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Although motivation can be difficult to define, your text defines motivation as
Maintaining stability of temperature, body weight, body water, and other biological conditions is known as
the tendency of a non-hungry person to eat a very attractive and tasty food
A motivation to engage in an act for its own sake is called?
Motivation based on the rewards and punishments that an act may bring is called?
Playing the piano for the fun of it is an example of __________; playing the piano because one is being paid is an example of __________.
Betsy used to paint as a hobby. Now that she has become a professional portrait painter, she no longer enjoys painting during her spare time. This change in her motivations is an example of
Chuck's parents want him to learn to enjoy reading. Many psychologists would advise them not to pay him large rewards for reading. Why?
Abraham Maslow proposed that we resolve conflicts by a:
One criticism of Maslow’s hierarchy theory is that it
choose a larger, delayed reward rather than an immediate, smaller reward.
The tendency to defer gratification is a personality variable related to a person's ability to
Research on delay of gratification suggests?
An important source of energy for all parts of the body, and the main source of energy for the brain, is
How does the hormone insulin influence eating and hunger?
When insulin levels are very high, glucose enters the cells of the body rapidly and much of it is stored as fat. If the insulin levels remain high, the stored fat cannot be used for energy. What happens to the person's appetite?
cause ssugars to leave the blood and to be stored as fats.
Eating is limited by both short-term and long-term regulation. Which of these variables is most important for long-term regulation?
People tend to maintain an early constant body weight over the course of months, unless something unusual happens. That constant weight is referred to as
Set point refers to
Grace is a 15-year-old dancer and competitive track star who is concerned that all of the other girls in her glass have started puberty but she has not. The most likely cause for the delayin puberty is
disappointing in their effectiveness.
Knowing the regions of the brain associated with hunger and satiation has led to a number of medical researchers developing weight loss drugs. So far, the drugs marketed have been
The excessive accumulation of body fat is called
about equally...about equally
Compared to overweight people, normal-weight people are __________ likely to engage in eating binges,and __________ likely to experience emotional problems.
Which kind of people are most likely to gain weight?
good predictor of weight gain, regardless of age.
the causes are unknown
Which of the following is true of bulimia?
A theory that relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual is known as a
Freud's original goal in psychoanalysis was to help a patient by
According to Freud,people have a psychosexual energy, which he called
In Freud's terms,blockage of normal sexual development at some stage is called
In Freud's theory, the term superego means something similar to
In Freud's theory, if you take something you dislike about yourself (such as hostility) and attribute it to other people, you are engaging in?
A test that encourages people to describe themselves indirectly by talking about an ambiguous stimulus such as an inkblot is called a __________ test.
As opposed to a trait, a state is more
A psychologist wants to measure someone's personality. Which procedure is most commonly used?
A measure of personality that produces consistent or repeatable scores has __________, and a measure of personality that predicts something useful, such as actual behavior has __________.
Psychologists have developed several measures of self-esteem and have created programs designed to help people increase their self-esteem. The results of this research has revealed that
When psychologists identified the "big five" personality traits, a major criterion for identifying any of these traits was that the traits
Measure of relationship between two variables
DOES NOT PROVE CAUSATION
Using the big five description of personality, we find that over the years most adults show as light decrease in
People high in the trait__________ generally trust each other and expect other people to trust them.
Some psychologists suggest that we should divide extraversion into two traits: ambition and sociability. How should psychologists determine whether or not to do so?
The "big five"personality factors have been shown to
DSM-IV classifies psychological disorders along __________ axes.
In the DSM-IV, physical disorders such as diabetes or cirrhosis of the liver are listed under
A personality disorder is a:
anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control problems, and substance abuse.
The most common disorders are:
The main goal of psychoanalysis is to
Which type of psychotherapy focuses more on changing what people do than on exploring what they think?
Spontaneous remission means
Research has shown that all common, mainstream forms of psychotherapy
Somebody who studies the everyday behaviors of more or less normal people and their relationships with other such people would be a
To measure the maturity of someone's moral judgments, Kohlberg devised a series of __________, problems that pit one moral value against another.
we can keep track of who returns favors and who does not.
People in a group(especially a group of strangers) are less likely to offer help to a person in need than is a single individual. Of the following, which is the best explanation for this tendency?
In general, which of the following factors decreases the probability that a given person will come to the aid of a person in distress?
The presence of many other people will decrease the probability that you will
You are sitting in your psychology class, and you do not understand what the professor is saying. You would like to ask a question, but as you look around the room, you see others quietly taking notes, and it looks like they understand. Nobody is asking questions, so you don't either. As it turns out, the majority of the students are thinking just as you are, so nobody asks any questions. This situation illustrates the concept of
Suppose Maria is asked to write down all the ways she can think of to use a brick. She is to write each answer on a card and toss her cards in with those of several partners, and the group with the most uses will be declared the winner. Maria is likely to loaf on the job if
Social loafing generally does NOT occur:
convince group members that their contribution to the success of the project is unique
social perception and cognition.
According to the primacyeffect in impression formation, you will be more influenced by?
In one study, college students at the start of an academic year each named two other students they thought they might become friends with. Three months later, the investigator found that each student was most likely to become friends with one of the named people if
The more often we come in contact with another person or thing the __________ likely we are to like that person or object. This is called the __________ effect.
Two people who hardly know each other go out on a first date. How much they like each other on this date depends mostly on
In general, people judge others to be most attractive if their facial features (nose, mouth, eyes, etc.)are
One hypothesis for why faces with normal features are rated as attractive is that normal means healthy. The research finding that presents the greatest challenge to this hypothesis is the finding that
According to exchange or equity theory, a romantic relationship is most likely to endure if both partners
When couples begin to date, there are many uncertainties about each other's sexual history, activity preferences and so forth. As they spend more and more time together, their estimates of these things become
people who were themselves in either highly satisfying or highly unsatisfying marriages.
husband and wife have different, somewhat opposite, attitudes and personalities
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of successful marriages?
You move into a new apartment, and your roommate tells you the neighbor across the hall is rude and unfriendly. The first time you meet your neighbor, you are somewhat rude and unfriendly, and she behaves in an unfriendly way in return. Your behavior illustrates
If someone behaves the same way others do in a given situation we would probably make an external attribution about that person. This would be an example of making a decision based on
If someone seems friendly most of the time, we tend to make an internal attribution (such as"this person is friendly"). This is an example of making a decision based on
Cross-cultural research has examined the types of attributions made by Chinese and American participants. Which of the following is the best conclusion from this research?
In several experiments,students in psychology classes have been given a questionnaire that is supposed to assess personality. A few days later, all the students receive an envelope with the same rather vague description of a set of personality traits. The results have shown that
You have just taken a psychological test that yields scores on 10 clinical scales, including depression, anxiety, fear, anger, cynicism, and social introversion. Which test did you probably take?
Which of the following is an example of a projective test of personality?
How many inkblots will a person taking the Rorschach Inkblot Test view during the course of the test?
When the Rorschach Inkblots are administered, the instructions to the subject are
require interpretations that have been criticized as depending on the psychologist's expectations at least as much as on what the person taking the test actually says.
Recent criticisms of test and its standardizations, have generated significant doubts as to its
Variable that represents response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment
DV: aggressive play
Deals with structure and function of neurons, nerves , and nervous tissue
(relationship to behavior & learning)
Inside Neuron: negatively charged
Outside Neuron: Positively charged
Consists of the brain and spinal cord
Spinal cord: lifesaving reflexes
Center of spinal cord that receives info from sensory neurons and sends commands to muscles through motor neurons
(make up neurons in the brain)
First large swelling at top of spinal cord, lowest part of brain
- Life sustaining functions
Larger swelling above medulla that connects top of brain to bottom
- Sleep, dreaming, coordination, and arousal
Purity of color
Same wavelengths: HIGH
Different wavelengths: LESS
Sensation of taste
Sense of smell
(at least 1000 receptors)
Why is it happening?
First psychology lab in Germany(1879)
Developed objective introspection: objectively examining one's thoughts and mental activities
4. Draw Conclusions
5. Report, Revise, Replicate
The closer to 1.00 or -1.00 the stronger the relationship.
No correlation = 0.0
Positive - as one increases, other increases
Negative - as one increases, other decreases
Definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured
Variable that is manipulated by the experimenter
IV: Violent Television
"stream of thought" vs element of mind
Harvard first class
Arousing interest in subject matter of psychology
Efferent (motor) neurons
Afferent (sensory) neurons
One Saturday, Lacey was sitting at home when the telephone rang. A local company was making promotional calls and told Lacey she had just won a $1000 gift certificate. She felt a rush of excitement at the thought of what she could do with $1000. Now Lacey finds that whenever she hears a telephone ring, she feels a surge of excitement. In this example of classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is:
When the drill sergeant shouts, "fire" the artillery shoots, making a loud sounds that makes you flinch. After a few repetitions you flinch at the work "fire" what is the conditioned response?
according to the theory of operant conditioning, when the removal of a stimulus, after a response has occurred, increases the likelihood of the responses occurring again, the process that is at work is referred to as:
The encoding specificity principle refers to the fact that retrieval cues are more effective in stimulating a memory if those retrieval cues: