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- Spanking a child
- Yelling "No!" at a dog jumping on a person
A light is turned on in front of a hungry dog a few seconds before it is given a small piece of meat. The first time this happens in an experiment like the one that Pavlov conducted, the light is considered to be _________________.
In Pavlov’s well known experiment with the dog, salivation is ________________.
“Eyeblink conditioning” can be used to demonstrate classical conditioning safely with a human volunteer. A puff of air aimed at your eye will naturally produce a blinking response. Using this reflex, what could we do to create a complete classical conditioning demonstration?
A “startle response” is a natural response we all have to something that might hurt us, so people naturally wince when they hear a loud noise behind them. Imagine that you have classically conditioned a person to wince (i.e., show the startle response) when a red light comes on. Now you show a green light, and the person does not show the startle response. The person’s different response to the green light (no startle) and the red light (startle) is an example of _______________.
One of Pavlov’s dogs has been trained to salivate when he hears a beeping sound. Which of the following situations would be most likely to lead to extinction?
Brad and Angie fell in love one summer when Brad used to bring his golden retriever to play in the park where Angie liked to jog. The sight of a golden retriever always makes her think about Brad. But today, as Angie ran in the park, she saw a Labrador retriever, and she immediately thought about Brad. What happened?
Roger is an army veteran of four tours in Iraq. During his last time in Iraq, he was involved in several roadside bombing incidents, after which he began to experience a variety of physical and psychological symptoms that were later diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Which one of the following brain regions most likely to have been conditioned to initiate a fear response?
Sally and James had a happy, satisfying relationship in the beginning. James would get excited just at the sight of Sally walking down the hallway. Eventually as time went on, they got along less and less and eventually broke up, not feeling the same exciting or passion they did in the beginning. A couple of years passed, and James saw Sally again walking down the street, and a feeling of excitement rushed over him. What most likely happened when James saw Sally walking down the street?
John Garcia classically conditioned rats to avoid certain stimuli, but found that other stimuli were difficult or impossible to use as conditioned stimuli. Which of the following descriptions best fits the results of Garcia’s study?
Operant conditioning works on _________ behaviors, where learning occurs based on _________.
The Law of Effect states that an organism is __________ to repeat a behavior if that behavior is associated with __________.
A ___________ increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring again by taking away something negative.
Providing a child with a sticker each time he picks up his toys is an example of a ___________.
If you wanted to teach your dog a new trick, such as walking on a leash, the most effective way would be to use ___________.
Rewarding an animal for a behavior every third time the behavior occurs is a __________ reinforcement schedule.
If your professor handed out a piece of candy to every student who asked a question during lecture as a way to increase student participation, this would be an example of a _________ reinforcement schedule.
Janet goes to the casino and plays the slot machines for hours. She never knows how times she needs to pull down the lever before she gets a pay off. What type of reinforcement schedule is most likely being used here?
Richard is teaching his son, Cody, to throw darts. At first, he gives Cody a piece of candy each time the dart hits the dartboard. As time progresses, Richard starts only rewarding Cody when the dart hits one of the inner rings of the dartboard. Finally, Richard only rewards Cody when he hits the bullseye. This example best illustrates the concept of ___________.
Trial-and-error learning is based on the idea that learning often occurs by _______________.
Köhler studied learning by insight by _________________.
The term “latent learning” refers to learning that __________________.
In Tolman’s study with rats, the critical group in his study for determining if learning had occurred was the group that ____________________.
The behavior that Tolman measured (as the dependent variable) in his study of latent learning was __________________.
Before Bandura proposed his Bobo doll experiment, most learning specialists believed that learning only occurred __________________.
The adult models in Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment ____________________.
Jim has played the flute every day for twenty years. His skill is most likely stored as _________ memory.
Which type of memory can you use to detect rhythm?
Your friend claims she knows a person that can remember everything she reads including the page numbers on which the text is written. This is an example of what kind of memory?.
You see your friend out of the corner of your eye. Which type of memory initially processes the visual features of your friend’s face?
Given that people can only keep five-nine items in short-term memory, what strategy should someone who is trying to memorize the first 100 digits of the number pi use?
You are given a riddle and asked to find the solution. Which type of memory would you use to accomplish this task?
Suppose that you have memorized the lyrics of a song that you heard. What is the correct order of the levels of memory in which those song lyrics were processed?
You and your friend are sharing stories about your high school days. What type of memory allows you to do this?
You are taking an essay test in your English class. This is a measure of which type of memory?
What do you call the formation of memories at the neural level?
Over the course of three days last week, you learned about the different types of dragonflies in class. Your classmate, Vera, was absent one of those days. At the neural level ________________________.
You’re watching your favorite sporting event and your team is losing. They have the ball and you find yourself shouting at the screen and jumping up and down. Which brain area is likely to be instrumental in your reaction?
You and your friends are talking about your experiences when you first learned to ski. Which brain area allows you to store these memories?
You are a witness to a crime and later see a report of the crime on the internet where they say the person committing the crime was a young male with long hair. Before you read the story, your recollection was that you couldn’t remember anything about the person’s hair. Now, after reading the report, you’re sure he had long hair. This is best explained by __________.
You are the victim of a home invasion and you are certain that the person you picked out of a line-up is the perpetrator. Years later you find out you were mistaken. This is best explained by __________.
You think all gay men are effeminate in their mannerisms. Every time you see a gay man acting like a woman, your stereotype of gay men becomes more entrenched. When you see a gay man in a very masculine role, you think he can’t possibly be gay. This is best explained by _________.
You have a very fragile glass vase that you need to ship to your mother for Mother’s Day but you have no packing materials. All you have is the popcorn that you are eating. You don’t see that you can use the popcorn as packing material. This is best explained by __________.
As a 75 year-old woman, stories of death seem much more real to you than they did when you were 15. This is best explained by __________.
You frequently hear stories about a stranger trying to kidnap a child on the street so you think this happens all the time. In reality, a stranger kidnapping a child is a relatively rare event. This is best explained by __________.
Shortly after moving to your new neighborhood, you meet a few people who are all very friendly, so you mistakenly assume everyone in the neighborhood is friendly. This is best explained by __________.
The tendency for people to remember unusual or anomalous events more so than mundane ones is called __________.
Most psychologists agree that intelligence is ________________.
Which of the following definitions regarding fluid and crystallized intelligence is accurate?
The Flynn effect refers to the observation that __________.
Six-year old Hector’s performance on an intelligence test is at a level characteristic of an average 4-year-old. Hector’s mental age is _____.
To fulfill one of the three requirements of good test design, Dr. Billimek administered his new test, under uniform conditions, to a large number of people at various ages and who were representative of the population of interest. Dr. Billimek has gone through a procedure called _____________, and the scores of this representative group will be used to establish the _____________ against which an individual score will be compared and interpreted.
A test is said to have _____________ when a person takes the same test several weeks after taking it the first time, and his or her score has not significantly changed.
Twenty-year-old Pamela has just taken a test that includes vocabulary, comprehension, general knowledge, object assembly, block design, and other subtests. Pamela has most likely completed the __________.
A fourth-grade class is given an intelligence test to determine reading comprehension, writing and math skills to see if they have mastered these skills before being promoted to the fifth grade. The fourth-graders most likely took an _____________ test.
__________ believed that intelligence is a single underlying construct that he called g, while __________ believed that intelligence consists of a cluster of seven primary abilities.
In a normal distribution, _____% of the distribution is above the mean, and _____% of the distribution is below the mean.
For a normal distribution, what percentage of scores fall within 1, 2, and 3 standard deviations, respectively?
The average American male is 69 inches tall. Assuming that height is normally distributed with a standard deviation of 2.5 inches, we can conclude that 68% of males are between _______________ inches tall.
The average IQ is ______.
The classification of “giftedness” is partly determined by an IQ score of greater than _______, which is _______ standard deviations from the mean.
The diagnosis of “mental retardation” is partly determined by an IQ score lower than ______, which is ______ standard deviation units below the average.
Anthony plans to study architecture in college. He is already quite skilled at drawing buildings in great detail, and can visualize and draw three-dimensional forms far better than most students his age. Howard Gardner would say Anthony shows a high degree of _____________.
Which theory of intelligence emphasizes how we integrate various aspects of intelligence in meeting the challenges and demands of everyday life?
The ability to find ways to adapt to one’s environmental circumstances would be categorized under what Sternberg referred to as ______________.
According to Howard Gardner, if an individual has a great deal of intrapersonal intelligence, they excel in the ability to ________________.
The ability to produce original, appropriate, and valuable ideas and/or solutions to a problem is called _______________.
Which type of thinking tends to be measured by most IQ and achievement tests?
During a recent meeting, Lisa was able to suggest several different workable options for a problem that the executive board had been struggling with for over a month. In this situation, Lisa exhibited ______________.
The ability to perceive and express emotion, understand and reason with emotion and regulate one’s emotion is called _______________.
Awareness of our own emotions and the ability to manage our emotions are considered to be components of ______________.
Sarah is failing her physics class. Although the school offers free tutoring, she thinks that seeking help is useless because she believes that she will never be smart enough to comprehend the material. Which concept best represents Sarah’s belief?
Dr. Smart researches children’s intelligence. She believes that intelligence is not completely determined by genetics, but rather it is a skill that can be improved with effort. Which theory of intelligence best exemplifies this researcher’s belief?
Which of the following descriptions is most compatible with the research findings of James Flynn that became known as the Flynn effect?
The Flynn effect could be considered evidence of which theory of intelligence?
One promising explanation for why the lower end of the distribution of IQ scores is different for males and females is:
In the early 20th century, immigrants arriving from southern Europe were found to have __________ IQ scores than average Americans, and these scores were attributed to ____________________.
True or False: If research established that genetic factors account for the positive correlation between parent IQ and child IQ scores, this would prove that differences between IQs of various racial and ethnic groups are also caused by genetic factors.
If Group A experiences stereotype threat, they will perform __________ relative to Group B, presumably because members of Group A are aware of a ______________ cultural stereotype about their group.
In order to activate stereotype threat in Black students, researchers told the students that _____________________.
- giving a child a compliment or candy for a job well done
- getting paid for completed tasks
Alzheimer's disease is best described as __________________.
Developmental psychologists are most concerned with which aspects of human development?
Ovulation occurs when _________________.
The amniotic sac and placenta are formed during which prenatal phase?
During which stage of prenatal development do the internal and sensory organs begin to develop?
Exposure to alcohol when the mother drinks during her pregnancy can produce a very serious condition that includes mental retardation and other developmental problems. What is this condition called?
True or False: A teratogen always results in brain damage to the developing fetus.
During the ____________, stroking the palm of a baby's hand or pressing an object into the palm of the baby causes the baby to close his or her fingers.
The reflexes you studied at the beginning of the unit indicate that _______________________.
Imagine that a student came into this class simply thinking that infants and young children gradually develop intellectually. Now the student realizes that there are four distinguishable stages of cognitive development. What process would Piaget say is taking place in the student’s mind?
Baby Huey understands the world as a place made up of sights and sounds and surfaces he can crawl on and objects he can grasp. He does not yet have labels for most objects. Baby Huey is in which of Piaget's stages?
When Laila was younger, she used to fight over a toy with her sister but could only recognize her own "need" to have the toy. She couldn't understand that her sister was frustrated because she wanted it too. Laila has moved past thinking based on ____________ to thinking based on _____________.
In which of Piaget’s stages does the child start to reason regularly in terms of abstract concepts and properties?
At the beginning of this stage, Thad knew about 50 words and could make a few two- or three-word sentences. By the end of the stage, Thad is a fluent speaker of the language, with most of the spoken language skills of an adult. What stage is Thad passing through?
Which of the following lists the typical order in which these concepts are mastered by the child during development?
When solving problems, a child in the concrete operational stage is able to apply _________, but is generally not yet able to apply ____________.
Redonda watches as an experimenter puts two identical balls of clay in front of her. She confirms that they look exactly the same. Then the experimenter squashes one of the balls so it is flat as a pancake. Now it is obvious to Redonda that the squashed clay has more clay in it because it covers so much more of the table. Redonda’s understanding is an example of ________.
Zeke has just realized that subtraction is simply the opposite or reverse of addition, so 2 + 2 = 4 is closely related to 4 – 2 = 2. Wow! What stage of cognitive development is Zeke going through?
An important milestone in a child's social development is awareness of his or herself. What is the first indication that a child is beginning to develop a self-concept?
Infants have a limited sense of self, as shown by their ________________.
To determine the age that infants develop initial signs of a self-concept, researchers placed a red dot on babies’ foreheads and then had them look into a mirror. At what age did most babies touch their foreheads when they saw their reflections?
What facilitates the child’s growing self-concept?
The close fundamental emotional bond that develops between the infant and his or her parent or caregiver is called .
Harlow and Harlow’s research of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggests that the infant’s emotional bond with the mother results primarily from mothers providing infants with ____________.
Babies who appear happy, sleep well, and adjust positively to new situations and people have ____________ temperaments.
Theresa says that her parents are supportive and loving. In her family, rules are openly discussed, and there is frequent give-and-take. It sounds as though Theresa's parents are ___________.
Compared to authoritarian parents, authoritative parents are likely to be ____________.
Research indicates that the __________ parenting style is associated with the most positive psychological outcomes for children.
__________ is defined as a developmental period caused by hormonal changes.
The term __________ refers to the end of puberty for both boys and girls.
Which of these is a primary sex characteristic for women?
___________ refer to the reproductive organs, and ___________ refer to features that differentiate men from women.
The area of the brain that undergoes the most maturation during adolescence is the __________.
The fact that some areas of the brain are still developing during adolescence causes adolescents to be more _________ than adults.
According to Marcia's theory, someone who has experimented with various identities and settled on one is in _____________.
According to Piaget's theory, adolescence is the first time we are able to _____________________.
The idea that adolescents think they can do anything and know better than anyone else is known as _______________.
Decision making that involves a mental and ethical conflict between two or more undesirable choices is called a ______________.
Lawrence Kohlberg is best known for ________________________.
Universal moral principles are to the ____________ level as law and order are to the _____________ level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Randy will not ride his bike in the street because he is afraid his mother will punish him if he does. According to Kohlberg's theory, Randy is demonstrating the _____________ level of moral reasoning.
Maria criticizes her husband for driving too slowly. He responds that he will not drive faster than the posted speed limit because responsible, law-abiding citizens should always obey traffic laws. According to Kohlberg's theory of moral development, he is demonstrating the ____________ level of moral development.
According to Erikson, what is the primary conflict for a person in his or her early adult years?
Menopause represents a stage in which a woman experiences a gradual decline in her _____________.
Women whose menstrual cycles have stopped for _____ consecutive months are considered to have entered menopause.
Twenty-four-year-old Emma, compared to her 70-year-old grandmother, Sue, will probably be superior with learning the ins and outs of the latest online social media networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus) because younger adults tend to have stronger ____________ intelligence than the older adult.
____________ intelligence is represented by an elderly person's wisdom, or accumulated knowledge.
True or False: People who live to an advanced age will develop a form of dementia because it is a part of the normal aging process.
Obesity is __________.
Affect guides behavior, helps us make decisions, and impacts our mental and physical health. What are the two components of affect?
The text recounts the crash landing due to engine failure of Captain Sullenberger’s commercial airplane. All 150 passengers experienced a variety of feelings such as fear. In psychological terms, these feelings are called ________.
_________ is a physiological feeling that directs our attention and guides behavior, whereas __________ is a force that initiates and directs behavior.
You know you’re sad when you’re crying. This statement is most consistent with which theory of emotion?
What do the James-Lange and Schachter-Singer theories have in common?
You feel your heart pounding and your breathing quickening while in a job interview and conclude you’re anxious. Later, when another person insults you, your heart is pounding and your breathing is quickening, and you conclude you’re angry. These two scenarios are consistent with which theory of emotion?
Schachter and Singer conducted two experiments in which two groups of participants were injected with epinephrine. One group was told of the arousal effects of the drug before the experiment began and the other group of participants was not told of the arousal effects of the drug. Later, participants observed a confederate displaying euphoric behavior in the first experiment and angry behavior in the second experiment. The results of both experiments supported Schachter and Singer’s theory of emotion in which __________.
The tendency to incorrectly label the source of a physiological arousal that you might be experiencing is called the _____________.
You and a date are watching your favorite baseball team play in the bottom of the ninth inning of the final game of the World Series. The game is tied with two outs and no runners on base. Then the first baseman hits a homerun and your team wins the World Series. Ecstatic, you look at your date and tell her how much you love her. Your reaction is best explained by _________.
Most psychologists agree that the basic emotions are __________.
Your friend offers you a chocolate covered ant to eat and you react immediately with disgust before you even consider that it might be tasty since you really like chocolate. This is best explained by a __________.
Which of the following describes the fast pathway process for experiencing an emotion?
Which of the following is a nonverbal expression of emotion?
Which of the following is the most important nonverbal communicator of emotion?
Participants in a study thought cartoons were funnier when holding a pen between their teeth (mimicking the facial action of a smile) compared to when holding a pen between their lips (similar to a frown). This study was testing the ____________.
Alice is standing very close to the person she’s talking to. Using your knowledge about nonverbal communication cues to express emotion, what can you infer about Alice’s relationship to this person based on how close she is standing to her?
Which one of the following statements is not true about people who think positively about their future?
Your daughter plays on a soccer team and constantly criticizes her performance and ability to play soccer. She thinks she is terrible at playing the game and probably shouldn’t be on the team. A psychologist might say she ___________.
As a general rule, optimists ________________________________.
Alexa takes a positive approach to difficult events in her life. She actively seeks information about the causes of negative events to help her with difficult events she may encounter in the future. Her approach best illustrates ___________.
The most important variable that determines our happiness is _________.
To help cope with stress, Maria is likely to use which social support buffer?
For Bethany to be in what Csikszentmihalyi called a state of flow, she would have to _____________________.
Lila was earning $40,000 a year as a teacher, and now she is a superintendent of a school district and is making $140,000. What would you expect regarding her happiness level?
People are unable to accurately predict their future emotional states such as how happy they will be in the future. This phenomenon is referred to as _________.
Mark was in an auto accident and as a result is permanently paralyzed from the waist down. What would you predict about his happiness level?
In describing motivation, __________ is to initiating and directing behavior as ___________ is to achieving balance.
Behavior driven by rewards, rules and responsibilities is called _______ motivation and behavior performed for the enjoyment, satisfaction or challenge is called ______ motivation.
Kathy, an elementary school teacher, wants to motivate her class to learn. Taking into account what is known about intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, which of the following strategies most likely would be successful?
After exercising, Selena is thirsty so she has a drink of water. Her desire for water is a _________________.
A biological determinant of hunger is __________.
The appetite hormones that influence hunger are __________.
Regarding body image for men, conforming to cultural norms __________.
Elena is 5 feet 9 inches tall and weighs 85 pounds yet she thinks she is fat. After every meal, she go to the bathroom to throw-up. Her behavior can best be explained by _______________.
Harry suffers from anorexia. Which of the following statements are correct about Harry?
Bethany tells you she has little interest in sex and does not feel sexual arousal. What advice would you give her?
The structural parts of the body that are most responsible for sexual arousal are the _________.
Stimulation of the lips or tongue is an example of a ________. Stimulation of the calf or shoulders is an example of a ________.
WWhich statement best describes the factor(s) that determine our initial atttraction to others?
Carmen mostly enjoys having sex with women and only occasionally has sex with men. Her behavior can best be described as __________________.
Comedienne Ellen Degeneres was in a lesbian relationship with actress Anne Heche for several years. Before Ellen, Anne was in relationships with men and after her relationship with Ellen ended she went back to men. With Ellen, she referred to herself as a lesbian and with her male partners as a heterosexual. The orientation that best describes Anne’s behavior is ______________.
Which alternative correctly pairs a component of the bio-psycho-social model of illness with an example?
In the DSM-5, the role of Type 1 Diabetes is ____________________.
If a psychologist wants to determine whether a person has a mental disorder, she will usually determine if the individual’s behavior causes both __________________.
Distress refers to whether a behavior _______________.
Jerry has a genetic predisposition towards depression. According to the bio-psycho-social model of mental disorder, his likelihood of developing depression is __________________.
A psychologist using the DSM to help diagnose a client will use what approach?
The percent of persons with a particular diagnosis is called _________.