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Are they a group? shoppers at a mall
Are they a group? all men at isu
The presence of others sometimes ____ performance, sometimes _____.
Appetite-stimulating hormones and appetite-suppressing hormones are secreted by different
Condoms have been ___ in preventing certain skin-to-skin STIs, such as herpes. Condoms have been ____ in preventing transmission of HIV
When Someone mentions hamburgers, Trisha immediately thinks of McDonald’s. In this instance, McDonald’s is a
According to the drive-reduction theory, a need refers to
People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of
According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________
Byong Yu just turned 60 years old. He's been an avid reader since he was a child, absorbing information about all kinds of disparate topics. He now feels ready to use his accumulated knowledge to create a book of crossword puzzles. The resulting puzzles would demonstrate his
Freudian Theory Psychosexual Stages of Development
People feel shame about the id’s needs and can get fixated at one stage, never resolving how to manage that zone’s needs.
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts a toned and begin responding to the light alone.
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of the response but much greater resistance to extinction
How did Dr. Gentile's father use the extinction trick known as 'implosion?'
Extinction technique à matches, made him light a tone of matches (behavior used to be reinforced but becomes a punishment)
What is a phoneme?
The smallest distinctive sound unit.
-Cognitive neural associative networks: The concept “gun” is linked with other aggression-related concepts
The presence of others makes us feel less personally responsible to help termed “diffusion of responsibility”
A cat is born with an exceptionally strong sense of smell. This allows the cat to have additional mating opportunities because it is able to tell when other cats are “in heat”. This cat also lives longer than most cats because it can smell predators and run away before becoming
Two identical twins are reared apart. As adults they are studied and researchers discover the twins have very similar body structure and weight. This will probably be attributed to:
The proportion of variation
among individuals that we
can attribute to genes.
Male cardinals are bright red while female cardinals are not nearly as flashy. Males’ color helps to attract mates. This phenomena has come about through this aspect of evolution.
An approach that uses evolutionary principles to study human behavior.
A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus until it becomes conditioned and elicits a conditioned response.
When a response is generalized to other stimulus than the one that was initially conditioned – e.g. Little Albert became afraid of white rabbits, mice, plush toys...
Decrease in the strengthof a response due to repetition
A response is followed by a removal of an aversive stimulus (e.g. you’re excused from chores).
What is negative reinforcement?
When reinforcement is given to closer and closer approximations of the desired resonse.
Fingernail from heel to toe,
baby splays toes outward.
The inability to see another person’s perspective (the three mountain task).
Understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, emerges by the end of the sensorimotor period.
Understanding that underlying properties (such as mass, number, volume) remain the same despite changes.
In early infancy, children begin looking at their parents for cues about how to respond to various situations.
High warmth, high control.
what are the three bad parenting styles
What is Ainsworth’s “Strange Situation”?
Type of therapy that uses dream interpretation, free associations, tries to explain unconscious mechanisms.
What is Rogerian / Client centered / Humanistic therapy?
A type of therapy that helps clients explore their feelings and become more self-fulfilled.
What is cognitive behavior therapy?
A therapy that tries to change the way we behave by changing how we think.
What is systematic desensitization?
A procedure used to treat anxiety. The client is gradually exposed to more and more anxiety-provoking stimuli while learning to relax.
Behavior that is intended to harm another person, and that person would wish to avoid the harm.
What are pro-social behaviors?
Voluntary behaviors made with the intention of benefiting others.
Jill is a second grader who dislikes Jane. Jill tells the other children that Jane smells and that they shouldn’t play with her. Name the type of aggression.
What is indirection, relational aggression. Indirect – rumors (instead of telling Jane to her face). Relational – harmful to relationships not body
Penny sees Leonard in the hallway every day. Slowly, and apparently for no reason, Penny and Leonard begin to like each other and become friends.
What is the mere exposure effect?
Dave tells you that he has been stressed and having aggressive thoughts recently. He tells you he thinks playing Call of Duty will help release the stress. What strategy is Dave trying? Will it work?
What is catharsis? No, catharsis doesn’t work. It causes more aggression.
This bonobo reportedly knows over 380 words. He also has some grammatical knowledge and has receptive language abilities.
Who is Kanzi?
Izzy is just beginning to speak single words. She has been babbling for around 8 months now. Guess Izzy’s age.
This specific area is located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere is in charge of expressive language.
What is Broca’s Area”?
Bobby and Francine Smith have a daughter who is beginning to develop language. They believe that they should articulate well (because she is imitating them) and give kisses when she makes appropriate noises. Their actions reflect this psychologist.
Who is B.F. Skinner. Skinner believed language is learned through operant conditioning.
_________________: The mental activities associated with acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge, often directed toward a goal, purpose, or conclusion.
____________- “mental categories in which we place objects, activities, abstractions, and events that have essential features in common”
Often, we form concepts by developing _______________, this is, mental images of the best example of a concept.
______________= a concept that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them
_________________= Schemas that apply to a social group (gender, race, fraternity etc.)
A systematic, step-by-step problem solving strategy that is guaranteed to produce a solution.
Example: solving a word jumble by trying all possible combinations of letters
Example: Solving a word jumble by trying common combination of letters
-Tendency to notice and use information that confirms our beliefs and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
Schema's 3 guide our thinking:
attention, memory, interpretation
Is a person more likely to die from asthma or a tornado?
______________- a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions.
The tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.
Different ways of presenting information evoke different responses.
Building blocks of thought
Trial and error, algorithms, heuristics, insight
Problem-solving/decision making obstacles
Confirmation bias, Mental set/functional fixedness, overconfidence, belief perseverance
Other influences on decision making (+/-)
Availability heuristic, framing effects
Activation, persistence, intensity
The idea that humans are motivated to reduce these drives, such as eating to reduce the feeling of hunger. This restores homeostasis, a steady internal state.
low arousal ► ________________ ► motivation for stimulation
1. Lowest level: Physiological needs
2. Safety Needs
3. Belongingness and love needs
4. Esteem needs: need for self-esteem
5. Self-actualization needs
6. Highest level: Self-transcendence needs
Striving to be capable and exercising control
Long-term matching of food intake to energy expenditure
binge eating followed by purging
severe restriction of food intake due to fear of being fat
_________ refers to one’s preferences for an object of sexual attraction.
“Identity” as either heterosexual, bisexual, or exclusively homosexual, emerges in ____________________.