuana use
Absent Mindedness break in working memory OR attention
Transience info isn’t used (rehearsed), so storage gets weaker and fades away
Blocking problems retrieving because of interference
Misattribution confusion when we come across information
Suggestibility example = false memories from 3 sources
Bias opinions (such as prejudice or other expectancy effects)
Persistence unwanted memories
Organic typically unable to acquire and retain new information and are therefore often unable to lead independent lives.
Dissociative conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception
Carry out sequence of transformations to solve problem
Ex. PSYCH TREK CD (Hobbits and Ogres cross river)
Irrelevant information: Leads people astray
Functional fixedness: The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
Mental set: Exists when people persist in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past.
Unnecessary constraints: Specifying all the constraints governing a problem without assuming any constraints that don’t exist.
o Trial & error-most common
o Heuristics- enables a person to be able to discover something on their own
o Forming sub goals
o Working backward
o Search for analogies
o Change the representation
satisfaction something gives to an individual based upon their personal judgment/desires rather than upon market judgment
Symbolic-symbols that mean certain things
Structured-rules that govern the words and arrangementInfinitely generative-infinite number of ways that you can arrange the words to express
Behaviorists (Skinner): Imitation & Reinforcement
Nativists (Chomski): Innate Language Acquisition Device – Programmed in you genes to be expressed at certain times
Interactionists- Combination of both theories.
Language Shapes Thought
Linguistic Relativity (Whorf)
A given language makes thinking about ideas easier than others.
Framing How choices are posed with language
a psychologist who criticized other psychologists; just because behavior or thought processes are outside of the normal, doesn't mean its a disorders
Facial expressions, blood pressure, etc. can all change
Each personality can have their own names, memories, etc.
Each helps take on some trauma
Genetics: 46% chance if both parents have it or 17% if one parent does
Neurochemcials: Excessive dopamine
Brain Structure: Enlarged ventricles
Expressed Emotions Environment: Family communication
Stress: Common in young adulthood
Role in the family
Cognitive: Disturbed thinking
Insanity Defense: Cannot be held responsible because of mental illness
Involuntary Commitment: A civil proceeding in which hospitalization is forced
Deinstitutionalization: When someone lived in a mental hospital and then was released on Welfare
Latitude of Acceptance
OCD and related disorders
Body Dysmorphic disorder
fear of heights
He has acrophobia
The simultaneous presence of unsuccessful belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, when perceived as hopelessness regarding these states. This is a proximal and sufficient cause of active suicidal desire.
A strategy for gaming a concession. After someone first turns down a large request the same requester counteroffers with a more reasonable request
Langlois & others (1994) attraction study
Theory vs hypothesis
Qualitative vs Quantitative research
Interpreting correlation coefficients
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