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Which of the following did Freud consider to beunconscious behaviors?
Which of the following is the best definition of psychological repression?
Which of the following is an example of denial?
Which of the following is an example of a Freudian slip?
Which term below is defined as behaviors that we are consciously aware of?
Which term below is defined as the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information?
Which term below is defined as behaviors that we do not have conscious control over?
Which of the following are under conscious control?
Which of the following are under unconscious control?
Which of the following is an example of an implicit memory?
Which of the following is an example of an explicit memory?
Which of the following is an example of an automatic behavior?
A. Making dinner for your friends
Which term below is defined as the idea that the mind, a nonmaterial entity, is separate from the physical body?
Research studying cognitive neuroscience must assume that ________ is true in order to draw conclusions about why certain brain activity can lead to certain behaviors.
REM sleep is characterized by which of the following?
REM sleep is part of the sleep cycle that occurs multiple times per night. What statement best characterizes REM sleep?
Slow-wave sleep is characterized by which of the following?
If you were to monitor an EEG as someone was going from an active awake state to deep sleep, in what order would the waves appear?
When do delta waves appear?
When do alpha waves appear?
When do beta waves appear?
Which of the following can cause insomnia?
If an individual is having trouble falling or staying asleep, what treatment(s) should be attempted first?
What are some things you could do if you are having problems sleeping?
What sleep disorder is characterized by pauses in breathing that last at least 10 seconds during sleep?
What disorder is characterized by a persistent difficulty falling or staying asleep?
What disorder is characterized by an individual leaving his or her bed while still asleep?
What disorder is characterized by extreme daytime sleepiness with frequent episodes of nodding off?
How much sleep does a newborn (0–2 months) need each night?
How much sleep does a teenager need each night?
How much sleep does an adult need each night?
What are some of the symptoms of severe sleep deprivation?
What did Sigmund Freud believe about dreams?
Modern theories propose that dreams serve what purpose?
A light is turned on in front of a hungry dog a few seconds before it is given a small piece of meat. The first time this happens in an experiment like the one that Pavlov conducted, the light is considered to be _________________.
In Pavlov’s well known experiment with the dog, salivation is ________________.
“Eyeblink conditioning” can be used to demonstrate classical conditioning safely with a human volunteer. A puff of air aimed at your eye will naturally produce a blinking response. Using this reflex, what could we do to create a complete classical conditioning demonstration?
Which one of the following vignettes is best explained by classical conditioning?
In Pavlov’s well known experiment, a dog learns to salivate to the sound a ringing bell. Pavlov conducted many other studies, including one in which he studied second order conditioning. In this second order conditioning study, the dog was trained to salivate to the sight of a black square. What would Pavlov have to do to make the black square a second order stimulus?
A “startle response” is a natural response we all have to something that might hurt us, so people naturally wince when they hear a loud noise behind them. Imagine that you have classically conditioned a person to wince (i.e., show the startle response) when a red light comes on. Now you show a green light, and the person does not show the startle response. The person’s different response to the green light (no startle) and the red light (startle) is an example of _______________.
One of Pavlov’s dogs has been trained to salivate when he hears a beeping sound. Which of the following situations would be most likely to lead to extinction?
Brad and Angie fell in love one summer when Brad used to bring his golden retriever to play in the park where Angie liked to jog. The sight of a golden retriever always makes her think about Brad. But today, as Angie ran in the park, she saw a Labrador retriever, and she immediately thought about Brad. What happened?
Roger is an army veteran of four tours in Iraq. During his last time in Iraq, he was involved in several roadside bombing incidents, after which he began to experience a variety of physical and psychological symptoms that were later diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Which one of the following brain regions most likely to have been conditioned to initiate a fear response?
Sally and James had a happy, satisfying relationship in the beginning. James would get excited just at the sight of Sally walk down the hallway. Eventually as time went on, they got along less and eventually broke up, not feeling the same excit or passion they did in the beginning. A couple of years passed, and James saw Sally again walk down the street, and a feeling of excitement rushed over him. What most likely happened when James saw Sally walk down the street?
John Garcia classically conditioned rats to avoid certain stimuli, but found that other stimuli were difficult or impossible to use as conditioned stimuli. Which of the following descriptions best fits the results of Garcia’s study?
It was easy to condition rats to associate a distinctive taste and a feeling of nausea.
Operant conditioning works on _________ behaviors, where learning occurs based on _________.
The Law of Effect states that an organism is __________ to repeat a behavior if that behavior is associated with __________.
A ___________ increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring again by taking away something negative.
Providing a child with a sticker each time he picks up his toys is an example of a ___________.
If you wanted to teach your dog a new trick, such as walking on a leash, the most effective way would be to use ___________.
Rewarding an animal for a behavior every third time the behavior occurs is a __________ reinforcement schedule.
If your professor handed out a piece of candy to every student who asked a question during lecture as a way to increase student participation, this would be an example of a _________ reinforcement schedule.
Janet goes to the casino and plays the slot machines for hours. She never knows how times she needs to pull down the lever before she gets a pay off. What type of reinforcement schedule is most likely being used here?
Richard is teaching his son, Cody, to throw darts. At first, he gives Cody a piece of candy each time the dart hits the dartboard. As time progresses, Richard starts only rewarding Cody when the dart hits one of the inner rings of the dartboard. Finally, Richard only rewards Cody when he hits the bullseye. This example best illustrates the concept of ___________.
Trial-and-error learning is based on the idea that learning often occurs by _______________.
Köhler studied learning by insight by _________________.
The term “latent learning” refers to learning that __________________.
In Tolman’s study with rats, the critical group in his study for determining if learning had occurred was the group that ____________________.
The behavior that Tolman measured (as the dependent variable) in his study of latent learning was __________________.
Before Bandura proposed his Bobo doll experiment, most learning specialists believed that learning only occurred __________________.
The adult models in Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment ____________________.
After watching the adults interact with the Bobo doll, what did the children do?
What was it that distinguished the two groups that Bushman and Anderson studied? A. One group played a violent video game and the other group played a nonviolent video game.
In their experiment, Bushman and Anderson found that ____________________.
Jim has played the flute every day for twenty years. His skill is most likely stored as _________ memory.
Which type of memory can you use to detect rhythm?
Your friend claims she knows a person that can remember everything she reads including the page numbers on which the text is written. This is an example of what kind of memory?
You see your friend out of the corner of your eye. Which type of memory initially processes the visual features of your friend’s face?
Given that people can only keep five-nine items in short-term memory, what strategy should someone who is trying to memorize the first 100 digits of the number pi use?
You are given a riddle and asked to find the solution. Which type of memory would you use to accomplish this task?
Suppose that you have memorized the lyrics of a song that you heard. What is the correct order of the levels of memory in which those song lyrics were processed?
You and your friend are sharing stories about your high school days. What type of memory allows you to do this?
You are taking an essay test in your English class. This is a measure of which type of memory?
Which type of memory has an unlimited capacity and provides relatively permanent storage of information?
Fatima has learned how to ride a motorcycle. What can you tell Fatima about what will happen to this memory over time?
Which of the following is an example of elaborative encoding?
Maintenance rehearsal is to short-term memory as __________ is to long-term memory.
Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve suggests that __________.
Rachel finds that she does better on her tests if she studies an hour every day for a week than if she studies for seven hours in one day. This is most likely because of __________.
Your psychology professor recommended that you study for his tests in the classroom when there aren’t any students in it. Your psychology professor is basing his recommendation on __________.
When you left your house, you made a mental note of the groceries you needed. Now that you are in the store, you find you can only remember the first few items on your list. This is best explained by __________.
You move to a new house and find yourself still driving to the old house. This is best explained by __________.
You are having difficulty remembering a diverse list of items but then discover that you can remember them better if you group similar items together. Which of the following best explains this?
After trying to memorize different types of furniture, you find you can retrieve the words chair, sofa, andcouch much faster than sewing machine, wastebasket, and shelf. What might explain this?
You got a second locker with a new combination. Now you can’t remember the combination to your old locker. Which of the following best explains this?
What do you call the formation of memories at the neural level?
Over the course of three days last week, you learned about the different types of dragonflies in class. Your classmate, Vera, was absent one of those days. At the neural level ________________________.
Which function does the cerebellum serve?
Which of the following is an example of a function of the hippocampus?
Which of the following is an example of a function of the amygdala?
You’re watching your favorite sporting event and your team is losing. They have the ball and you find yourself shouting at the screen and jumping up and down. Which brain area is likely to be instrumental in your reaction?
You and your friends are talking about your experiences when you first learned to ski. Which brain area allows you to store these memories?
You are a witness to a crime and later see a report of the crime on the internet where they say the person committing the crime was a young male with long hair. Before you read the story, your recollection was that you couldn’t remember anything about the person’s hair. Now, after reading the report, you’re sure he had long hair. This is best explained by __________.
When you were young, you had a dream about falling down into a ravine. Years later you are mistakenly convinced that as a child you fell into a ravine. This is best explained by _________.
You are the victim of a home invasion and you are certain that the person you picked out of a line-up is the perpetrator. Years later you find out you were mistaken. This is best explained by __________.
You think all gay men are effeminate in their mannerisms. Every time you see a gay man acting like a woman, your stereotype of gay men becomes more entrenched. When you see a gay man in a very masculine role, you think he can’t possibly be gay. This is best explained by _________.
You have a very fragile glass vase that you need to ship to your mother for Mother’s Day but you have no packing materials. All you have is the popcorn that you are eating. You don’t see that you can use the popcorn as packing material. This is best explained by __________.
As a 75 year-old woman, stories of death seem much more real to you than they did when you were 15. This is best explained by __________.
You frequently hear stories about a stranger trying to kidnap a child on the street so you think this happens all the time. In reality, a stranger kidnapping a child is a relatively rare event. This is best explained by __________.
Shortly after moving to your new neighborhood, you meet a few people who are all very friendly, so you mistakenly assume everyone in the neighborhood is friendly. This is best explained by __________.
You fail a test and you believe it is a horrible event. You then start thinking of the “if onlys...” If only I had studied more. If only I hadn’t gone to the party. If only I had called in sick at work so I could have studied more. But maybe it’s not such a horrible event because it teaches you to learn better study habits. This best exemplifies __________.
True or False: You are just as likely to draw an Ace of Clubs, an Ace of Diamond, an Ace of Spades, and an Ace of Hearts (in that order) out of a deck of cards as you are of drawing four cards that consist of a 4 of Hearts, a 6 of Diamonds, a 10 of Spades, and a Jack of Clubs (in that order).
The tendency for people to remember unusual or anomalous events more so than mundane ones is called __________.
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