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assumes our senses are trustworthy
the world was more complicated than “simple geometric forms”.
encouraged careful and thorough observation before drawing any strong conclusions about the world
Aristotle’s Four Causes
Approach by Tischener.
Interested in creating the psychology equivalent of the periodic table of the elements.
Relies on pure introspection.
Problems with Structuralism
Structuralism is neither objective nor replicable.
Could not account for all types of mental events.
Behaviors and thoughts as traits that get propagated throughout a species by differential reproductive success
Idea that traits get propagated throughout a species by differential reproductive success.
studying the functional value that the mind provides
Evolutionary Psychology - selective pressures
Approach based on principles of natural selection. Goal is to understand the mind in terms of the functional value it provides.
Modern extension of functionalism. primary interested lies in understanding how selective pressures and shape human preferences and behaviors.
the particular way we experience something
may depend on how our sense organs are stimulated
stimuli can be detected by sense organs without perception (subliminal advertising)
The direction of travel of a wave
depends on the medium it is traveling through
The cornea and lens both refract (change the direction) of light to aid in vision
Dual Process Theory
i.e. simple eye tests:
small, unidirectional increments or decrements until the viewer no longer perceives the stimulus in a particular way
i.e. volume knob
a viewer controls the intensity of a stimulus until they can just barely perceive it.
The Difference Threshold
We perceive relative properties of stimuli
Different people may adopt different criterion for making perceptual judgments.
Study relationships between stimulus and perception, ignoring sensation and brain function because we perceive the invariant properties of stimuli
Rely on empirical and analytic approaches
properties of mathematical entities that remain constant, even as the entity itself is transformed
i.e. Right angle of a square is always 90 degrees
The Pop-Out Effect
Stimuli distinct from their surroundings immediately and involuntarily attended to
quick and automatic perception
Monocular Depth Cues
The Size-Weight Illusion
For spherical objects, the size-weight illusion holds true
potential functional properties (i.e. weildability) of objects in our environment that we perceive.
mind and behaviour are natural (not mystical) and systematic. Thus, they are understandable through logic and reason.
Theory of Forms:
There is a “real” world that is mathematically well- defined; our perception is the shadow cast by this world.
one of the first empirical attempts at understanding the mind/brain
mental faculties do not exist to the same extent in all humans
faculties housed in specific areas of the brain (well-developed = protrusion)
Renaissance brought revival of thought and reason. First empirical attempts at understand the brain
Suggests that mental faculties do not exist in same extent in all humans.
Faculties housed in specific areas of brain.
Well-developed faculties means protrusion on head. Underdeveloped means dimple.
Monkies with localized brain lesions did not behave as Phrenology would predict
1879 - the speed of attentional change - the thought meter
Strictly focused on understand the acquisition of behaviors and ignored the mind. 1920 - 1950
how brain function and structure maps on to behavior and thought
process by which light (photon) is converted into electrical signals in the rod cells, cone cells and ganglion cells of the retina of the eye
retinal (vitamin A chromophore) detaches from the opsin (protein), and needs to be regenerated before a photoreceptor can be activated again (cone-6 min, rod-30 min)
The Concept of Absolutes
Physical Properties like size tend to be perceived relative to their surroundings
Weber’s Law states that the ratio of the increment threshold to the background intensity is a constant
e.g., If you are in a noisy environment you must shout to be heard while a whisper works in a quiet room.
Most of our senses have a K value between 2% and 10%.
Bottom-up Effects: Properties of stimulus and sensation affect perception
Top-down Effects: Our knowledge, memory, and expectations shape how we perceive the world.
Chastain & Burnham (1975) 'Ratman"
Participants were presented ‘segments’ of the ratman in sequential order, and after all segments were revealed had to describe what the image was of
Segments either became increasing more ‘man-like’ or increasingly more ‘rat-like’.
Participants’ perception most heavily depended on whether the initially revealed piece was rat or man
Binocular Depth Cues
To focus on objects moving towards you, eyes have to point inward
the difference in image location of an object seen by the left and right eyes, resulting from the eyes’ horizontal separation
Scientific Skepticism: Rules
if a statement were in fact wrong, there would be a way to demonstrate its incorrectness
Science continually attempts to reduce the set of unfalsified theories
Creationism is the belief that the universe is so complex that it could not have been created by mere physical processes (e.g., natural selection). Therefore, it must have been created by a divine entity
The Hypothetico-Deductive Model
1) Form an hypothesis (conjecture)
2) Deduce predictions from hypothesis (predictions about what would occur if you produced some sort of behavior, X)
3) Test predictions
4) Evaluate hypothesis in light of tests
Studying Behavior Scientifically
a definition of a concept in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured
The characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences about it
Power or Sensitivity to Change
The Law of Large Numbers
As your sample becomes larger, its properties will more reliably reflect those of the population you are sampling from
When a change in one variable is accompanied by a proportional change in another variable, we say they are correlated (co-related)
Internal vs. External Validity
Internal validity: logical soundness
Relevance of findings to other situations
The Placebo Effect
the expectation of receiving treatment has an effect on individuals
Null Hypothesis Testing
add em up, then divide by how many
The point in an ordered list of measurements where there are an equal number of measurements above and below
the value that appears most often
the concept that participants should not be unnecessarily put at risk, and researchers should aim to ensure their work provides benefits to individuals and society
the concept that participants should be treated in a way such that they maintain control over meaningful decisions in their own life (i.e., preserve autonomy)
Aristotle And Empiricism
Our sensed are accurate but our world was more. complicated than simple geometric forms. Careful and thorough observation before drawing strong conclusions about the world.
Aristotle and Empiricism
Empiricism: Practice of gaining knowledge of the world through observation
Assumes our senses are trustworthy
Allows for objective study and comparison of theories
Material: What is it made out of
Formal: What are the relevant details of its shape
Efficient: How was it created
Final: For what purpose does it exist?
Monism and Dualism
Mind is part of physical world (monism) or whether it should be best described as a non - physical entity (dualism)
The Fall of Phrenology
Fell into disfavor because
ablation research, discrepant findings and Gall was an astoundingly poor methodologist.
Psychology as a Science
Beginning marked by William Wundt on the speed of attentional change in 1879.
Genetics can influence behavior. Behavioral Genetics is a field of research that studied this.
Classic conditioning is passive process of learning reflexive behavior by association.
Present neutral stimulus
Blow air puff in someone's eye
Present neutral stimulus without ait puff
If event A reliably predicts event B reflexive behavior associated with event B will now occur with A
Driven based on expectancy
Stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive response (puff of air)
Reflexive response that is naturally elicited by the unconditioned Stimulus (blinking)
Thus is the response elicited by a conditioned Stimulus after repeatedly being associated with an unconditioned Stimulus (blink)
This is the stimulus that is repeatedly associated with the unconditioned Stimulus (bell)
Conditioned vs. Unconditioned
Conditioned response are very rarely exact replicas of unconditioned responses ( responses are less intense)
For Conditioning to Work
For Conditioning to work, the CS onset generally must precede the UCS onset
Work best, UCS and CS must partially overlap or occur closely in time
CS and UCS typically overlap or occur close together in time for conditioning to occur
Classic conditioning deals with acquisition of reflex behaviors which are instantaneous
Acquisition of Conditioning
Conditioning often takes time and lots of repetition to occur
Conditioned responses will disappear when a CS is presented without UCS multiple times.
Classic conditioning is fundamentally limited and not permanent learning
Sometimes CR that have been extinguished will sometimes show a spontaneous Recovery after a delay period of no CS
Second Order Conditioning
Once a strong CS/CR link has been established, CS can be treated as UCS to create new CS
eg. Pair distinct perfume/cologne with person
Is a UCS leads to a UCR but that UCR consistently has no meaningful impact, that UCR will become less intense over time
Occurrence of Habituation
Occurs when environment surrounding becomes a CS with a CR that counteracts a UCR
eg. Drug tolerance (most pronounced in people who consume drugs at same location
Useful but inadequate at explaining full richness of learning
A form of learning where the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether or not that behavior will be repeated in the future
Operant Conditioning vs. Classic Conditioning
Classic conditioning deals with behaviors that are reflexive and leaned by association
Operant Conditioning deals with voluntary behavior and learned though exploration/trial and error
Law of Effect
If a response in the presence of stimulus is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, behavior will become more likely within presence of stimulus
With operant Conditioning, organisms learn to produce specific behaviors within specific contexts which are called discriminative Stimuli
Three Term Contingency
Discriminative Stimulus sets occasion for Response which leads to Consequence which strengthens/weakens connection between DS and R.
Established by setting up possibilities for punishment and reinforcement (positive and negative reinforcement or positive and negative punishment)
Punishment and Reinforcement
A punisher is any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of a behaviors that led to it.
Reinforcer is any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of a behavior to it
Involves adding to a stimulus or event to the environment that serves to increase the likelihood of a behavior that led to it
eg. Get dollar for getting good mark on test
Involves removing a stimulus or event from the environment with the overall function of reducing likelihood of a behavior that led to removal
eg. Grounding for getting bad mark on test
Punishment and reinforcement work best when the behavior you are desiring to change the frequency of is salient
Salience can rely on temporal Proximity.
Use of Punishment
Only useful when you can be certain you will punish every instance of the undesired behavior
If not done, person punished simply learns to discriminate between time they will be punished and times they will not
Shaping by successive Approximations
Learn something so complex that it would be unreasonable to expect that the animal get it perfect without learning basic skills. Use successive Approximations to achieve this
Operant Conditioning is where organisms learn the expected value of their actions.
You have fixed ratio, variable ration, fixed interval and variable interval.
For reinforcement based operant Conditioning
eg. Slot Machines
Provides reinforcement every nth time a desired behavior is produced.
eg. But 7 get 1 Free thing
Every instance of desired behavior as x% chance of being reinforced
eg. drops in video games
Possibility of successive reinforcement us delayed you some constant amount of time N. Once N amount of time has passed, you are guaranteed a reinforcement if you produce the desired behavior.
eg. Getting paid every 2 weeks.
After a random time delay (with some average length N) if you produce desired behavior, you are reinforced.
eg. Having a a garden and producing crops
Sense receptors stay activated for a brief duration after they have stopped receiving stimulation. This lingering activity is sensory memory
Working Memory (Short term memory)
Holds knowledge we are currently aware of or consciously working with
Has limited capacity and content easily lost if not attended to
Store lists of unrelated jets, Miller observed most people could hold between 5 - 9 items
Compress information in working Memory so we have more things at once
When one memory is linked to another, the second becomes easier to recall when the first is brought to mind
Because memory is associative, can group pieces of knowledge together into a larger whole unit where each piece is easier to remember
Short Term Forgetting
Information presented just before a distraction tends to be forgotten easily
eg. Names at parties
Brown - Peterson Paradigm
You will see three letters followed by a three digit number. Count backwards by 7 from 3 digit number
If information in working Memory is not rehearsed, it will be rapidly lost.
Information in long term memory is believed to be more permanent
Serial Position Curve
Things at beginning are remembered well because they have been rehearsed and entered long term memory
Things at the end are remembered well because they have not decayed from short term memory
Serial Position Curve 2
When words or anything are presented in a list, and people have to later recall the list of details, they are better at recalling things from beginning and end of list
Passive Exposure to information is typically not enough to remember it.
Knowledge has to be actively worked with for reliable remembering
Levels of Processing
Depth of Processing is
Shallow which has structural encoding and emphasizes the physical structure
Intermediate which is phonemic encoding meaning what a word sounds like
Deep which is semantic encoding or meaning of verbal input
Descriptive properties is surface Characteristics. Hard to remember
How knowledge could be used or how it relates to other things is part of deep characteristics
Knowledge best stored as deep characteristics
Surface vs. Deep Characteristics
We remember information better if we focus on deep characteristics
Memory is associative. The more associations you can form between knowledge, the easier all of the associated bits are to recall
We can remember information better if we attach it to a larger context
words in rich contexts are better remembered
Possible to make surface character and make them deep characteristics by embedding all of the knowledge into a greater whole
Encoding Specificity states that we encode information along with its context. Retrieval cues should be more effective if they were present during encoding
State dependent Memory
State - dependent Memory is the idea that internal states also become part of context at time of memory encoding
Spreading studying results in better long term retention of knowledge
Schemas and Abstraction
Tend not to remember particular details of events all that well but rather we generalize and form abstractions of what we encounter
We can easily make people misremember events that never happened.
This is very easy to demonstrate with simple information like words.
Leading questions causes people to incorrectly remember events that never happened.
The theory that we selectively block negative memories has been falsified repeatedly upon close scrutiny
Negative and Positive Words
Neutral words have a better short term memory but negative words are better long term.
Negative and Positive emotion words ae recalled with equal likelihood across all delays
Memories for intensely emotional events tend to appear more salient, more detailed and generally stronger
This increased intensity has been taken as evidence that the details of events are burned into brain
To play, spend time pleasantly
To take a bath
To return a thing
To turn off/to erase
To sit down (ni)
To stand up
To carry, To hold
To be absent from, to rest
To open something
To teach/to instruct
To get off
To take a shower
To turn on
To make a phone call
To forget/to leaver behind
To bring a person
To bring a thing
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