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The phrase “mental steadiness” refers to ______________________.
Wellness, as defined in the text, includes ______________________.
Well balanced, developmentally appropriate social behaviors ______________________.
The greatest contributor to job satisfaction is ______________.
job duties that are consistent with skill set
The “Strange Situation” created a way for researchers to ____________________.
Later research based upon the Strange Situation found that ______________________.
Self care is __________________________.
Wellness wheels are __________________________.
A. subjective to each person and ten people and make ten different wellness wheels
The Diathesis-stress hypothesis __________________________.
Lee Vygotsky was a psychologist who __________________________.
When extracting the concepts in the Serenity prayer, spiritual balance can be perceived as ________________________.
focusing on the present and not being judgmental about it
The six universal emotions include ________________________.
From a balanced perspective, Marsha Linehan talked about being in “wise mind.” Wise mind is __________________________.
The hypothalamus aids in _____________ balance.
Nighttime exhaustion is primarily due to ______________________.
the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) signaling the release of melatonin
____________ is an Eastern form of wellness that allows one to see how the mind can impact body functions. An example of this form of wellness is ____________.
Success of mental health therapy has been researched and found that, for the most part, therapy is more effective than ineffective. In one of the original research projects, a statistical value of .85 was given as a result to described the success of mental health therapy. The value .85 represents _____________.
the effect size
Smith, Glass, and Miller summarized studies that compared different types of therapy or that compared the effectiveness of therapy against a control group, or those that did not receive therapy. reports to locate every study that met a certain criteria. This research included over 475 studies with over 10,000 research participants. This type of research is also known as _______________.
The Smith, Glass, and Miller research that included over 475 studies and over 10,000 research participants found that ____________________.
there was no evidence to suggest that any one type of therapy was more effective than any other type.
CBT states that in order to minimize the onset/worsening of depression and anxiety, it is important to monitor ________________________.
The process of socialization begins _______________________.
Signs of social imbalance in children include those who are ____________________.
According to the World Health Organization, the obesity rate has __________________.
You just purchased a piece of furniture that requires some assembly; you take the pieces out of the box and lay them on the floor. You then look at the directions before beginning to assemble. This is an example of you being in ______________.
You just purchased a piece of furniture that requires some assembly, you take the pieces out of the box and begin to assemble. One piece does not seem to fit and you try and “make it fit.” As such, the piece breaks. When the piece breaks, you scream “I’ll never be able to do this” and throw the broken piece, which puts a hole in the dry wall. This is an example of you being in _______________.
Cynical shyness can occur ________________________.
Muscle dysmorphia is ___________________________.
What are two reasons why males are more likely overlooked for a diagnosis of anorexia?
In the mind of a socially imbalanced child, ___________________.
An example of a cross gender consequence of anorexia is anemia. Anemia is characterized by _______________.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a type of therapy developed by Marsha M. Linehan at the University of Washington. DBT is based upon three states of mind: reasonable mind, wise mind, and emotional mind. Reasonable mind is characterized by ____________________.
Although stress is subjective, stress can be felt when there is a threat of losing things such as money, seniority, and/or a relationship. Within the definition of stress, these are all examples of __________________.
The HPA axis explanation states that short term stress can be beneficial. However, prolonged exposure to stress results in the HPA axis remaining active. This can be unhealthy because ____________________.
Even though it would not be in a person’s long term best interest to suppress stressors, when could this be helpful as a form of stress management?
If a stressor is unavoidable, there are still measures one can take to minimize the intensity of the stress. For instance, taking a final psychology exam can be an unavoidable stressor. How might the magnitude of this stressor be minimized?
Think to yourself, “Once I finish this test, I’ll be one step closer to graduating.”
Sophia is about to enter a new job waitressing. She has never waited tables before and is unsure that she made the correct choice taking a PT job while in school. However, she realizes that a PT job is something she needs to do right now. As a friend of Sophia’s, how would you know that her level of stress is working for her?
The ability to regulate emotions becomes difficult when ________________________.
According to the CUSS, a person experiencing the death of a friend is one of the most stressful things a young person can experience. How might a person experience the same or greater level of stress, without experiencing the death of a close friend?
--He is faking his symptoms because he wants to go out on disability until he can retire.
---He has been overly focused on his family to the point that he has neglected his stress for the past 25 years.
_____ are more likely than ______ to respond to stress by activating the _______-or-_______ response
Stress creates an emotional and behavioral reaction that prepares the body for action. This is better known as the ________________.
Tend and befriend is a response to stress that is most commonly used by ____________.
Two people have recent mid terms in one day. Person A says to person Person B, “This will be impossible” while Person B says to Person A, “This is how I’m going to manage my time.” Based upon the reading, person B will likely do better on than Person A because ______________________.
A set of 16 year old twins have the same curfew and an equal division of chores. In addition, there are also school and after school demands. They also have an active social life. Mandy reflects on her busy schedule and thinks, “I’d do better in school if my parents gave me less chores… I have too many responsibilities.” Sandy, on the other hand, thinks, “I have enough responsibilities to keep me out of trouble.” Sandy, overall, feels a lower level of stress because ____________________.
People with “anger management issues”, clinical levels of depression, or suffer from panic attacks share a common theme. That theme is _________________.
Training yourself the skills of self regulation (not slouching in seats, avoiding junk food) on a regular basis are more likely to improve their ________________.
Although many people can experience episodes of sleeplessness and social withdrawal, it does not mean that that the person has posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). What would be the needed criteria in order to consider PTSD?
Any stimuli, either internal thoughts or external events, can cause a person to experience stress. The individual stimuli that occur are referred to as _____________.
The degree that stress is experienced can vary, depending on the person. In a study by Meyer Friedman and R. H. Rosenman, couples can experience the same life situations, but husbands experienced more severe consequences, specifically more heart disease than did the wives. What was the rationale for this, as per the researchers?
The experience of pain, where there is a physical explanation that is negatively impacted upon by emotional states such as fear, depression, stress, or anxiety, is known as ___________ pain.
The difference between acute and chronic pain is _______________________.
Associated more with chronic pain, especially if the person is prescribed pain medication, is _____________, or chronic pain is felt despite the use of pain medication. This can be experienced suddenly, as the result of seemingly insignificant moving, or as the effects of pain medication beginning to wear off.
Soft tissue damage is an example of ___________ pain while nerve damage is an example of __________ pain.
A phenomena known as the "pain prone" individual exists in. What is a "pain prone" individual?
Somatization disorder is a psychological disorder in which a person experiences numerous long-lasting but seemingly unrelated physical ailments that have no identifiable physical cause. The symptoms (such as joint aches, vomiting, nausea, muscle weakness, as well as sexual dysfunction) are real and cause distress to the individual, but they are due entirely to psychological factors. The first signs and symptoms of somatoform disorder are more likely to occur in those ________________________.
---who are under stress, female, and in early stages of adulthood
---who are male children who start feeling pressure to earn good grades
In the practice of acupuncture, chi stagnation is _____________________.
That's incorrect. Acupuncture is a branch of Chinese medicine that works with energy of the body. The goal of acupuncture is achieved when needles are left inserted for an extended period of time as this promotes the flow of chi. The flow of chi creates healing energy. There is a dull ache that occurs when acupuncture needles are manipulated. This is the freeing energy that ultimately reaches the organs of the body, and promotes pain relief and wellness.
The type of treatment that includes collaboration between professional and patient to provide a sense of control for the patient is called _________________.
The negative impact of non acceptance of pain is that _____________________.
--it contributes to a Somatoform Disorder
--the combination of pain and the non acceptance of the pain results in suffering
In the management of pain, aguantar refers to ___________________.
In the activity that talked about the influence of our thoughts on our physical wellbeing, the speaker emphasizes that Eastern influence in wellness should focus on taking a _________________________.
How would Marsha Linehan explain the process of making a wise minded decision?
Repeatedly engaging in a behavior, such as meditation, can lead to changes in the structure of the brain because neurons can make new connections with each other. The ability of the brain to change in this way is known as ____________.
As outlined in an activity in this module, another name for multi tasking is _________________.
One of the videos on interpersonal effectiveness described it as ______________________.
Although difficult to define due to its’ subjective nature, mindfulness can be described as _________________________.
recognizing, acknowledging, investigating, but not identifying with emotions
How does one differentiate the three states of mind as discussed by Marsha M. Linehan?
Reasonable Mind is the ability to think logically and focus solely on facts. Emotional Mind can culminate in emotionally based behaviors that may have long term consequences. Wise Mind is an overlap of Reasonable Mind and Emotion Mind.
ACCEPTS skills can be utilized in situations where emotions are escalated so a person is distracted from an emotional trigger. Being aware of others who are less fortunate, watching situation comedies, and holding ice cubes are which of the following types of ACCEPTS skills, respectively?
A body scan can be an effective way to manage ____________________.
emotional experiences such as anger, mood, and level of tension
A Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program includes the practice of ____________________.
True or False: Regular meditation practice can greatly improve a person’s ability to detect patterns and perceive structure.
True or False: In order to engage in meditation correctly, one needs to find a dark quiet room and sit or lay down with their eyes closed.
A study is conducted to determine the extent of damage, if any, to the brains of three groups of people who have had high blood pressure for either 5 years, 10 years, or 15 years. This study is an example of ________ research.
Research conducted specifically for the purpose of solving practical problems and improving quality of life is called _____________.
A __________ is a general, tentative explanation that tries to account for diverse findings on the relationships between variables and therefore provides ideas for future research, whereas a __________ is a specific prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is to be tested.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of activities for a psychologist utilizing the scientific research method?
“Children who play violent video games will become more aggressive.” Based on the scientific research method, this statement is most likely a __________.
A precise statement of how a variable in a study will be observed and measured is called a(n) __________.
A researcher hypothesizes that children who play violent video games will become more aggressive. The variables “play violent video games” and “become more aggressive” are ____________ variables.
The ethical requirement of informed consent means that participants ___________________.
Which of the following is not an APA Guideline on Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research?
A case study is a(n) ____________________________.
In survey research, the term sample refers to a(n) _____________________________.
Which of the following is an important strength of the survey method?
In the 1970’s, a 13-year-old girl named Genie was found locked in a bedroom and strapped to a potty chair. She had been isolated from the world and severely neglected to the point that she did not have social skills or the ability to speak. For the next several years, researchers studied Genie’s ability to acquire speech and social skills. This type of research is called a ________________.
The primary advantage of naturalistic observation is to _____________________.
Jane Goodall’s research with chimpanzees can best be described as _________________.
Ronald thinks that children who eat at fast-food restaurants, particularly McDonald’s, tend to be overweight, so he conducts a naturalistic observation of children at the local McDonald’s Restaurant. What could be problematic about his observations?
A(n) __________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
Professor Hill wants to determine whether the amount of study time is related to final exam test scores. Before taking the final exam, her student’s self-report the number of hours spent in preparing for the final. Which research design will she use to conduct her study?
A correlation coefficient can indicate ________________________.
In a correlation research design, the variable that has been omitted from the hypothesis but still produces an observed relationship with the other variables is called a(n) ___________.
A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a(n) ___________.
A researcher investigates the effects of room temperature on test performance as measured by participants test scores. In this experiment, the dependent variable is _____________.
An advantage of the experimental research design is that _____________________.
The difference between a true experiment and a quasi-experiment is that ______________________.
When a researcher has reason to believe that something other than the manipulation of the independent variable has caused a change in the dependent variable, the researcher must look for a(n) _____________ as an explanation.
___________ occur(s) when the experimenter knows the study’s hypothesis and treats the participants in the experimental condition differently from the participants in the control condition of the experiment
When both the researcher and the participants do not know whether the participants are in the experimental or control group, it is known as a ______________ experiment.
Which of the following did Freud consider to beunconscious behaviors?
Which of the following is the best definition of psychological repression?
Which of the following is an example of denial?
Which of the following is an example of a Freudian slip?
Which term below is defined as behaviors that we are consciously aware of?
Which term below is defined as the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information?
Which term below is defined as behaviors that we do not have conscious control over?
Which of the following are under conscious control?
Which of the following are under unconscious control?
Which of the following is an example of an implicit memory?
Which of the following is an example of an explicit memory?
Which of the following is an example of an automatic behavior?
A. Making dinner for your friends
Which term below is defined as the idea that the mind, a nonmaterial entity, is separate from the physical body?
Research studying cognitive neuroscience must assume that ________ is true in order to draw conclusions about why certain brain activity can lead to certain behaviors.
REM sleep is characterized by which of the following?
REM sleep is part of the sleep cycle that occurs multiple times per night. What statement best characterizes REM sleep?
Slow-wave sleep is characterized by which of the following?
If you were to monitor an EEG as someone was going from an active awake state to deep sleep, in what order would the waves appear?
When do delta waves appear?
When do alpha waves appear?
When do beta waves appear?
Which of the following can cause insomnia?
If an individual is having trouble falling or staying asleep, what treatment(s) should be attempted first?
What are some things you could do if you are having problems sleeping?
What sleep disorder is characterized by pauses in breathing that last at least 10 seconds during sleep?
What disorder is characterized by a persistent difficulty falling or staying asleep?
What disorder is characterized by an individual leaving his or her bed while still asleep?
What disorder is characterized by extreme daytime sleepiness with frequent episodes of nodding off?
How much sleep does a newborn (0–2 months) need each night?
How much sleep does a teenager need each night?
How much sleep does an adult need each night?
What are some of the symptoms of severe sleep deprivation?
What did Sigmund Freud believe about dreams?
Modern theories propose that dreams serve what purpose?
A light is turned on in front of a hungry dog a few seconds before it is given a small piece of meat. The first time this happens in an experiment like the one that Pavlov conducted, the light is considered to be _________________.
In Pavlov’s well known experiment with the dog, salivation is ________________.
“Eyeblink conditioning” can be used to demonstrate classical conditioning safely with a human volunteer. A puff of air aimed at your eye will naturally produce a blinking response. Using this reflex, what could we do to create a complete classical conditioning demonstration?
Which one of the following vignettes is best explained by classical conditioning?
In Pavlov’s well known experiment, a dog learns to salivate to the sound a ringing bell. Pavlov conducted many other studies, including one in which he studied second order conditioning. In this second order conditioning study, the dog was trained to salivate to the sight of a black square. What would Pavlov have to do to make the black square a second order stimulus?
A “startle response” is a natural response we all have to something that might hurt us, so people naturally wince when they hear a loud noise behind them. Imagine that you have classically conditioned a person to wince (i.e., show the startle response) when a red light comes on. Now you show a green light, and the person does not show the startle response. The person’s different response to the green light (no startle) and the red light (startle) is an example of _______________.
One of Pavlov’s dogs has been trained to salivate when he hears a beeping sound. Which of the following situations would be most likely to lead to extinction?
Brad and Angie fell in love one summer when Brad used to bring his golden retriever to play in the park where Angie liked to jog. The sight of a golden retriever always makes her think about Brad. But today, as Angie ran in the park, she saw a Labrador retriever, and she immediately thought about Brad. What happened?
Roger is an army veteran of four tours in Iraq. During his last time in Iraq, he was involved in several roadside bombing incidents, after which he began to experience a variety of physical and psychological symptoms that were later diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Which one of the following brain regions most likely to have been conditioned to initiate a fear response?
Sally and James had a happy, satisfying relationship in the beginning. James would get excited just at the sight of Sally walk down the hallway. Eventually as time went on, they got along less and eventually broke up, not feeling the same excit or passion they did in the beginning. A couple of years passed, and James saw Sally again walk down the street, and a feeling of excitement rushed over him. What most likely happened when James saw Sally walk down the street?
John Garcia classically conditioned rats to avoid certain stimuli, but found that other stimuli were difficult or impossible to use as conditioned stimuli. Which of the following descriptions best fits the results of Garcia’s study?
It was easy to condition rats to associate a distinctive taste and a feeling of nausea.
Operant conditioning works on _________ behaviors, where learning occurs based on _________.
The Law of Effect states that an organism is __________ to repeat a behavior if that behavior is associated with __________.
A ___________ increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring again by taking away something negative.
Providing a child with a sticker each time he picks up his toys is an example of a ___________.
If you wanted to teach your dog a new trick, such as walking on a leash, the most effective way would be to use ___________.
Rewarding an animal for a behavior every third time the behavior occurs is a __________ reinforcement schedule.
If your professor handed out a piece of candy to every student who asked a question during lecture as a way to increase student participation, this would be an example of a _________ reinforcement schedule.
Janet goes to the casino and plays the slot machines for hours. She never knows how times she needs to pull down the lever before she gets a pay off. What type of reinforcement schedule is most likely being used here?
Richard is teaching his son, Cody, to throw darts. At first, he gives Cody a piece of candy each time the dart hits the dartboard. As time progresses, Richard starts only rewarding Cody when the dart hits one of the inner rings of the dartboard. Finally, Richard only rewards Cody when he hits the bullseye. This example best illustrates the concept of ___________.
Trial-and-error learning is based on the idea that learning often occurs by _______________.
Köhler studied learning by insight by _________________.
The term “latent learning” refers to learning that __________________.
In Tolman’s study with rats, the critical group in his study for determining if learning had occurred was the group that ____________________.
The behavior that Tolman measured (as the dependent variable) in his study of latent learning was __________________.
Before Bandura proposed his Bobo doll experiment, most learning specialists believed that learning only occurred __________________.
The adult models in Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment ____________________.
After watching the adults interact with the Bobo doll, what did the children do?
What was it that distinguished the two groups that Bushman and Anderson studied? A. One group played a violent video game and the other group played a nonviolent video game.
In their experiment, Bushman and Anderson found that ____________________.
Jim has played the flute every day for twenty years. His skill is most likely stored as _________ memory.
Which type of memory can you use to detect rhythm?
Your friend claims she knows a person that can remember everything she reads including the page numbers on which the text is written. This is an example of what kind of memory?
You see your friend out of the corner of your eye. Which type of memory initially processes the visual features of your friend’s face?
Given that people can only keep five-nine items in short-term memory, what strategy should someone who is trying to memorize the first 100 digits of the number pi use?
You are given a riddle and asked to find the solution. Which type of memory would you use to accomplish this task?
Suppose that you have memorized the lyrics of a song that you heard. What is the correct order of the levels of memory in which those song lyrics were processed?
You and your friend are sharing stories about your high school days. What type of memory allows you to do this?
Which type of memory has an unlimited capacity and provides relatively permanent storage of information?
You are taking an essay test in your English class. This is a measure of which type of memory?
Fatima has learned how to ride a motorcycle. What can you tell Fatima about what will happen to this memory over time?
Which of the following is an example of elaborative encoding?
Maintenance rehearsal is to short-term memory as __________ is to long-term memory.
Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve suggests that __________.
Rachel finds that she does better on her tests if she studies an hour every day for a week than if she studies for seven hours in one day. This is most likely because of __________.
Your psychology professor recommended that you study for his tests in the classroom when there aren’t any students in it. Your psychology professor is basing his recommendation on __________.
When you left your house, you made a mental note of the groceries you needed. Now that you are in the store, you find you can only remember the first few items on your list. This is best explained by __________.
You move to a new house and find yourself still driving to the old house. This is best explained by __________.
You are having difficulty remembering a diverse list of items but then discover that you can remember them better if you group similar items together. Which of the following best explains this?
After trying to memorize different types of furniture, you find you can retrieve the words chair, sofa, andcouch much faster than sewing machine, wastebasket, and shelf. What might explain this?
You got a second locker with a new combination. Now you can’t remember the combination to your old locker. Which of the following best explains this?
What do you call the formation of memories at the neural level?
Over the course of three days last week, you learned about the different types of dragonflies in class. Your classmate, Vera, was absent one of those days. At the neural level ________________________.
Which function does the cerebellum serve?
Which of the following is an example of a function of the hippocampus?
Which of the following is an example of a function of the amygdala?
You’re watching your favorite sporting event and your team is losing. They have the ball and you find yourself shouting at the screen and jumping up and down. Which brain area is likely to be instrumental in your reaction?
You and your friends are talking about your experiences when you first learned to ski. Which brain area allows you to store these memories?
When you were young, you had a dream about falling down into a ravine. Years later you are mistakenly convinced that as a child you fell into a ravine. This is best explained by _________.
You are the victim of a home invasion and you are certain that the person you picked out of a line-up is the perpetrator. Years later you find out you were mistaken. This is best explained by __________.
You think all gay men are effeminate in their mannerisms. Every time you see a gay man acting like a woman, your stereotype of gay men becomes more entrenched. When you see a gay man in a very masculine role, you think he can’t possibly be gay. This is best explained by _________.
You have a very fragile glass vase that you need to ship to your mother for Mother’s Day but you have no packing materials. All you have is the popcorn that you are eating. You don’t see that you can use the popcorn as packing material. This is best explained by __________.
As a 75 year-old woman, stories of death seem much more real to you than they did when you were 15. This is best explained by __________.
You frequently hear stories about a stranger trying to kidnap a child on the street so you think this happens all the time. In reality, a stranger kidnapping a child is a relatively rare event. This is best explained by __________.
Shortly after moving to your new neighborhood, you meet a few people who are all very friendly, so you mistakenly assume everyone in the neighborhood is friendly. This is best explained by __________.
You fail a test and you believe it is a horrible event. You then start thinking of the “if onlys...” If only I had studied more. If only I hadn’t gone to the party. If only I had called in sick at work so I could have studied more. But maybe it’s not such a horrible event because it teaches you to learn better study habits. This best exemplifies __________.
True or False: You are just as likely to draw an Ace of Clubs, an Ace of Diamond, an Ace of Spades, and an Ace of Hearts (in that order) out of a deck of cards as you are of drawing four cards that consist of a 4 of Hearts, a 6 of Diamonds, a 10 of Spades, and a Jack of Clubs (in that order).
The tendency for people to remember unusual or anomalous events more so than mundane ones is called __________.
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